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[分享]英语四级语法总结(11楼下载)

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发表于 2006-4-3 02:40:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

时态所谓的"时态",就是时间+状态。谓语动词的时态见下表:

1.主动形式

过去

现在

将来

过去将来

一般

did

do

will/shall do

should/would do

进行

was/were doing

am/is/are doing

will/shall be doing

/

完成

had done

have/has done

will/shall have done

should/would have done用于虚拟语气

完成进行

had been doing

have/has been doing

/

/

2.被动形式

过去

现在

将来

过去将来

一般

was/were given

am/is/are given

will/shall be given

should/would be given

进行

was/were being given

am/is/are being given

/

/

完成

had been given

have/has been given

will/shall have been given

should/would have been given

完成进行

/

/

/

v CET-4 常考的三种时态:过去完成时;将来完成时;(现在/过去)完成进行时。

v 时间状语从句当中的时态:

一般过去时 所有的过去

一般现在时 表示 现在和将来

现在完成时 现在完成和将来完成

[此贴子已经被作者于2006-4-18 12:45:37编辑过]

上一篇:语法笔记---很有用哟~~
下一篇:[转帖]英语语法常见问题解答

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-4-3 02:42:57 | 显示全部楼层

[分享]英语四级语法总结

非谓语动词

一.不定式

一)不定式的常考形式:

1) 一般形式:He decided to work harder in order to catch up with the others.

被动形式: He preferred to be assigned some heavier work to do.

语法功能: 表示与谓语动词同步发生

2) 完成形式:He pretended not to have seen me.

被动形式:The book is said to have been translated into many languages.

语法功能:表示发生在谓语动词之前

二)不定式常考的考点:

1)不定式做定语----将要发生

2)不定式做状语----目的

3)不定式充当名词功能---To see is to believe.

)不定式的省略

1)感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel

+ do  表示动作的完整性,真实性;

+ doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性

 I saw him work in the garden yesterday.

 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)

 I saw him working in the garden yesterday.

 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)

v 感官动词后面接形容词而不是副词:The cake tastes good; It feels comfortable.

2) 使役动词 have bid make let 等词后不定式要省略但同1)一样被动以后要还原to

I ‘d like to have John do it.

I have my package weighed.

Paul doesn’t have to be made to learn.

3) help help sb do help sb to do help do help to do

)有些动词后只跟不定式如:

wantwishhopemanagepromiserefusepretendplan offerdecideagreeexpect allow sb to do, cause sb to do , permit sb to do, enable sb to do

force sb to do. be more likely to do love to do warn sb to do be able to do

be ambitious to do. begin to do . start to do

) 有的时候to后面要接-ing形式

accustom (oneself) to; be accustomed to; face up to; in addition to; look forward to; object to; be reduced to; resign oneself to; be resigned to; resort to; sink to; be used to; be alternative to; be close/closeness to; be dedication/dedicated to; be opposition/opposed to; be similarity/similar to.

三、need/want 后的-ing形式具有被动的意思。其中,want不太常用。

He needs (a lot of) encouraging.

. 动名词 具有动作性特征的名词

1)是名词 seeing is believing

2)具有动词性特征可以带宾语 starving troops is necessary.

)动名词的形式:

一般形式:I don't like you smoking.

完成形式:I regret not having taken your advice.

被动形式:This question is far from being settled.

) 动名词常考的点

1)动名词做主语谓语动词为单数

2)在动名词和不定式中,做为介词的宾语是动名词

3)动名词的否定直接在其前加否定词,通过代词的宾格或所有格形式给出逻辑主语.

I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon

Ayou to call Byou call Cyou calling Dyou're callingKeyC your calling 也对)

I regret not having taken your advice.

4)有些词后只能接动名词

admit; appreciate; avoid; celebrate; consider; contemplate; defer; delay; deny; detest; discontinue; dislike; dispute; enjoy; it entails; escape; excuse; explain; fancy; feel like; finish; forgive; can't help; hinder; imagine; it involves; keep; it means; mention; mind; miss; it necessitates; pardon; postpone; practice; prevent; recall; report; resent; resist; risk; suggest; understand...

另外还有一些接-ing形式的常用说法:

it's no good; it's no/little/hardly any/ use; it's not/hardly/scarcely use; it's worthwhile; spend money/time; there's no; there's no point in; there's nothing worse than; what's the use/point...

5有些词后加不定式和动名词均可

remember, forget, try, stop, go on, cease, mean后面用不定式和-ing形式,意义截然不容。

I remembered to post the letters. (指未来/过去未来的动作)

I remembered posting/having posting the letters (我记得这个动作)

forgotremember的用法类似。

I regret to inform you that… 我很遗憾地通知你

I regretted having left the firm after twenty years. 为了"二十年前的离开"而遗憾。

try to 努力 You really must try to overcome your shyness.

try –ing 试验 Try practicing five hours a day.

I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to. [打算、想]我想去,但我父亲不让我去。

To raise wage means increasing purchasing power. [意味着]赠加工资意味着增加购买力。

prefer的用法:

我宁愿在这里等。

I prefer to wait here. (所以啊,你不介意的话,我就等下去。)

I prefer waiting here.(我正在这里等,我就喜欢这么做。)

I prefer swimming to cycling. (这个句子里面就不能用不定式了。)

3 分词

现在分词主动进行,过去分词被动状态

现在分词的形式:

1)一般式: Do you see the man talking to the dean(主任)? (与谓语动词同步发生)

2)完成形式:Not having made adequate preparations, they failed. (发生谓语动词之前)

3)完成被动形式:Having been adapted, the script seems perfect.( 发生谓语动词之前且表示被动)

过去分词

1) 过去分词表示被动:Fight no battle unprepared.

2)过去分词的进行形式:You'll find the topic being discussed everywhere. (强调正在被做)

这三种非谓语动词,都可以构成复合结构,非谓语动词所修饰的成分是这些非谓语动词的逻辑主语。他们之间的一致关系——主动还是被动,往往就是考点。独立主格结构中,要注意的是分词与他前面的逻辑主语之间的主动被动的关系。

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-4-3 02:45:44 | 显示全部楼层

[分享]英语四级语法总结

虚拟语气

情态动词所表达的可能性程度:must/can't à should/shouldn't à might/may (not)

另外两个"类情态词的形式:"need/needn't; have to/don't have to

v 最自然的虚拟状态:由should/would+原型时态(不含时间只含状态)

本质上是过去将来时:即,时间固定在过去将来,状态不同:一般、进行、完成、完成进行。

这时"虚拟语气"的产生往往是因为我们要表达"本来应该……"(而现在却还没有……

(本来可以……,本来能……

I should go! (… but I'm still here!) (一般)

I should be working now! (进行)

I should have practiced more (than I did)! (完成)

我应该多多练习!(言下之意,现在我练习得不多。)

I shouldn't dream away my time too much! (完成的否定)

(actually I did dream away my time too much!)

It shouldn't have been leaking for such a long time! (完成进行)

I may/might/could have finished! (完成)

一些常见的句型中,就会出现这种虚拟语气,而处于从句之中,should 常常被省略掉

o suggest, advise, propose, recommend, plan;

o demand, order, direct, arrange, command, decide;

o require, request;

o think, expect, believe, insist, suspect.

由于他们的含义中包含"建议,假设,应该"这类的含义,所以,由他们引起的从句中,就会包含有should+原型时态构成的虚拟语气。

这些动词(以及他们的名次形式,分词形式)引起的从句还有其他的变形:

主语从句,表语从句,同位语从句

It's suggested that…

My suggestion is that…

The only suggestion that...

The only suggestion I can give you now is that…

一些形容词引起的表语从句中,也会有同样的情况

important; necessary; essential

It's natural ; strange; incredible that

a pity; a shame; no wonder

Ø lest, for fear that, in case 引起的从句中多使用should

v 表达与事实相反

1. 现在相反:使用[过去时]

I wish I were not here! (一般现在à一般过去)

Suppose we were not here.

He loved me as if I were his own son. (一般现在à一般过去)

Hope I weren't always losing things! (现在进行à过去进行)

If only/If I hadn't been there! (现在完成à过去完成)

What if I hadn't been waiting right here! (现在完成进行à过去完成进行)

常考句型It's (high) time (that)…; would rather (that)…

这两个从句,只能表达对现在的看法,所以,从句中只有一般过去时。

2. 过去相反:过去完成时;

How nice it is if I had past the test!

How nice it is if I had slept a little more this morning!

3. 将来相反?将来的事情没有发生,所以只能推测。

If it rains tomorrow, we'll have to stay one day more.

不过,由于可以用be to表示将来;所以,虚拟语气中经常出现were to;也是CET-4的常考语法点。

v 虚拟条件句

o if 部分,做一个与事实相反的假设(所以只有一般过去过去完成);

o 主句部分,这是表示基于这个假设的推测,一般使用情态动词would,少数情况下使用could/might/may

o 注意:两个部分之间,是有逻辑关系,而在两部分的谓语动词时态上,没有必然的联系。

v 注意,虚拟条件句中的if可以省略,造成were/had提前,产生倒装。

v 隐含的非真实条件

What would you do with 50 thousand dollar?

How could I be happy without you?

除了条件状语从句之外,原因状语从句也会出现虚拟语气。

o in order that, so that引起的从句,肯定的时候可以使用may/might; can/could; 否定的时候,多用shouldn't;

o whoever, whatever, no matter what引起的从句中,多用may+

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-4-3 02:48:21 | 显示全部楼层

[分享]英语四级语法总结

情态动词的基本用法及其区别

最近几年高考试题中常常借助语境来考查情态动词的基本用法及其区别,因此在平时学习时准确理解和掌握情态动词的基本用法十分重要。情态动词的用法复杂多变,在高考试题中,命题者常常利用语境和句子之间意义上的细微差别来考查学生对情态动词的理解和掌握。对于情态动词,除了要求考生能够准确掌握它们的基本用法外,还要充分利用高考试题所设置的语境来分析句子之间所体现的特殊关系。下面就近几年来高考试题中出现的情态动词的考点进行归纳分析,以便同学们复习掌握。

一、用“情态动词+have done”结构表示对过去动作的推测,高考试题中常用过去时态或过去的时间状语给以暗示。情态动词的这一用法可以用 “对立统一”来概括。

1.当试题的前句和后句在动作和意义上相互补充说明,且整个句意在动作和时间上是一个整体时,我们可用“统一”关系来解决这样的试题。常见的结构有:

must have done

表示对过去动作的肯定推测,常译作“一定做了……”,只能用于肯定句中。其否定形式为cantcouldnt have done?

疑问式为CanCould...have done﹖。

could might have done:表示对过去发生的动作的可能性推测,常译作“可能做了……”。如:

1) My sister met him at the Grand Theater yesterday afternoon, so he

_____ your lecture ?

A couldnt have attended

B neednt have attended

C mustnt have attended

D shouldnt have attended

本题选A

2) Jack ____ yet, otherwise he would have telephoned me

A mustnt have arrived

B shouldnt have arrived

C cant have arrived

D need not have arrived C

2.当试题的前后句在动作和意义上构成转折关系时,常借助“but, however, instead”等词来表示过去的动作与客观事实不符,这时我们就可以用“对立”关系来解决这样的试题。这种结构常见的有:

should have done ought to have done:表示过去本应该做某事而实际上没有做。

should not have done ought not to have done:表示过去本不应该做某事但事实上却做了。

need have done:表示过去本来有必要去做某事,但事实上没有做。

need not have done:表示过去本来没有必要做某事,但事实上却做了。如:

3) I was really anxious about you You _____ home without a word

(NMET2001)

A mustnt leave B shouldnt have left

C couldnt have left D neednt leave

“本不应该离家出走却走了”,故本题选B

4) I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I _____ for her

(NMET94)

A had to write it out

B must have written it out

C should have written it out

D ought to write it out

由句中的连词but可知前后句之间是对立关系,分析题意可知本题应选C

二、考查情态动词基本用法之间的比较和辨析。最近几年高考试题中常借助具体的语境来考查考生对那些最常见的情态动词的基本用法的理解和掌握,因此在做这样的试题时应认真分析语境中所含的实际意义,并结合情态动词的基本含义和用法做出正确的选择。

5) Is John coming by train

He should, but he ______ not He likes driving his car

A must B can C need D may

mustnt 表示“禁止、不准”;cannot 表示“不可能”;need not 表示“不必要”;may not

表示“可能不”。分析语境可知本题应选D

6) I hear youve got a set of valuable Australian coins ______ I have a look

Yes, certainly

A Do B May C Shall D Should

分析语境可知这是在征求对方的许可,may表示“允许、可以”,语气比较委婉? shall常用于第一、三人称作主语的疑问句中,表示征求对方意见和指示,如果此空用shall,则意为“要(我)看一下吗?”,不符合上下文意思。故本题选B

7) Mr Bush is on time for everything How ____ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony

A can B should C may D must

must be 表示肯定的猜测,只能用于肯定句中,由题意可知本题应选A

8) Are you coming to Jeffs party

Im not sure I ____ go to the concert instead

A must B would C should D might

由题意和下句中的 Im not sure

可知这段对话中存在一种可能性推测,might可以用来表示一种比较委婉的可能性判断,故本题选D。又如: I should have been there, but I _____ not find the time

A would B could C might D should

分析题意可知第二个分句表示过去的某种能力;C 项只表示语气上的可能性,与题意不符。故本题选B

9) Johnny, you ____ play with the knife, you ____ hurt yourself

A wont; cant B mustnt; may

C shouldnt; must D cant; shouldnt

mustnt 表示“不可以;禁止”,分析题意可知第二个空表示某种可能性,故本题选B

10) Will you stay for lunch

Sorry, ______. My brother is coming to see me

A I mustnt B I cant

C I neednt D I wont

分析题意可知因为“我弟弟要来看我”,所以“不能留下”,因此对别人的邀请或要求应给予礼貌的拒绝。A 项表示“禁止”;C项表示“不必要”;而D项表示“不会”,均不符合题意。故本题选B。又如:

Could I borrow your dictionary

Yes, of course you _____.

A might B will C can D should (C)

11)When can I come for the photos I need them tomorrow afternoon

They _____ be ready by 12?00

A can B should C might D need

该题考查情态动词should的基本含义,分析句意可知本题应选B。又如:

12) The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ____ get out(

A had to B would C could D was able to

该题考查了couldbe able to的区别,二者都可表示过去时间的能力,但如果表示过去成功地做了某事只能使用was were able to do,故本题选D

13) Shall I tell John about it

No, you _____. Ive told him already

A neednt B wouldnt C mustnt D shouldnt

情态动词shall在试题中表示征询对方意见或请求指示。答句暗示 “没有必要了”,故本题选A

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-4-3 02:52:04 | 显示全部楼层

[分享]英语四级语法总结

一致关系

)主谓一致

主谓一致(与插入语无关)
1
主谓的分隔原则:主谓之间可以用定语从句或者省略的定语从句分隔。
2
定语从句中的主谓一致:
3
随前一致:
n. + together with n2
as well as
including
along with
with / of
accompanied with / by
4
就近原则n1 or n2       +v(就近原则)

either n1 or n2
5
可数n1 and 可数
n2+v(pl)
不可数n1 and 不可数
n2+v(pl)
例外:war and peace is… war and peace是一个整体

但是如果主语表示的是同一个概念,同一人,同一事的时候,谓语动词用单数,这种结构的特征是and连接的两个词只有一个冠词。

The iron and steel industry is very important to our country.

The head master and mathematical teacher is coming.

The head master and the mathematical teacher are coming.

类似的还有:law and order bread and
butter
 black and white 

To love and to be loved is …
A lawyer and a teacher are…
A lawyer and teacher is …
6
随后原则not A but B / not only A but also B+v.(B一致
)
7
百分比结构
most , half , rest , some , majority , one+persent
of+n1+v.
(由n1决定)

8倒装结构的主谓一致:
aThere be +n 由名词决定动词
b
Among , between等介词位于句首引起倒装结构:

Among / Between …+
系动词+n. (由名词决定动词)

9The+adj
的主谓一致:
a)当表示一类人
b
)当表示某一抽象概念时

The good is always attractive.
10 To do/doing/
主从
+vs
*More than one+n
many a +n.
a day or two

)倒装

1 全部倒装

是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时一般过去时。常见的结构有:Up went the plane = the plane went up.

1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run

2) 表示运动方向的副词(back, down, off, up)或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。

注意:1) 上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能倒装。Here he comes. Away they went. 2) 谓语动词是be的时候,不能倒装。 Here it is. Here you are.

3 形容词短语/分词短语位于句首,引起倒装
*typical of  characteristic of
*coinciding with + n

4 表示地点范围的介词短语位于句首,谓语动词为系动词,一定引起倒装
In…(表语)+系动词+主,主同。 

*在倒装句型答案中不能出现there
*
常考介词要倒装:among between in at 
beneath
常考的系动词:be lie exist remain 
rest

部分倒装

1 否定 adv 位于句首,引起倒装:not only, not until, hardly, scarcely,
seldom, rarely, no sooner…than
 
1 not until + 时间 + 主谓倒装,not until + 句子+主谓倒装
2
only+状语位于句首
only +ad.  eg: recently
prep.
短短语 
eg: in recently years
从句 
eg: when clause
only
一个词本身不倒装

3
在比较级结构中,than后面可以倒装,也可以不倒装。

部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, doesdid,并将其置于主语之前。

Ø 1) Neither, nor, so 表示前面句子的共同否定或者肯定,产生倒装,一般主动词提前,谓语动词的其他部分就

4) as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。

as〔让步〕虽然,尽管〔词序倒装。语气比 though 强〕。

Successful as he is, he is not proud. 他虽成功,却不骄傲。

Women as she is, she's every brave.

Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

注意:A) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。B) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义动词一起放在主语之前。

5) 其他部分倒装

a) so… that 句型中的so; such… that句型中的such位于句首时,需倒装。

So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

b) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中:May you all be happy.

c) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。Were I you, I would try it again.

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-4-3 02:55:26 | 显示全部楼层

[分享]英语四级语法总结

复合句

从句可分为:

Ø 名词性从句à 主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句

Ø 形容词性从句à定语从句

Ø 副词性从句à状语从句

v 常考的关系代词that; which; who/whom/whose; where; when; what; as

v 常见的同位语从句现行词that之前的抽象名词):fact, idea, news, hope, conclusion, evidence, opinion, problem, thought, understanding…

v 常用的引导词

  • 时间状语从句:while; when; before; whenever; as; after; till; until; since; once; ever since; as/so long as; as soon as; no sooner… than; hardly… when; scarcely/barely… when; the moment/minute/instant; on (the point of) doing…
  • 地点状语从句:where; wherever
  • 原因状语从句:because; since; as; seeing that; considering that; now that; in that; for fear that; lest; owing to the fact that; because of the fact that; due to the fact that…
  • 方式状语从句:as; as if; as though; how; save that…
  • 比较状语从句:as; than; as… as; not so… as; hardly… than;
  • 结果状语从句:so that; so… that; such… that; so as to…
  • 条件状语从句:if; unless; in case; so long as; so far as; provided/providing/that; supposing; granted/granting that…; giving that….
  • 让步状语从句:though; although; even if; even though; whether; as; however; no matter (what, how, when); for all that; in spite of the fact that; granted that; regardless of the fact that…
  • 目的状语从句:that; so that; in order that; lest; for the fear that; in case…

定语从句:

which 引导的定语从句结构

1which是关系代词,which后面应该加缺主语或者宾语的句子,

在这个句子中,which要作成分,作主语或者宾语

2in which+完整的句子

which在定语从句中作in的宾语,所以不能作后面句子的主语

3)名词+of which+谓语动词

of which来修饰名词,名词在定语从句中作主语,所以后面直接跟谓语动词

I have five books three of which are borrowed from Mary.

4)介词+ which +to do 其功能相当于定语从句。

The key with which to open the door is lost.

5)定语从句的省略结构:

1 如果that / which在定从中作 宾语,可以省略.
sub+vt+n+(which / that)+sub+vt
s+vt+n+s+v
 
s+vt+n1+n2+vt
*
当做题时,若发现两个名词在一起,但是似乎连不上,则一定省略
that /
which
,则动词为vt,做谓语。

6
)定从的特殊省略

the way (in which) + 句子
the reason (why that)+
句子        均为完整句

the time (that / when)+
句子

I do remember the first time (that
) I ever heard the sweetest voice in the world.
By the time
that+句子,句子。

7
)定从的主系省略(主+系可同时省)
即:which be , who be , that be可同时省

状语从句省略结构

这种省略从句主语的方式理论上需要满足以下两个条件:

第一、特定的状语从句引导词:although though even though when while if as

    第二、从句主语和主句主语必须保持一致;

    第三、从句的谓语必须是be动词,主语和be动词同进同出,

汇报天数: 1 天

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[LV.1]初来乍到

发表于 2006-4-9 13:34:06 | 显示全部楼层
好资料,顶

该用户从未汇报

发表于 2006-4-13 00:53:55 | 显示全部楼层

it's wonderful.

的确是好帖子,我也来顶一下.

好多人都说语法枯燥无味,但它又是坚实的基础.

记得有个英语不错的朋友曾经说过,学习英语是一个量的积累的过程,而等你掌握了语法却能促成你质的飞跃.

Do you agree it?

[em07]

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发表于 2006-4-13 09:56:11 | 显示全部楼层

呵呵

我对语法很头痛

规矩一大堆,真的有点烦

有老师讲我还可以学得进去

自己看真的很晕

不过学语言嘛,语法知识还是要学一点的

不知道yeanling对上面的材料都搞清楚了吗?

哪天有空指点一下我啊

呵呵

该用户从未汇报

发表于 2006-4-18 09:44:41 | 显示全部楼层
哇,真的很有用,雪狼你弄一下WORD版本的给我们直接下就更好了.
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