自考英语一讲义 第十四单元

发布者: anro | 发布时间: 2010-10-30 20:42| 查看数: 2518| 评论数: 4|

Text A The importance of being kind and polite


1.frankly adv. 坦白地,直率地;坦率地说

1)He frankly admitted that he had made a mistake. (他坦率地承认自己犯了个错误。)

2)She asked me to tell her frankly what I wished to do. (她让我坦率地告诉她我希望做什么。)

3)Frankly, he is not easy to get along with. (坦率地说,他这个人不好打交道。)

4)Quite frankly, I don't care about what they may say. (坦率地说,我不在乎他们会说什么。)

frank adj. 坦诚的 v. 盖免费邮戳于(邮件);准许…自由通过

1)They gave us a frank reply. (他们给了我们一个坦率的回答。)

2)They have franked these letters. (他们已经给这些信件盖了邮资已付的邮戳。)

3)We are trying to frank him through customs. (我们正努力使他免检通过海关。)

2.boring adj. 令人厌烦的;乏味的


bored adj. 感到厌烦的


bore v. 使厌烦,使厌倦 n. 令人讨厌的人或事


boredom n. 厌烦,厌倦;乏味

1)It was such a boring journey that he didn't want to say anything about it.


2)I am bored. I don't have anything to do. (我无事可做,感到乏味。)

3)Most of the book had bored him, with the exception of one chapter.


4)Sam is such a bore that no one wants to have anything to do with him.


5)She seems so depressed by the boredom of her city life. (城市生活的乏味似乎令她沮丧。)

3.honestly adv. 诚实地;的确


honest adj. 诚实的


honesty n. 诚实


dishonest adj. 不诚实的;不正直的

1) Honestly, I don't know what you're talking about. (说实在的,我不知道你在讲些什么。)

2) You have to answer the following questions honestly. (你得诚实地回答下列问题。)

3) He is honest, he doesn't tell lies. (他是老实人,不说谎。)

4) First of all, you should be honest about why you want the money. (首先,你应该坦率地说为什么要这些钱。)

5) We have no doubt as to his honesty. (对他的诚实我们毫不怀疑。)

6) How can you believe such a dishonest person. (你怎么能相信这样一个不诚实的人?)

7) He got his money in dishonest ways. (他以不正当的方式搞钱。)

4.impress v. 给…深刻的印象


impression n. 印象;效果,影响


impressive adj. 给人以深刻印象的

1)What I saw and heard there impressed me deeply. (那儿的所见所闻给我留下了深刻的印象。)

2)I was impressed by his high efficiency. (他的高效率给我留下了深刻的印象。)

3)My advice seemed to make no impression on him. (我的劝告似乎对他不起作用。)

4)She made a very good impression on her employer. (她给雇主留下了极好的印象。)

5)The impressive scene will be always in his mind. (那个难忘的场面将永远留在他的脑海中。)

5.collection n. 收集;收藏品


collect v. (去)取;接;聚集

1) He has a large collection of books. (他有大量的藏书。)

2) The collection of butterfly specimens takes up all his spare time. (他所有的业余时间都用于采集蝴蝶标本了。)

3) He likes collecting stamps. (他爱好集邮。)

4) I have to go and collect my daughter. (我得去接女儿了。)

5) A large crowd collected in front of the building. (那座楼前聚集了一大群人。)

collect 也可以做副词用,意思是“由受话人付费”,如:

I will call London collect. (我将给伦敦打一个对方付费的电话。)

6.misunderstand v. 误解,误会


misunderstanding n. 误会;争执

1)Don't misunderstand us, we are here to help, not to make trouble.


2)She misunderstood what her friend said, and went away in a fury.


3)They had a misunderstanding, but they have become friendly again. (他们曾有过争执,不过又言归于好了。)

4)I don't hope the minor misunderstanding will affect our friendship. (我不希望这点小误会会影响我们的友谊。)

7.friction n. 摩擦;不和,争执

1)Constant friction caused the rope to break. (不断的摩擦使绳子断了。)

2)The efficiency of the machine is higher because there is less friction.


3)Family frictions can interfere with a child's schoolwork. (家庭中的争吵会影响孩子的学业。)

4)The friction between the two countries is getting more and more serious. (两国之间的摩擦在加剧。)

8.conflict n. 冲突,抵触v. 冲突,抵触

1)The conflict between the two villages lasted for years. (两个村子之间的冲突持续了数年。)

2)They came into conflict over the ownership of the house. (他们就房屋的所有权问题产生了激烈的争执。)

3)His statement conflicted with what his friend said. (他的说法与他的朋友所言截然不同。)

4)My idea might conflict with his. (我的观点,可能会与他的观点相冲突。)

9.enforce v. 实施,执行;强制;强调

1)The president of our university said time and again that it was necessary to enforce the school regulations.


2)People were dissatisfied with the government's inability to enforce its law.


3)Very often parents enforce their own will on children. (父母常常把自己的意愿强加给孩子们。)

4)Illness enforced him to lie in bed. (疾病迫使他卧床。)

5)You need to enforce you arguments by producing facts and figures. (你需要提出事实与数据来加强你的论点。)

10.interact v. 相互影响,相互作用,相互交流

  interaction n. 相互影响,相互作用

1)Mothers and babies internet in a complex way. (母婴以一种复杂的方式相互交流。)

2)Students are encouraged to interact in class in English by the teacher. (老师鼓励学生在课堂上用英语互动。)

3)There is a need for more interaction between parents and children. (父母和孩子之间需要更多的相互交流。)

4)They are doing some research on the interaction between seawater and lava.


inter-是一个前缀,表示“相互”;“在…中间”。如:interchange (互换);intercommunicate (互相联系;互相通信);interdependent (相互依赖,互相依存);international (国际的);interstate (州际的);interuniversity (大学间的)

11.consensus n. 合意;(意见等的)一致;舆论

1)There was a kind of unspoken consensus between them. (他们之间有一种默契。)

2)The consensus was to abandon the project. (大多数人的意见是放弃该项计划。)

3)It is very difficult for them to reach a consensus on what they are going to do.


4)You have to build a consensus with them if you really want to get their help.


12.guideline n. 指导方针,准则,标准

1)They are going to adopt new guidelines for national economy. (他们将采取新的国民经济指导方针。)

2)Today the moral guidelines are not as obvious as they were. (现在的道德准则不再以前一样明确了。)

3)The chemical additives still exceed guidelines set to protect public health.


13.unacceptable adj. 不能接受的,不受欢迎的

  acceptable adj. 可接受的

  accept v. 接受

1) It is entirely unacceptable to break the law for the sake of money. (为了钱而犯法是完全不可接受的。)

2) The proposal was unacceptable. (这个建议是不能接受的。)

3) This is a proposal that is acceptable to all sides. (这是一个各方面都能接受的建议。)

4) They didn't accept the invitation to attend the evening party. (他们没有接受出席晚会的邀请。)

14.adolescent adj. 青春期的;青少年的n. (16岁以下的)青少年

  adolescence n. 青春期(13-16岁的发育期)

1) He was afraid that his son had anything to do with the adolescent gang.


2) This film aimed at adolescents. (这部电影专为青少年拍摄。)

3) His adolescence was not a happy time for him. (他的青春期过的不快乐。)

4) Before his parents could realize it Tom had already reached the age of adolescence.


15.swear v. 诅咒;发誓n. 誓言

1)Don't swear in front of the children. (别在孩子们面前骂人。)

2)Will you swear that you were not on the scene? (你愿意起誓说你当时不在现场吗?)

3)I swear that I will never trust him any more. (我保证再也不相信他了。)

4)He swore by his honor that he would return the money in two weeks.


5)They refused to swear on a Bible. (他们拒绝手按圣经发誓。)

6)Don't take his swear seriously. (别拿他的誓言当真。)

16.indifferent adj. 冷漠的,不关心的

  indifference n. 冷漠

1)If parents are indifferent to their success, children will fail to make progress.


2)He is absolutely indifferent to other people's miseries. (他对别人的痛苦漠不关心。)

3)He put on an air of indifference. (他摆出了一副满不在乎的神气。)

4)She was annoyed by her son's indifference to her. (她儿子对她的冷漠态度令她恼怒。)

17.discipline n. 纪律,训练;学科v. 训练;使有纪律;惩罚

1)The discipline of hard work would do you a lot of good. (艰苦工作的磨练会对你大有好处。)

2)The young teacher couldn't keep discipline in her classroom. (那个年轻的教师无法维持课堂秩序。)

3)Scientists of many disciplines would work together to solve the problem.


4)They must learn to discipline themselves. (他们必须学会锻炼自己。)

5)He was disciplined for being late. (他因迟到而受罚。)

18.individual n. 个人,个体adj. 个别的,单独的;独特的

1)The freedom of the individual was greatly emphasized in his talk. (他在讲话中十分强调个人的自由。)

2)Handwriting varies from individual to individual. (每个人的笔迹都不相同。)

3)Each individual leaf on the tree is different. (树上的每一片叶子都各不相同。)

4)There was nothing individual about him except a deep scar across his right cheek.



anro 发表于 2010-10-30 20:43:21



1. Unless you want to end a relationship, you don't tell another person what you think of her or him like this.

unless在本句中的意思是“if not” (除非,如果不),如:

1) You will fail the exam unless you study harder. (你若不更加努力学习,考试会不及格。)

2) We will go on with the experiment unless something unforeseen happens. (如果不发生意外,我们将继续试验。)

3) I will not go to the party unless he invites me. (如果他不邀请我,我就不去参加聚会。)

4) Nothing, unless a miracle, can save him. (除非出现奇迹,他无法得救。)


1) The meeting did not end until midnight. (会议开到半夜才结束。)

  2) The anti-Japanese War ended in 1945. (抗日战争于1945年结束。)

3) He refused to end his four-week tour in such a manner. (他不愿以这种方式结束为期四周的旅行。)

2. Failing to be impressed by a friend's collection of stamps, yawning when a golfer tells you about what great shot he made… are all things that educated people try not to do.


1)Smoking is not good for your health. (吸烟有害你的健康。)

  2) Making experiment is one way of learning. (实验是学习的一条途径。)

be impressed by 意思是“给…深刻印象”。如:

1)I was impressed by his talent. (他的才干给我留下了深刻的印象。)

  2)He was impressed by the gorgeous sunset. (绚丽的夕阳给他留下了深刻的印象。)

golfer意思为“高尔夫球运动员”,这个词是由golf加后缀-er构成的,英语中这一类词很多。如:baker (面包师傅),gardener (园丁),miller (磨坊主),singer (歌唱家),user (使用者。)

1) He tried not to let out the secret. (他试图不泄露秘密。)

  2) We tried not to be misled by them. (我们努力不被他们误导。)

3. There are no laws enforcing respect.

本句是一个There be + noun + V-ing 结构,表示存在(有),there失去表示场所的意义。如:

1) There was a fire burning in the fireplace. (壁炉里火在燃烧。)

  2) There were two bulldozers knocking the place flat. (两台推土机把那儿夷平。)


1) It is necessary to enforce discipline in the army. (在部队里执行纪律是必要的。)

  2) He strongly objected to enforcing obedience on children. (他强烈反对强迫儿童服从。)

4. These guidelines represent what a majority of people consider acceptable and what they consider unacceptable.


1) The blue lines on the map represent rivers. (地图上的蓝线代表河流。)

  2) These views don't represent the real thinking of the local residents. (那些观点并不反映当地居民的真实思想。)


1) I will always remember what my mother said to me before I went to college.


2) I didn't see what they were doing there. (我没看见他们在那儿干什么。)

3) His idea couldn't represent what the ordinary people really liked.



1) consider + 宾语

  He had no time to consider the matter. (他没有时间考虑这件事。)

2) consider + 宾语 + 宾语补足语

  Some people considered the attack a mistake. (有人认为那次进攻是个错误。)

3) consider + that 从句

  We consider that the young man is not guilty. (我们认为那个年轻人无罪。)

4) consider + V. + ing

  He considered changing his job. (他考虑换一份工作。)

5) consider to be/as

  They consider themselves to be very lucky. (他们认为自己很幸运。)

He is considered to be an authority. (他被认为是权威。)

  They considered the house as beautiful. (他们认为那房子很美。)

在上面的三个例句中,to be和as都可以被省略,因此三例句可以改写为:

They consider themselves lucky.

  He is considered an authority.

They consider the house beautiful.

5. They are not even aware that this habit will bother the other members of the audience.


1) be aware of

  If you were aware of all that, you would change your mind. (如果你知道了那一切,你会改变主意的。)

2) be aware that

  He was aware that he had drunk too much. (他知道他喝的太多了。)


1) Don't bother me, I have to finish the work in an hour. (别打扰我,我得在一小时内做完这个工作。)

  2) Don't bother to talk to him. He has no interest in anything. (别费心跟他讲话,他对什么都没兴趣。)

audience (观众,听众)当一个整体看待,用做单数;当各成员看待,用做复数。如:

1) The audience was (were) enjoying the performance. (观众在欣赏演出。)

  2) That book has a large audience. (那本书有广大的读者。)

6. …the look-at-me phone users whose boring conversations are just as dangerous to our mental health as smoke is to our lungs.


as dangerous…as…形容词的同等比较,意思是“与……同样危险”。



A. interested  interesting

1. He is interested in that book.

  2. The book is interesting

B. excited  exciting

1. We were very excited on hearing the news.

  2. The exciting news was soon spread all over the country.

C. bored  boring

1. The audience was bored by the speaker's empty talk.

  2.The boring lecture made my sleepy.

7. …they listen to their walkmans while the teacher is talking to them.

listen是一个不及物动词,后面必须加介词to才可以跟宾语,如:听音乐(listen to music),听收音机(listen to the radio),听天气预报(listen to the weather forecast)。请注意,不能丢掉介词to。


8. Kids who have no idea what being polite means will pay the price sooner or later.

have no idea of sth. 意思是“对……不理解”。have no idea后面接从句,常可省去of,如:

1)He had no idea what was likely to happen next. (他无法预料接下去会出现什么情况。)

2)I have no idea why she left.(我不知道她为什么离去。)


Being honest means telling no lies. (诚实意味着不说谎话。)


1)I have no idea what will turn up.

  2)I have no idea how soon they will arrive.

3)Word came that they had succeeded.

pay the price意思是“付出代价”。如:

  They will pay the price for their ignorance. (他们将为自己的无知付出代价。)

sooner or later意思是“迟早”,如:

  You will understand me sooner or later. (你迟早会理解我的。)

9. When they join the work force, their employers and associates alike will soon realize that the behavior of these rude young people is closer to that of animals than civilized people.


alike通常做形容词用,如:The two brothers are very much alike. (这两兄弟非常相象。)在本句子,alike作副词用,意思是“一样地”。

1)Teachers and students alike will have a 3-week holiday. (老师和学生一样将有为期三周的假期。)

2)The book is interesting and instructive alike. (这书既有趣,也有教益。)


1) By 1990, production in the area is expected to double that of 1980.

  2) The weather in Shanghai is milder than that of Beijing.

10. Being polite and showing respect can give us an edge.


1) The edge was with our team. (优势在我们队这边。)

  2) Since he obtained the edge, he was sure to win. (既然他取得了优势,他一定会赢。)

3) have an edge over sb. (胜过某人)

  4) maintain a nuclear edge (保持核优势)
anro 发表于 2010-10-30 20:43:32

1. think of  2. be impressed by

3. fall asleep    4. a trip to

5. interact with   6. a majority of

7. show respect for 8. as well

9. be aware of10. listen to

11. have no idea  12. pay the price

13. sooner or later 14. be close to

15. because of   16. get ahead17. give sb. an edge 18. be based on
anro 发表于 2010-10-30 20:43:59
Text BWhy we walk in circles


1.rather than

He came all the way to China for promoting friendship rather than for making money.

He was reading a book rather than watching TV.


He felt somewhat tired.

This book is somewhat difficult to understand.

3.instead of

Instead of pushing and crowding, he waited quietly for his turn.

He gave us a lot of trouble instead of help.

4.go astray

The letter had gone astray.

Make sure that no sheep go astray.

5.keep from

The poor child was kept from seeing his mother.

The bad weather kept us from getting there as scheduled.

6.cut off

Cut me off if I talk too much.

Gas supplies had now been cut off.

7.be worth

This book is worth reading.

This problem is worth following up.

8.reach one's goal

You have to work hard to reach your goal.

9. such as

Many stories such as these will prove instructive to the children.

10.intend to

He intended to give us an explanation, but he didn't.

I didn't intend to hurt you.

11.no more…than

He is no more a teacher than a writer.

We are no more satisfied than you are.


Young as he is, he holds an important position in the company.

Smart as they are, they are always modest.

Child as he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.

13.独立结构:with +名词+过去分词

With many eyes fixed on her, she felt very nervous.

With all the work completed, we felt greatly relieved.

With all his savings gone, he had to find a job now.
中华熊猫 发表于 2010-12-29 00:15:49
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