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【学英语必看】《英语语法手册》(全)

发布者: txlily67 | 发布时间: 2011-2-26 18:30| 查看数: 1646| 评论数: 2|

三十二、[英语语法手册]语气概述

语气及其种类

1)语气(mood)语气是一种动词形式,表示讲话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。

2)语气的种类语气可分为下列三种:

a)直陈语气(indicative mood)表示讲话人认为他所说的话是一个事实。如:

There are two sides to every question.每个问题都有两个方面。

Jinzhou is famous for its apples.锦州以产苹果闻名。

Comrade Zhang Side had a deep love for the Party.张思德同志对党怀有深厚的爱。

b)祈使语气(imperative mood)表示讲话人对对方的请求或命令。如:

Bring along your exercise books tomorrow.明天把练习本带来。

Make yourself at home.请随便,不要客气。

Don't move! 不许动!

Don't be late.不要迟到。

Be quiet! 请安静!

c) 虚拟语气 (subjunctive mood)。

[英语语法手册]虚拟语气 A

虚拟语气

虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,用来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而只是一种愿望、假设、怀疑、建议、猜测、可能或纯粹的空想等。如:

If I were not so busy,I would go with you.假如我不太忙,我会和你一起去。(表示假设)

I wish Lao Li were here.H6 would know how to fix the machine.老李在这儿就好了,他会知道怎样把机器修好的。(表示愿望)

He suggests that we should all go to see the film.他建议我们都去看电影。(表示建议)

虚拟语气的动词形式

比较特殊,共有下列七种:

1)动词原形(用于一切人称和数)

2)动词的过去式(用于一切人称和数,be的过去式用were)

3) had + 过去分词(用于一切人称和数)

4) should + 动词原形(用于一切人称和数)

5) should have + 过去分词(用于一切人称和数)

6) should (第一人称),Would(第二、三人称) + 动词原形

7) should(第一人称),Would(第二、三人称) + have + 过去分词

[注]上述某些动词形式和直陈语气的某些动词形式相同,但它们的用法及其所表示的时间概念则完全两样,二者切不可混淆。

虚拟语气常用在表示条件的从句和表示结果的主句中。

虚拟语气在条件从句和结果主句中的用法

1)表示与现在事实相反的条件和结果,:如:

If I Were you, I should go and see the dentist at once. 假如我是你的话,我会马上去看牙科医生。

If they were no gravity, we should not be able to walk. 假如没有引力,我们就不能行走。

If they had time,they would study Italian too. 假如他们有时间的话,他们也会学意大利语的。

If She knew German,She would read Marx and Engels in the original假如她懂德语,她就会读马克思和恩格斯的原著了。

He would tell me if he knew, but he does not,know anything about it. 假如他知道的话,他会告诉我的,但是他一点也不知道。

2)表示与过去事实相反的条件和结果。如:

If I had known of your arrival I should have met you at the station.如果我早知道你要来,我会去车站接你的。

If you had come a few minutes earlier,you would have met him.要是你早来几分钟的话,你就见到他了。

If She hadn't been so strict with herself, she wouldn't have made such great progress.她要是对自己要求不严格,她就不会有这样大的进步。

If the child had fallen through the ice, he would have drowned. 假如这孩子掉到冰窑里,他定会淹死了。

3)表示与将来事实可能相反的条件和结果。其用法和表示与现在事实相反的条件和结果相同。如:

If it Were Sunday tomorrow,my brother would go skating at the Beihai Park.如果明天是星期天,我弟弟会去北海公园滑冰的。

If you dropped the glass,it would break.你如将杯子掉下来,它就会打碎的。

What Would happen if I put the paper on the fire? -It Would bum.我若把纸放在火上会怎么样?--纸就会烧着。

[注]在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中,亦可用were to + 动词原形(比较正式,常用于书面体中)和should + 动词原形。如:

If you were to come tomorrow,I might have time to see you.你如果明天来的话,我或许会有时间见你。

If I were to see her tomorrow,I would tell her about your decisions. 我明天如见到她,就把你的决定告诉她。

If it should rain tomorrow,what would we do?明天万一下雨,我们怎么办?

If you should meet George,tell him I want to see him.你如见到乔治,告诉他我要见他。

三十三、[英语语法手册]虚拟语气 B

不用if的条件从句结构

在笔语中,条件从句有时可以不用连词小而把were,had或should移至主语之前。但如从句没有were,had或should,则一般不能这样做。如:

Should he come,tell him to ring me up.他要是来了,让他给我打个电话。

Were I in your position,I would go.如果我处于你的地位,我就去。

Had they not helped us,our experiment would have failed. 如果没有他们的帮助,我们的试验是会失败的。

[注]有时虚拟条件不用条件从句而用介词短语、动词不定式等来表示。如:

without contradiction nothing would exist. 没有矛盾就没有世界。

We could not have done the work well without your help.要是没有你的帮助,我们不可能做好这工作。

It wonld be a good idea to go swimming at the summer palace.到颐和园去游泳,倒是个好主意。

All this would have been impossible ten years ago.这一切在十年前是不可能有的。

三十四、[英语语法手册]虚拟语气 C

虚拟语气和情态动词

虚拟结构(不论从句或主句)常可用情态动词的过去式,即could,might,wou1d等加不带to的动词不定式或不带to的动词不定式完成式,来作谓语动词。这些情态动词除表示虚拟结构外,本身还有独立的意思。如:

If I were you,I Would go.我如果是你,我就愿意去。

If he were here,he might agree with you.假如他在这里,他可能会同意你。

I Would help you if I could. 假如我能够的话,我一定帮助你。

If it had not been for their help,we could not have succeeded. 如果没有他们的帮助,我们是不可能成功的。

三十五、[英语语法手册]虚拟语气 D

有时条件从句中的动作和结果主句中的动作所发生的时间不一致

这时,动词的形式应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如:

If he had followed the doctor's advice,he Would be quite all right now.他当时若是听医生的话,现在就会痊愈了。(从句说明过去,主句说明现在)

If I were you,I Would have gone to the theatre.假如我是你,我会去看话剧了。(从句的时间包括现在,主句说明过去)

If you hadn't helped me,I couldn't have finished it on time and most likely I would be still working now.假若你没有帮助我,我不可能按时完成工作,很可能现在还在干哩。(从句说

明过去,主句说明过去和现在)

用直陈语气表示条件和结果

在现代英语里,多用直陈语气表示条件和结果。直陈语气的条件和结果所表示的往往是事实。如不是事实,其可能性也较虚拟语气要大。如:

If it rains tomorrow,we shall not go out.假如明天下雨的话,我们就不出去。

The dog won't attack you if you sit still.如果你安静地坐着,狗是不会咬你的。

If the train leaves at eight thirty,there is no time to lose. 火车如果是八点半开,我们得抓紧时间了。

If the rain stops,I'll go for a swim.要是雨停了,我就去游泳。

三十六、[英语语法手册]虚拟语气 E

省去从句或主句的虚拟结构

虚拟结构中的从句或主句有时形式上可以省略,但意义上却仍存在。

1)省去了条件从句的虚拟结构。如:

That would be fine.那就太好了。(省去了if you should do it或类似条件)

You might stay here forever.你可以永远呆在这里。(省去了if you wanted协或类似条件)

I would not have done it.我是不会做那件事的。(省去了if were you或类似条件)

[注]虚拟结构中省去的从句有时并不容易找出。如:

Who would have thought of it ? 谁会想到是这样的呢?

2)省去了结果主句的虚拟结构(常用以表示愿望)。如:

If he were here!假如他在这里该多好啊!

If I had never married.如果我从未结婚就好了。

这种结构也常用if only开头。如:

If only I could help you! 假如我能帮助你,那该是多好啊!

If only I were ten years younger!我要是能年轻十岁该多好啊!

If you would only try harder!你如再努力一试就好了。(only亦可置于would等助动词之后)

[注]有时if only只表条件,不表愿望。如:

If only I had known earlier,I'd have sent you a telegram.我只要知道得早一点,就会拍电报给你了。

三十七、[英语语法手册]虚拟语气 F

虚拟语气的其他用法

虚拟语气用在主语从句中

在It is natural(necessary,strange,important) that...这类句型里,that所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用should加动词原形。如:

It is quite natural that he should think so.他这样想是很自然的事。

It is strange that he Should have gone away without telling us. 真奇怪,他没有通知我们就走掉了。

It is necessary that the question should be settled at once.必须马上解决这个问题。

It is important that we should speak politely. 我们说话要有礼貌,这是很重要的。

It is imperative that we should practise criticism and self-criti - cism. 应当进行批评与自我批评。

虚拟语气用在宾语从句中

下列两种宾语从句须用虚拟语气:

1)在动词wish后的宾语从句(常常省去连词that),表示不可实现的愿望。从句中的动词如用过去式,则表示与现在事实相反(如下面第一、二例句);如用过去完成式,则表示与过去事实相反(如下面第三、四例句)。如:

I wish I were a pilot.但愿我是个飞行员。

I wish I knew how to operate the machine.我要是会操作这架机器该有多好啊! (= I'm sorry I don't know.)

I wish he hadn't gone.他要是没走该多好!(= I'm sorry he has gone.)

We wish you had come to our New Year's party.我们真希望你来参加我们的新年联欢会。(= but you did not)

动词wish如果是过去式,后面宾语从句的动词的虚拟语气形式不变,仍用过去式或过去完成式。如:

She wished she knew how to play golf. 她但愿会打高尔夫球。 (和过去事实相反)

I wished I hadn't been so forgetful. Then I shouldn't have missed the concert.我要是不这样忘事该多好,那我就不会不去听音乐会。(和过去的过去的事实相反)

[注]有时在宾语从句中可用would或might加动词原形,表示有可能实现的愿望。如:.

I wish he,might stay with me.我希望他和我住在一起。

He wishes I would go with him.他希望我和他一起去。

I wish you would be quiet.我希望你安静一些。

2)动词demand(要求),suggest(建议),order (命令),insist(坚持),propose(建议)等后面的宾语从句,用should(用于所有的人称)加动词原形来表示虚拟语气。如:

I suggest that we should hold a meeting tonight.我建议今晚开个会。

The chairman proposed that we Should discuss the question.主席提议我们讨论这个问题。

Most students insist that they should have more English classes. 多数同学坚持要多上英语课。

[注]这种结构往往可不用should,尤其在美国,只用动词原形(用于所有的人称)。如上面三例只用hold,discuss和have,不用should hold,should discuss和should have。又如:

I suggest that we make a new expertinent.我建议进行新的试验。

I propose that the matter be put the vote at once.我提议把这个问题马上付表决。

虚拟语气用在状语从句中

由as if或as though所引导的状浯从句表示比较或方式时,从句中的谓语动词常用虚拟语气。动词形式用动词的过去式(be用were)或had + 过去分词。如:

My mother locked after the orphan as if he were her own child. 我母亲照料这个孤儿像自己孩子一样。

You speak as if you had really been there.你谈得好像你真的到过那里似的。

注意下面句中的as if从句用作表语。如:

It looks as if it might rain,天好像要下雨似的。

[注]连词lest和in case所引导的状语从句中的谓语动词亦用虚拟语气。例见15.33和15.30

虚拟语气用在定语从句中

It is time (that)…句型中的定语从句里的谓语动词常用虚拟浯气表示将来,动词形式用动词的过去式:意思是"该干某件事了,时间已经有些晚了"。如:

It is time we left.我们该走了。

It is time we went to bed.我们该睡觉了:

It is time we summed up our results.我们该总结我们的成绩了。

虚拟语气用在简单句中

下面是虚拟语气用在简单句中较常见的两种情况,皆表祝愿。如:

1)动词原形1ive用在Long live…中。如:

Long live the Communist Party of China! 中国共产党万岁!

Long live the people! 人民万岁!

(1ive在此也是虚拟语气的一种动词形式,不可改为lives)

2)May用在句子开头(多用在正式的文体中)。如:

May good luck be yours.祝你顺利。

May you be happy.祝你快乐。

May you do even better! 祝你取得更大成就!

三十八、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 A

非限定动词

种类、意义和特征

1)非限定动词(verbal)有动词不定式、动名词和分词三种。

2)非限定动词和限定动词的基本区别

a)限定动词在句子中可以单独作谓语动词,非限定动词在句中则不能单独作谓语动词。

b)限定动词的形式要与主语的人称和数一致,而非限定动词的形式则不受主语的人称和数的限制。如:

He likes to sing

它他喜欢唱歌。

They like to sing.

他们喜欢唱歌。

限定动词like受主语人称和数的限制,的形式与主语一致。第一句为likes,第二句为like。非限定动词sing则不受这种限制,它的形式不随主语而改变。

The man walking in front was carrying a flag.

走在前面的人打着一面旗子。

The men walking in front were carrying flags.

走在前面的人们都打着旗子。

限定动词be受主语的人称和数的限制,它的形式须与主语一致。第一句为was,第二句为were.非限定动词walking则不受主语的限制,它的形式不随主语而改变。

3)非限定动词的双重性

a)非限定动词有动词的特征:

(a)如果非限定动词是及物动词,须有宾语。

(b)非限定动词可以由状语来修饰。

(c)非限定动词仍有语态和时态的变化。

b)非限定动词还有一些非动词的特征它相当于名

词、形容词等,在句子里可以作这些词类所能用作的句子成分。

非限定动词双重性举例:

He promised to do it tonight.他答应今天晚上做。(非限定动词to do的动词性质表现在它有宾语"和状语tonight它的非动词性质表现在它用作promised的宾语。)

I am sorry to have disturbed you.我打扰你了,对不起。(to have disturbed是动词不定式to disturb的完成式,说明非限定动词有时态上的变化,这也是非限定动词的动词性质。)

I saw many people spreading manure in the fields.我看见许多人在地里施肥。(非限定动词spreading是现在分词,它有宾语manure和状语 in the fields。)

There is no time to be lost.必须抓紧时间。(to be lost是动词不定式to lose的被动式,说明非限定动词有语态上的变化这也是非限定动词的动词性质。)

4)非限定动词短语带有宾语或状语的非限定动词

词组,称为非限定动词短语。如:

I have no time to finish that long novel this week.我本周没有时间读完那本长篇小说。(不定式短语)

Forgetting the past means betrayal.忘记过去就意味着背叛。(动名词短语)

Members wishing to see the play are requested to notify Li Min be fore Saturday.愿意看戏的会员请在星期六以前通知李敏。

三十九、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 B

动词不定式

意义、形式和特征

1)基本概念和形式动词不定式(infinitive)是一种非限定动词,由不定式符号to加动词原形所构成。动词不定式有动词的特征,同时也有名词、形容词和副词的特征。

2)动词不定式的动词特征

a)如果动词不定式是及物的,须有宾语。如:

He wants to study Japanese.他想学习日语。(动词不定式to study后面有宾语Japanese)

b)动词不定式可以被状语修饰。如:

The rain continued to fall heavily.雨继续下得很大。(动词不定式to fall后面有状语heavily)

动词不定式加宾语或状语构成动词不定式短语,如上二例中的to study Japanese和to fall heavily。

3)动词不定式的非动词特征

用法动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,所以它在句子中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。

1)主语

To lean out of the window is dangerous.把身子伸出窗外是危险的。

To talk with him is a great pleasure.和他谈话是一件非常愉快的事。

To die for the people is a glorious death! 为人民而死,虽死犹荣。

动词不定式短语作主语时,往往放在谓语动词的后面,而在句首用引词"作语法上的主语。上述两句即可改为:

It is a great pleasure to talk with him.

It is a glorious death to die for the people.

注意也常用"It is+形容词+动词不定式短语"这样的句型:

It is necessary to make a plan for this course of study.必须订一个学习这门课程的计划。

It is not difficult to learn a foreign if you spend time and effort on it. 小只要你花时间下功夫,学好一门外国语并不难。

It's just impossible to see that and not weep.看见那种情景而不哭是根本不可能的。(注意weep之前省去了to,以免重复)

2)表语

Her wish is to become an astronaut.她的愿望是成为一名宇航员。

Our plan is to finish the work in two weeks.我们的计划是在两周内完成这项工作。

His only desire was to be useful to the country.他唯一的愿望是做一个对国家有用的人。

3)宾语有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。这些动词有want(想要),wish(想望),like(喜欢),decide(决定),help(帮助),pledge(保证),begin(开始),forget(忘记),learn(学习),ask(要求)等等。动词不定式一般不作介词的宾语。如:

He wants to be a village school teacher in a mountain area.他要做个山村教师。

Do you like to watch football matches? 你喜欢看足球赛吗?

Learn to walk before you run.先学走后学跑。

We decided to make changes in our plan.我们决定把计划做些修改。

动词不定式也可以用来作某些形容词的宾语。这些形容词通常只有ready(准备好,愿意),eager(急于),anxious(急于)等,但为了学习上的方便,也可以包括able(能够),sure(一定),glad(高兴),sorry(难过),afraid(怕),free(随意),pleased(高兴),determined(决心),willing(愿意)等。如:

He is sure to succeed.他肯定会成功。

How do you do? I'm glad to meet you. 你好?见到你很高兴。

The boys and girls are anxious to learn how to skate.这些男孩子和女孩子渴望学会滑冰。

4)定语动词不定式作定语时,须放在被修饰的名词或代词之后。如:

He is always the first one to get up.他总是第一个起床。

I have a few words to say on this question。关于这个问题我有几句话要说。

They are discussing ways to guarantee high output.他们正在讨论保证高产量的办法。

After the Ching Ming Festival it is time to sow sorghum,millet and corn.清明节一过,正是播种高梁、谷子和玉米的时节。

5)状语动词不定式作状语时,一般放在它所修饰的动词之后。

a)表示目的

He went to Beijing to study in 1988.一九八八年他去北京学习。

He went to Paris to learn French.他去巴黎学法文。

[注一]强调动词不定式所表示的目的时,动词不定式可变为in order to (为了)或so as to(以便)加动词原形。如:

We often listen to English broadcasts in order to get more practice in training our ears.我们经常听广播,以便加强听力训练。

In order to learn acupuncture,she practiced on herself every day.为了学习针灸,她每天在自己身上试验。(注意in order to可放在句首)

We must have good soil so as to grow roses.种玫瑰花要有好的土壤。

[注二]动词不定式可以放在句首,使其所表示的目的更加明显突出。如:

To be a good teacher one must use good teaching methods.要成为好的教师一定要有好的教学方法。

To de fend our country we must strengthen ourselves.为了保卫祖国,我们必须自强不息。

[注三] 注意有些用作句子独立成分的习惯语,如to begin with(首先),to conclude(最后),to be sure(当然),to tell you the truth(老实对你说)等。

b)表示结果

My grandmother lived to see the birth of my little daughter.我的祖母活到亲眼看到我的小女儿出生。

A few years later he came home to find that his hometown had greatly changed.几年后他回到家里,发现故乡的面貌大大地改变了。

[注一] 有时可以用too...to(太…而不能)结构来表示"结果办不到"。如:

He is too young to join the army.他太年轻了,不能参军。

It was too cold,to go out last night.昨晚太冷,无法出去。

[注二] 动词不定式和only连用时,常表示未预料到的结果。如:

I went to see him only to find him out.我去看他,不料他出去了。

I hurried to the post office,only to find it was closed.我匆忙赶到邮局,不料已经关门了。

四十、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 C

含有动词不定式的复合宾语

动词不定式可用作复合宾语中的宾浯补足语。可有这种复合宾语结构的动词有get(请),ask(请求),order(命令),persuade(说服),advise(劝告),like(喜欢),want(想要),tell(叫),know(知道)help(帮助),call on(号召,请求),等等。如:

He got someone to repair the door.他请人修理门。

I persuaded my brother to change his mind.我说服我弟弟改变了主意。

The doctor advised him to take a good rest.大夫劝他好好休息。

在某些及物动词的复合宾语中,动词不定式须省掉too这些动词有:make(使),let(让),see(见),

watch(望),hear(听),have(使),feel(觉得)等。动词help后不定式的to可以省掉,也可以保留。如:

Make the past serve the present and foreign things serve China.古为今用,洋为中用。

He let me go home.他让我回家。

We must have someone repair the refrigerator.我们必须叫人来修电冰箱。

I heard him speak in the next room.我听到池在隔壁房间里讲话。

Mother is helping pat (to) clean her shoes.妈妈正帮蓓蒂刷鞋子。

[注一]上述句子变成被动语态时,动词不定式的to仍须保留。如

四十一、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 D

动词不定式的否定结构

动词不定式的否定结构由在不定式符号to之前加上not而成。如:

He decided not to go home.他决定不回家。

The teacher warned the pupils not to go skating on thin ice.教师警告学生不要在薄冰上滑冰。

I told him not to open the door.我叫他不要开门。

疑问词 + 动词不定式

疑问代词who,what,which和疑问副词when,where,how等后加动词不定式,构成一种特殊的动词不定式短语,可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。如:

When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决定。(作主语)

They told her where to find her little brother.他们告诉她到哪里找她的小弟弟。(作宾语)

The teacher showed the students how to do the exercise.老师教学生如何做练习。(作宾语)

He thought a lot about how to improve his English pronunciation.他对如何提高英语语音想得很多。(作介词的宾语)

动词不定式复合结构"for + 名词(或代词宾格) + 动词不定式"

在这种结构中的for本身无意义。名词(或代词宾格)形式上是for的宾语,但在逻辑上可以说是动词不定式的主语。这种不定式复合结构在句子里可作下列成分:

1)主语

For us to learn foreign languages is important.学习外语对我们来说是重要的。

在句中,for us在逻辑上是to learn foreign languages的主语。这种结构作主语时,和简单的动词不定式结构一样,一般都用引词讧来代表并放在句首,"for + 名词 (或代词宾格) + 不定式"则放在句末。如:

It is important for us to learn foreign languages.

It is necessary for us to learn from each other.我们必须相互学习。

2)表语

It is for you to decide.这得由你决定。

3)宾语

Can you arrange for a car to take us there?你能安排一辆汽车送我们到那里去吗?

4)定语

There is a lo to work for us to do.有很多工作要我们去做。

5)状语

The policeman blew his whistle for the carts to stop.警察吹哨要那几辆大车停下来。(作目的状语)

四十二、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 E

动词不定式一般式所表示的时间关系

1)动词不定式一般式表示的动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。如:

I saw him go out.我看见他出去了。(saw与go out两个动作同时发生)

Would you help me put things in order before we leave?在我们离开之前,你帮我整理一下东西好吗?(would help和put同时发生)

2)但在很多情况下,动词不定式一般式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之后;如:

I hope to see you again.我希望再见到你。(to see这个动作发生在hope之后)

The boy said he wanted to be a scientist.这男孩说他想做一个科学家。(to be在wanted之后)

动词不定式的时态形式

动词不定式通常有三种时态形式,现以write为例:

一般式to write进行式to be writing

完成式 to have written

动词不定式完成式的用法

动词不定式完成式表示的动作发生在限定动词表示的动作之前。如:

I am sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起,叫你久等了。(to have kept发生在am所表示的时间之前)

She seems to have read the book before.她好像看过这本书。(to have read发生在seems所表示的时间之前)

The battery appears to have run down.这组电池好像已经用完了。(to have run down发生在appears所表示的时间之前)

但在下面句子中,动词不定式表示"动作没有完成":

We were to have met at ten.我们本来是约定十点钟见面的。(结果未见面)

动词不定式进行式的用法

动词不定式进行式表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。如:

He see ms to be recovering.他看来在康复。

When he came in,I happened to be lying on the bed,reading. 他进来的时候,我碰巧正躺在床上看书。

[英语语法手册]非限定动词 E

动词不定式的被动语态

动词不定式有两种被动语态形式:

一般式to be written

完成式to have been written

例:

The next thing to be done is to carry away the earth.下-步要做的事是把土运走。

No harm seems to have been done.似乎并没有造成损害。

分裂不定式

有时在不定式符号"to"和动词原形之间插入一个副词,这种现象叫做分裂不定式(split infinitive)。插入动词不定式的副词,习惯上往往与不定式动词连在一起。如:

He likes to half close his eyes.他喜欢半闭着眼睛。

Our object is to further cement friendly relations between the two countries.我们的目的是进一步加强两国之间的友好关系。

At first he wasn't interested in bookkeeping,but later he began to actually like it.起初他对会计工作没有兴趣,但到后来倒喜欢起它来了

四十三、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 F

动名词

意义、形式和特征

1)动名词(gerund)为非限定动词的一种,由动词原形加词尾-ing构成,与现在分词同形,动名词有动词和名词的特征。

2)动名词的动词特征:

a)动名词可以有宾语。如:

I have finished repairing that machine.我修完那台机器了。

b)动名词可以用状语来修饰。如:

They have started working in the apple-orchard.他们已经开始在苹果园里劳动了。

动名词加宾语或状语构成动名词短语,如上两例中的

repairing that machine和working in the apple-orchard。

3)动名词的名词特征 在句中可作主语、宾语等。如:

Getting up early is a good habit.起早是个好习惯。(动名词getting up作主语)

The foreign visitors enjoyed seeing Chinese acrobatics.外宾喜欢看中国杂技。(动名词seeing作宾语)

用法动名词可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语等。

1)作主语:

Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。

Reading aloud is very important in learning English.学习英语朗读很重要。

Looking down on women is feudal ideology.轻视妇女是封建意识。

[注]在下面结构中,亦可用引词讧作形式主语,把意义上的主语即动名词放在句末。如:

It's no use over spilt milk.牛奶打翻了哭也没有用。(作无益的后悔没有用)

It's no good talking about it.谈也无用。

2)作表语:

Her job was looking after the pigs.她的工作是喂猪。

His hobby is collecting stamps.他爱好集邮。

[注] 动名词作表语时,不可与进行时态相混淆。试比较:

She was washing clothes. (过去进行时)

她正在洗衣服。

Her job was washing clothes. (动名词)

她的工作是洗衣服。

3)作宾语:

a)作直接宾语,用在begin,start,stop,finish,like等动词后面。如:

please stop talking.请不要讲话。

You must practise reading English aloud.你应练习朗读英语。

b)作介词的宾语。如:

My sister is fond of reading novels.我姐姐喜欢看小说。

We're tired of having the same kind of food everyday.我们对天天吃同样的饭菜感到厌倦。

Instead of going to Zhongshan park,they went to the ZOO.他们没有去中山公园,到动物园去了。

Mr. Bush earns his living by teaching.布什先生以教书为生。

He was punished for stealing.他因偷盗受到惩罚。

4)作定语:

My father works in a printing shop.我的父亲在一个印刷厂工作。

Our school built a swimming pool last summer.我们学校去年夏天修建了一个游泳池。

Our teacher uses a very good teaching method.我们教师的教学方法很好。

动名词的否定结构

动名词否定结构由not加动名词组成。如:

Trying without success is better than not trying at all.试验没有成功也比不试验好。

He Hated himself for not having worked hard.他悔恨自己没有用功。

动名词复合结构

物主代词或名词所有格加动名词,构成动名词复合结构。在动名词复合结构中,物主代词或名词所有格是逻辑上的主语,动名词是逻辑上的谓语动词。这种结构在句中可用作主语、宾语等。如:

Your going there will help a lot.你到那里对事情将大有帮助。

(your going there作主语)

Please excuse my interrupting you.请原谅我打断你。(my interrupting you作excuse的宾语)

Do you mind my smoking?我可以抽烟吗?(my smoking作mind的宾语)

Aunt Liu was very happy about Wang's coming to see her.刘大娘很高兴王来看她。(Wang's coming作介词about的宾语)

We are looking forward to the expert's coming to speak to us.我们盼望那位专家来给我们作报告。(the expert's coming作look forward to的宾语)

[注]在口语中,这种结构中的名词往往不用所有格,而用通格,代词往往不用物主代词,而用宾格,如上面第二、五两句可改变如下:

Please excuse me interrupting you.

Aunt Liu was very happy about Wang coming to see her.

下面再举几例:

His father agreed to him becoming an engine-driver.他父亲同意他做火车司机。

DO you remember me and my mother coming to see you?你还记得我和我母亲来看你吗?

Tides are caused by the moon and sun pulling water toward them.海潮是由于月亮和太阳吸引海水而引起的。

动名词的时态

1)动名词的时态形式

一般式writing

完成式having written

2)动名词的一般式动名词的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词表示的动作之后。如:

Children enjoy watching colour TV. 儿童喜欢看彩色电视。

(enjoy与watching同时)

Would you mind opening the window and letting a little a air in?请你打开窗子,透透气好吗? (opening和letting发生在mind之后)

注意下面两句中动名词所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。如:

Do you remember cutting rice on the state farm? 你记得在国营农场割水稻的事吗? (cutting发生在remember之前)

I shall never forget seeing Lu Xun for the first time in 1932.我永远不会忘记一九三二年第一次见到鲁迅的情景。(seeing发生在 forget之前)

3)动名词的完成式动名词的完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

I regret having been unable to write to you earlier.我很抱歉未能早点写信给你。

His leg showed no symptom of having been injured.他的腿不像受过伤。

We were overjoyed at the news of China haying launched another man-made satellite.我们听到中国又发射了一颗人造卫星时都很高兴。

动名词的被动语态

动名词有两种被动语态形式:

一般式being written

完成式having been written

例:

This picture shows a child being beaten by a Japanese soldier.这张照片上一个孩子在遭到日本兵毒打。

The meeting was put off without his having been consulted.会议延期并未和他商量。

动名词和动词不定式的比较

从结构上看,两者不同之点有:动名词前可用介词,它还可被名词(或代词)所有格修饰;不定式前通常不用介词,更不能被名词(或代词)所有格修饰。动名词和动词不定式在实际运用中,有下列各点值得注意:

1)动名词所表示的动作,在意义上比较一般和抽象,时间观念不强,不指某一次动作;动词不定式则常表示某个具体动作。如:

The students like playing football.这些学生喜欢踢足球。(经常性的爱好)

Would you like to play football this afternoon?你今天下午愿意踢球吗?(指一次的动作)

2)动词不定式所表示的动作的逻辑主语常常是句子里的-一个名词或代词,动名词所表示的动作的逻辑主语,可能是句子里的名词或代词,但也可能指一般人或物。如:

She hates to trouble you.她不愿意麻烦你。(to trouble的逻辑主语是she)

She hates smoking.她不喜欢吸烟。(smoking的逻辑主语不一定是she,也可能是"别人")

3)有些动词,如:stop,remember,forget,后接动名词和后接动词不定式,其意义有所不同。试比较:

Stop talking.不要讲话!(talking的宾语,指停止"讲话"这个动作)

Stop to think about it for a moment.停下来一想。(to think是目的状语,指停下来,以便想一想)

I remember seeing him。我记得见过他。(已见过,指过去的动作)

You must remember to post the letter.你不要忘了寄这封信。(还没有寄,指未来的动作)

4)某些及物动词后面只能跟动名词作为它的直接宾语,不能跟动词不定式。其中常用的有finish(作完,结束),avoid(避免),enjoy(享受),mind(在意,反对),insist on(坚持),object to(反对),give up(放弃),practise (实践,练习),put off(延期)等。如:

We all enjoy listening go Beethoven's symphonies.我们都喜欢听贝多芬的交响乐曲。

We should avoid making grammer mistakes in our exercises.我们应在练习中避免犯语法错误。

The doctor says I must give up smoking.医生说我必须戒烟。

Would you mind repeating what you have just said?你重复一下你刚才说过的话好吗?

5)某些及物动词后只能跟动词不定式作为它的直接宾语。常用的有want(要想),wish(希望,想要),hope(希望),agree(同意),promise(允诺),mean(打算),decide(决定),expect(期望),manage(设法),pretend(假装)等。如:

I hope to visit China again.我希望再访问中国。

I wish to take this opportunity to make up for the lessons I have missed.我想趁此机会把拉下的课补上。

Teachers and students managed to set up a laboratory.师生设法修建了一个实验室。

6)某些及物动词后可跟动名词也可跟动词不定式作它的直接宾语。其中常用的有begin(开始),start(开始),continue(继续),like(喜欢),hate(恨),prefer(宁愿)等。如:

When did you begin learning (to learn) typewriting?你什么时候开始学打字的?

They continued working (to work) after the meal.他们饭后继续工作。

二者形式相同。但动名词有动词性质(有时态和语态变化,可有宾语和状语),没有复数,前面也不可用冠词。名词化的动名词(verbal noun)的用法则和一般名词完全一样:它没有动词性质,有单复数形式,前面可用冠词。试比较:

She likes reading Jane Eyre.她喜欢读《简·爱》。(动名词)

The reading of The Dream of the Red Chamber took her about two weeks.她花了差不多两周的时间读完《红楼梦》。(名词化的动名词)

They started cleaning their room at six.他们六点钟开始打扫房间。(动名词)

They gave the classroom a good cleaning.他们把教室很好地打扫了一下。(名词化的动名词)

reading阅读(可用作动名词或名词化的动名词)

readings读物(只能是名词化的动名词)

writing写作(可用作动名词或名词化的动名词)

writings作品(只能是名词化的动名词)

四十四、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 G

动名词和现在分词用作定语时的区别

动名词用作定语时,和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系,即它不是该名词的动作。现在分词用作定语时,则和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系,它是该名词的动作。试比较:

reading materials阅读材料(reading是动名词用作定语,逻辑上materials决非.reading的主语,reading materials = materials for reading。)

leading comrades领导同志(1eading是现在分词作定语,逻辑上comrades是leading的主语,leading comrades= comrades who lead。)

动名词作定语的例子还有:

a reading-room阅览室

drinking water饮用水

a writing course一门写作课

a sleeping car卧车(火车中可以睡觉的车厢)

the getting-up bell起床铃

四十五、[英语语法手册]非限定动词

H

分词

意义和特征

1)分词(participle)也是一种非限定动词,它兼有动词和形容词的特征。

2)分词可有宾语(仅限于现在分词)或状语,分词和宾语或状语一起构成分词短语。

形式

分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。现在分词由动词原形后加词尾-ing构成。规则动词的过去分词由动词原形后加词尾-ed构成,不规则动词的过去分词无一定规则。

现在分词和过去分词的区别

现在分词和过去分词主要的区别表现在语态和时间关系上。

1)语态上不同:现在分词表示主动的意思,而过去分词多由及物动词变来,表示被动的意思。试比较:

surprising使人感到惊讶的(主动)

surprised自己感到惊讶的(被动,即被惊讶的)

an exciting story一个令人兴奋的故事(主动)

excited spectators激动的观众(被动,即被引起激动的)

a moving film一部感动人的影片。

A moved audience受感动的观众

A tiring journey累人的旅行

A tired football player累了的足球运动员

He told us many interesting things last night.他昨夜告诉我们许多有趣的事情。

She is interested in astronomy.她对天文学有兴趣。

也有一些过去分词是由不及物动词变来的,它们只表示一个动作已完成,没有被动的意味。如:

fallen leaves落叶

the exploded bomb已爆炸了的炸弹

a retired miner退休矿工

returned students归国留学生

2)时间关系上不同:一般说来,现在分词所表示的动作往往正在进行,而过去分词所表示的动作,往往已经完成。试比较:

the changing world正在变化着的世界

the changed world已经起了变化的世界

boiling water正在开的水

boiled water已经煮开过的水(可能是凉开水)

developing countries发展中国家

developed countries发达国家

四十六[英语语法手册]非限定动词 I

分词和分词短语的用法

1) 作定语作定语用的分词如果是单词,一般放在它所修饰的名词之前。如:

I'm reading a very interesting book.我在读一本很有趣的书。

He likes to drink cold boiled water. 他喜欢喝凉开水。

分词短语作定语用时,一般皆放在它所修饰的名词的后面。它的功用相当于定语从句。如:

China is a developing socialist country belonging to the Third world.中国是一个发展中的社会主义国家,属于第三世界。

(= which belongs to the Third World)

The man sitting it the corner is my brother.坐在角落里的那个人是我的兄弟。(= who is sitting in the comer)

Most of the people invited to the party did not come.被邀请参加晚会的人多数没有来。(= who were invited to the party.)

2)作表语

The opera is very moving and instructive.这个歌剧很动人,且有教育意义。

The cups are broken.这些杯子是破的。

He is married.他已经结婚了。

[注] 分词作表语用时,相当于形容词,不可与进行时态和被动语态中的分词混淆起来。它们的形式相似,但可以从意义上加以辨别。试比较:

Lei Feng's spirit is inspiring the people all over the country. 雷锋的精神鼓舞着全国人民。(现在进行时)

His report is inspiring. 他的报告令人鼓舞。(现在分词作表语)

The road was completed by the PLA men.这条路是解放军战士修成的。(被动语态)

The road is completed.这条路已经筑成。(过去分词作表语)

3)作状语分词在意义上也可用作状语,表示时间、原因、方式和伴随情况等。

a)表示时间(在意义上往往相当于表示时间的状语从句)。如:

Looking out of the window,I saw groups of children passing by the house.我从窗口望出去,看见成群的孩子们从房子前面走过。(= When I locked out of the window)

Heated,the metal expands.这种金属加热后即膨胀。(= When it is healed)

Opening the drawer he took out a dictionary.他打开抽屉,拿出一本词典。(= He opened the drawer and took...这两个动作是一个接着一个)

[注]如果要强调分词短语与谓语动词所表示的时间关系,分词短语之前可用when或while等连词。如:

While working in the factory (= While I was working in the factory),I learnt a lot from the workers.我在工厂工作期间,从工人那里学到了很多东西。

When heated,the metal expands.这种金属加热后即膨胀。

b)表示原因(在意义上相当于表示原因的状语从句)。如:

Feeling tired, I telephoned and said I couldn't come to a hospital of Chinese medicine.我感到

累,打电话说我不能去。(= Since I felt tired)

Thinking that Chinese medicine might help,he went to a hospital of Chinese medicine.他想中医也许有效,于是到一家中医医院去治病。(= As he thought that...)

Inspired by the excellent situation they worked even harder.在太好形势的鼓舞下,他们更加努力工作。(= Since they are inspired by...)

c)表示方式、伴随情况及结果(这种用法没有相当的状语从句可以代替)。如:

He came running back to tell us the news.他跑着回来告诉我们这个消息。(方式)

She stood there waiting for the bus.她站在那儿等公共汽车。(伴随情况或方式)

The child fell,striking head against the door and cutting it.小孩摔了一跤,头在门上碰破了。(结果)

He went out slamming the door.他走出去砰地一声把门关上。(伴随情况)

The lichens came borne by storms.这些地衣是由暴风雨带来的。(方式)

分词的否定结构

现在分词的否定式由not后加现在分词构成。如:

Not knowing what to do,she went to the teacher for help.她不知道该怎么办,就去请老师帮助。

I left at noon,not staying for lunch.我是中午走的,没有留下来吃午饭。

过去分词表否定时,常借助un-等前缀表示。如:

The boy was left uncared for.那孩子无人照管。

含有分词的复合宾语

分词可作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。可有这种复合宾语的动词有see,watch,hear,set,keep,find,have,get等等。如:

We saw them walking across the road.我们看见他们穿过那条马路。

We heard the children singing "I Love Beijing's Tian An Men"我们听见孩子们唱《我爱北京天安门》。

I found my hometown almost completely rebuilt.我发现故乡几乎全部改建过了。

在have或get后面的复合宾语中,宾语补足语多是过去分词,而它所表示的动作又往往由别人所完成。如:

We must get the television set repaired.我们必须把电视机修好。(请别人修)

I had my watch mended in town.我在城里修的表。(叫别人修的)

If we have shortcomings,we are not afraid to have them pointed out and criticized.我们如果有缺点,就不怕别人批评指出。(请别人指出)

但have的复合宾语中的过去分词的动作有时不一定由别人来完成,而是表自己的经验。如:

He had his arm broken.他把手臂折断了。(不是别人给弄折的,而是自己弄折的)

[注一]上述句子结构变为被动语态时,除主语和宾语互换位置外,分词不动。如上面的第一、二例句即可变为:

They were seen walking across the road.

The children were heard singing"I Love Beijing Tian An Men"

[注二]现在分词在复合宾语中和动词不定式在复合宾语中的意义稍有不同。后者指事情的全过程,目的在于仅仅说明发生了这件事;前者指正在继续的动作的一部分,目的在于将该动作当时进行的情景呈现于读者之前,其含义相当于进行时态。如:

I saw him go upstairs.我看见他上楼去了。(看见他上楼整个过程,只说明他上楼这件事)

I saw him going upstairs.我看见他走上楼的。(只看见他上楼这个动作的一部分,说明他上楼的情景)

I was working in the room all morning· I heard somebody All knock at the next door.我整个上午在房间工作,听见有人敲隔壁房间的门。(听见敲门整个过程)

When I went back to the room,I heard her practicing singing in the next room.我回房间时听见她在隔壁房间练歌。(只听见一部分,回房间前她已开始唱了)

四十七、[英语语法手册]非限定动词 J

现在分词的时态

过去分词没有时态形式的变化,所以这里只讲现在分词的时态形式。

1)现在分词的时态形式

一般式writing

完成式having written

2)现在分词一般式其所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词所表示的动作之前或后发生。如:

Working together with Dr. Bethune,we learnt a lot from him.

我们在和白求恩大夫一起工作期间,向他学到很多东西。

(working与leamt同时发生)

Knowing that they were going abroad next week ,they began to make preparations.他们知道他们下星期要出国,所以都开始作准备。(knowing发生在began之前)

He came up to me,saying"Glad to see you again."他来到我跟前说道,"很高兴又见到你。"(saying发生在came之后)

3)现在分词完成式其所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,常常用作状语,表示时间或原因。如:

Having done his homework,the schoolboy began to write his diary.这个小学生做完作业后,开始写日记。(having done his homework发生在began之前,表示时间。)

Not haying done it right, I tried again.没有做对,我就又试。

(not having done发生在 tried之前,表示原因。)

现在分词的被动语态

一般式being written

完成式haring been written

如:

This is one of the many dams being built the river.这是沿河修筑的许多水坝之一。

Being surrounded,the enemy troops were forced to surrender.敌军被包围了,被迫投降。

Having been asked to stay,I couldn't very well leave.人家请我留下,我就不好离开了。

独立结构(absolute construction)

分词短语所表示的动作在逻辑上有主语,这种主语皆可在同一句中找到。如:

The young woman standing over there is our new English teacher.站在那边的年轻妇女是我们新的英语老师。(分词短语standing over there的逻辑主语是 the young woman)

Having finished his work,he went out to play volleyball.他做完工作后,出去打排球。(having finished his work的逻辑主语是he)但有时分词短语有它自己的独立的主语,这种主语常常是名词或代词(主格),放在分词短语之前,这种结构叫做独立结构。独立结构常用作状语,多用在书面语中。如:

The dark clouds having dispersed,the sun shone again.乌云已散去,太阳又普照大地了。(时间状语)

We shall thresh the wheat,weather permitting.天气好的话,我们就打麦。(条件状语)

Their room was on the first floor,its broad window overlooking the park.他们的房间在二层楼上,房间里的宽大的窗户俯视着公园。(伴随情况状语,the first floor在英国指第二层楼,在美国指第一层,其余可类推。)

We redoubled our efforts,each man working like two.我们加倍努力工作,一人干两人的活。(方式)

Almost all metals are good conductors,silver being the best of all.几乎所有的金属都是良导体,银是最好的导体。(伴随情况)

The meeting over,we all left the room.会议结束以后,我们就都离开了房间。(时间状语,注意over之前省去了being)

This done,we went home.做完此事,我们就回家了。(时间状语)

She gazed,her hands clasped to her breast.她双手*在胸前凝视着。

[注一]有的分词短语可以独立存在,在句中没有逻辑上的主语。它们往往已经变成习惯用语,必须熟记。如:

Generally speaking,this book is not very difficult.总的说来,这本书并不很难。

Judging from what you say,he has done a very good job.从你的话看来,他的工作做得很不错。

Considering that he has been in china for only a year,he speaks Chinese well.考虑到他到中国才一年,他的中国话讲得很不错了。

类似的习惯用语尚有talking of (谈起),speaking of (谈到)等引导的分词短语。

[注二]英语里还有一种较口语化的"with + 名词或代词宾格 + 分词 (或形容词、介词短语)"结构,也往往作状语用,表示伴随情况。如:

He fell asleep with the lamp burning. 他没有熄灯就睡着了。

She gazed with her hands clasped to her breast.她双手*在胸前凝视着。

上述结构中的分词亦可用形容词或介词短语代替。如:

He sleeps with the windows open even in winter.他即使在冬天也开着窗户睡觉。

A girl carte in with a book in her hand.一位姑娘手里拿着一本书走了进来。(在笔语中,也可说:A girl came in,book in hand.)

最新评论

NCE12-sandy 发表于 2011-3-13 17:15:42
有整套的语法压缩包吗?
txlily67 发表于 2011-3-14 13:14:05
抱歉,没有。
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