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Lesson 11 How to grow old 如何安度晚年

发布者: Q版辉仔 | 发布时间: 2006-11-20 00:00| 查看数: 15228| 评论数: 0|

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First listen and then answer the following question.

听录音,然后回答以下问题。

What, according to the author, is the best way to overcome the fear of death as you get older?

Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death.In the young there is a justification for this feeling.Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer.But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and ignoble.The best way to overcome it----so at least it seems to me----is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life.An individual human existence should be like a river----small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls.Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being.The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue.And if, with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will be not unwelcome.I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do, and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.

BERTRAND RUSSELL How to grow old from Portraits from Memory

New words and expressions生词和短语

oppress(1.1) [ə'pres]v.忧郁,压抑

ego(1.6)['i:gəu] n.自我

justification(1.1)[ˌdʒʌstifiˈkeiʃən]n.正当理由

recede(1.6)[riˈsi:d]v.退去

justifiably(1.2)['dʒʌstifaiəbl] adv.无可非议地

increasingly(1.6)[in'kri:siŋli] adv.日益,不断

cheat(1.3)[tʃi:t] v.欺骗

passionately(1.8)['pæʃənit]adv.激昂地

abject(1.4)['æbdʒekt] adj.可怜的

painlessly(1.10) ['peinlisli]adv.毫无痛苦地

ignoble(1.5) [ig'nəubl]adj.不体面的,可耻的

vitality(1.12)[vait'tæliti]n.精力

impersonal (1.6)[im'pə:sənl] adj.超脱个人感情影响的

weariness(1.12)/wiərinis/n.疲惫感

Notes on the text课文注释

1in the young, 在年轻人身上。

2Young men who have reason…that life has to offer.这个句子较长,其中有3个that。第1个that引导一个宾语从句that…battle,是fear的宾语。第2个that引导一个同位语从句that they…to offer,说明 thought 的内容。第3个that引导一个定语从句that life has to offer,修饰things。

3cheat of…, 从那里骗取……。

4whatever work it was in him to do, 他所能做的任何工作。

5so at least it seems to me, 这里一个插入语,用了倒装语序,自然的语序是at least it seems so to me。

6bit by bit, 一点一点地。

7the thought of rest是death 的一种委婉说法。

参考译文

有些老年人因为怕死而感到烦恼。青年人有这种感觉是情有可原的。有理由害怕自己会死在战场上的年轻人;想到自己被剥夺了生活所能给予的最美好的东西时,感到痛苦,这是可以理解的。可是老年人已经饱尝了人间的甘苦,一切能做的都做了,如果怕死;就有点儿可怜又可鄙。克服怕死的最好办法——至少在我看来是这样——就是逐渐使自己的兴趣更加广泛,逐渐摆脱个人狭小的圈子,直到自我的围墙一点一点地倒塌下来,自己的生活慢慢地和整个宇宙的生活融合在一起。个人的存在应该像一条河流,开始很小,被紧紧地夹在两岸中间,接着热情奔放地冲过巨石,飞下瀑布。然后河面渐渐地变宽,两岸后撤,河水流得平缓起来,最后连绵不断地汇入大海;毫无痛苦地失去了自我的存在。上了年纪的人这样看待生命,就不会有惧怕死亡的心情了,因为自己关心的一切事物都会继续下去。再者,随着精力的衰退,老年人的疲惫感会增长,有长眠的愿望未尝不是一件好事。我希望工作到死为止,明白了有人会继续我的未竟事业,想到能做的事都做了,也就坦然了。

Comprehension理解

Give short answers to these questions in your own words as far as possible.Use one complete sentence for each answer.

1Why, according to the author, is it justifiable for a young man to fear death?

2How does the author regard the fear of death in old people?

3What, in the opinion of the author, is the best way for an old person to overcome the fear of death?

Vocabulary词汇

Refer to the text to see how the following words have been used, then write sentences of your own using these words: oppressed (1.1); justification (1.1); cheated (1.3); recede (1.6); merged (1.7); decay of vitality (1.12) weariness(1.12).

The paragraph段落

AWhich of these statements best expresses the main idea or me passage? Give reasons for your answer:

1Old people fear death.

2While it is justifiable for a young man to fear death, it is not so in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows and has accomplished whatever work it was in him to do.

3It is justifiable for young people to fear death.

4An old man will not fear death if he knows that there are others who will carry on what he can no longer do.

BThe following sentences have been taken from lines 7-14.Arrange them in their correct order.Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

1I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do, and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.

2The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue.

3An individual human existence should be like a river----small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls.

4Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being.

5And if, with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will be not unwelcome.

Key structures关键句型

ASupply the correct form of the verbs in parentheses in the following paragraph.Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

Some old people _______ (oppress) by the fear of death.In the young there is a justification for this feeling.

Young men who have reason to fear that they _________ (kill) in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they______ (cheat) of the best things that life has to offer.But in an old man who ______ (know) human joys and sorrows, and ________ (achieve) whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death _______ (be) somewhat abject and ignoble.(11.1-5)

BNote the form of the verbs used after until in this sentence:

Make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life.(11.5-7)

Supply the correct form of the verbs in parentheses in the following sentences:

1I don't think he will be very pleased when he _______ (find) out the truth.

2He will send a telegram as soon as he ______ (arrive) in Zurich.

3We should wait until the weather _______ (change) before we go on holiday.

CStudy these sentences:

Instead of saying: An individual human existence should be like a river.(1.7)

We can say: An individual human existence ought to be like a river.

Now compare the following sentence with the two given above:

I can't leave now: I must finish my work first.

Supply should (ought to) or must in these sentences:

1I really _____ finish this letter, but I think it can wait until tomorrow.

2I have no alternative: I _____ do what I am told to do.

3By rights, you _______ pay a fine on this book as it is long overdue, but it doesn't matter.

4I _____ be at work on time every morning or I'll lose my job.

DSupply the missing words in the following sentences.Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly and _____ the end, without any visible break, they become merged ______ the sea and painlessly lose their individual being.The man who, ______ old age, can see his life _______ this way, will not suffer _____ the fear ______ death, since the things he cares _____ will continue.(11.8-11)

EGive the correct form of the verb in parentheses.Do not refer to the passage until you have completed the exercise:

And if, with the decay of vitality, weariness _____ (increase), the thought of rest will be not unwelcome.(11.11-12)

Special difficulties难点

AStudy these examples, then write two sentences to bring out the difference between the verbs flow (1.9) and fly.

The River Thames rises in Gloucestershire and runs eastwards for 210 miles until it flows into the North Sea at the Nore, some 40 miles east of London.

The nest in the hedge is empty.The young birds have flown.

BNote that the word water is rarely used in the plural: ‘the waters flow more quietly’ (1.9).Study the example and then write a sentence using water in the plural.

The banks of the River Oder had disappeared in the flood, and despairing householders watched from a hill top as the waters went on rising.

CExplain the meaning of since in these sentneces:

1Man will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue.(11.10-11)

2I have not seen him since last year.

DNote the use of no longer and any longer in these sentences:

Others will carry on what I can no longer do.(11.12-13)

Others will carry on what I cannot do any longer.

Write two sentences using no longer and any longer.

Multiple choice questions 多项选择题

Choose the correct answers to the following questions.

Comprehension理解

1It is ______ that young people fear they will die.

a.not surprising

b.unnatural

c.oppressive

d.deceitful

2Fear of death in old people ______.

a.is not something the writer admires

b.is wider and more impersonal

c.is all right for someone who has known joys and sorrow

d.is truly justified

3As a person's interests become more impersonal, so ______.

a.his existence becomes like a river

b.the sense of individuality decreases

c.life flows without a visible break

d.the waters flow more quietly

4An old person can reach a stage where _______.

a.the things he cares for will continue

b.he wishes to die while still at work

c.his life will continue

d.he looks forward to death

Structure句型

5In the young, this feeling ______.(1.1)

a.has justified

b.was justified

c.justified

d.is justified

6In an old man ______ has known human joys and sorrows … (11.3-4)

a.what

b.which

c.-

d.that

7An individual human existence should be like a river.That's how it _______ be.(1.7)

a.ought to

b.must

c.has to

d.is obliged to

8_____ death will not bring fear to the old man who can see his life in this way.(11.10-11)

a.A

b.The

c.Every

d.-

Vocabulary词汇

9Young men may justifiably feel they have been ______ of the best things in life.(11.1-2)

a.deceived

b.lied

c.stolen

d.robbed

10Your life becomes increasingly _______ in the universal life.(11.6-7)

a.lost

b.joined

c.sunk

d.contained

11_____ the river grows wider … (11.8-9)

a.Less and less

b.Step by step

c.One by one

d.Little by little

12I should wish to die while still at work, ______ that others will carry on … (11.13-14)

a.thinking

b.aware

c.believing

d.acceptin



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