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Lesson 8 Trading standards 贸易标准

发布者: 雪狼 | 发布时间: 2006-11-13 10:25| 查看数: 11160| 评论数: 1|

北外视频



英音版录音



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First listen and then answer the following question.

听录音,然后回答以下问题。

What makes trading between rich countries difficult?

Chickens slaughtered in the United States, claim officials in Brussels, are not fit to grace European tables.No, say the Americans: our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way.These days, it is differences in national regulations, far more than tariffs, that put sand in the wheels of trade between rich countries.It is not just farmers who are complaining.An electric razor that meets the European Union's safety standards must be approved by American testers before it can be sold in the United States, and an American-made dialysis machine needs the EU' s okay before it hits the market in Europe.

As it happens, a razor that is safe in Europe is unlikely to electrocute Americans.So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do ? Politicians agree, in principle, so America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal which would eliminate the need to double-test manyproducts.They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28th.Although negotiators are optimistic, the details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all.

Why? One difficulty is to construct the agreements.The Americans would happily reach one accord on standards for medical devices and then hammer out different pacts covering, say, electronic goods and drug manufacturing.The EU----following fine continental traditions----wants agreement on general principles, which could be applied to many types of products and perhaps extended to other countries.

From: The Economist, May 24th, 1997

New words and expressions生词和短语

slaughter(1.1)['slɔ:tə] v.屠宰

electrocute(1.7)[ilektrəkju:t] v.使触电身亡

fit(1.1)[fit]adj.适合

eliminate(1.9)[i'limineit]v.消灭

grace(1.1)[grers]v.给……增光

accord(1.13)[ə'kɔ:d]n.协议

tariff(1.3)['tærif] n.关税

device (1.14)[di'vais]n.仪器,器械

standard(1.4)['stændəd] n.标准

hammer out(1.14) v.推敲

dialysis(1.6) [dai'ælisis] n.分离,分解:透析,渗析

pact(1.14)[pækt] n.合同,条约,公约

Notes on the text 课文注释

1Chickens slaughtered in…to grace European tables.在这句话中引用了布鲁塞尔官员的评论,却没有放在引号之中。这种方式常用于报刊文章,对读者的直接影响更大。在claim officials in Brussels中,动词claim置于名词之前。

2it is differences in national regulations… between rich countries.是各国管理条例上的差异,而不是关税阻碍了发达国家之间的贸易。这是一个it引导的强调句。put sand in the wheels of, 阻碍,阻挠。

3So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do? 这是另一个没有引号的直接引语的例子。注意why have two…do中的语序,这是非常口语化的直接引语的语序。

参考译文

布鲁塞尔的官员说,在美国屠宰的鸡不适于用来装点欧洲的餐桌。不,美国人说,我们的家禽很好,只是我们使用了另一种清洗方式。当前,是各国管理条例上的差异,而不是关税阻碍了发达国家之间的贸易。并不仅仅是农民在抱怨。一把符合欧州联盟安全标准的电动剃须刀必须得到美国检测人员的认可,方可在美国市场上销售;而美国制造的透析仪也要得到欧盟的首肯才能进入欧洲市场。

碰巧在欧州使用安全的剃须刀不大可能使美国人触电身亡,因此,大西洋两岸的企业都在问,当一套测试可以解决问题时,为什么需要两套呢?政治家在原则上同意了,因此,美国和欧洲一直在寻求达成协议,以便为许多产品取消双重检查。他们希望尽早达成协议,为5月28日举行的美国和欧洲贸易的最高级会议作准备。虽然谈判代表持乐观态度,但协议细节如此复杂,他们所面临的困难很可能使他们根本无法取得一致。

为什么呢?困难之一是起草这些协议。美国人很愿意先就医疗器械的标准达成一个协议,然后推敲出不同的合同,用以涵盖——比如说——电子产品和药品的生产。欧洲人遵循优良的大陆传统,则希望就普遍的原则取得一致,而这些原则适用于许多不同产品,同时可能延伸到其它国家。

Comprehension理解

Give short answers to these questions in your own words as far as possible.Use one complete sentence for each answer.

1What does this phrase mean:… put sand in the wheels of trade between rich countries.(1.3)

2What point is made about European-approved electric razors compared with American dialysis machines?

3Why will the Americans and Europeans be‘hard-pressed to get a deal’? (11.11-12)

Vocabulary词汇

Give another word or phrase to replace these words as they are used in the passage: slaughtered(1.1);grace European tables(1.1); the EU' s okay(1.6); hits(1.6); eliminate the need(1.9); summit(1.10); complex(1.11);they may be hard-pressed(1.11); construct(1.13); accord(1.13); hammer out(1.14); products(1.16).

Sentence structure句子结构

ACombine the following sentences to make one complex statement out of each group.Make any changes you think necessary but do not alter the sense of the original.Refer to the passage when you have finished the exercise:

1Chickens have been slaughtered in the United States.They are not fit to grace European tables.Officials in Brussels claim this.(1.1)

2An electric razor meets the European Union's safety standards.It must be approved by American tests.Only then can it be sold in the United States.An American-made dialysis machine needs the EU' s okay.Only then can it be sold in Europe.(11.4-6)

3Politicians agree in principle.America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal.This would eliminate the need to double test many products.(11.8-10)

4Negotiators are optimistic.The details are complex.They may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all.(11.11-12)

5The EU follows fine continental traditions.It wants agreement on general principles.They could be applied to many types of products.Perhaps they could be extended to other countries as well.(11.15-16)

BWhat, in your opinion, is the author's main argument in this text?

Key structures关键句型

AWrite these sentences again changing the position of the words or phrases in italics.Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

1Before it can be sold in the United States, an electric razor that meets the European Union's safety standards much be approved by American testers.(11.4-5)

2A razor that is safe in Europe is unlikely to electrocute Americans, as it happens.(1.7)

3The details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all, although negotiators are optimistic.(11.11-12)

BReplace the words in italics with suitable alternatives:

1Our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way.(1.2)

2It is not just farmers who are complaining.(11.3-4)

3They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28th.(1.10)

CSupply the missing words and explain their use, then refer to the passage.

1No, ...the Americans: our fowl are find.(1.2)

2The Americans would happily reach one accord on standards for medical devices and then hammer out different pacts cover,…, electronic goods and drug manufacturing.(11.13-15)

DSupply the missing words, then refer to the passage.

1It is not just farmers … are complaining.(11.3-4)

2An electric razor … meets the European Union's safety standards must be approved by American testers.(11.4-5)

3As it happens, a razor … is safe is unlikely to electrocute Americans.(1.7)

4America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal … would eliminate the need to double-test.(1.9)

5The EU wants agreement on general principles … could be applied to many types of products.(11.15-16)

Special difficulties难点

ANote this use of way:

We simply clean them in a different way.(1.2)

Explain the meaning of these phrases with way in these sentences:

1We simply clean them in a different way.

2I think they went this way.

3I bought an evening paper on my way home.

4In a way, I think you may be right.

5Could you move that step-ladder please? It's in my way.

BNote this use of the verb sell.

An electric razor must be approved by American testers before it can be sold in the US.(11.4-5)

Explain the various uses of sell and sale in these sentences:

1The house next door has been sold.

2The flat upstairs is for sale.

3I bought this coat quite cheaply in the sales.

4I've been asking for a reasonable amount for my car, but it's still unsold.

CNote the use of in time in this sentence:

They hope to finish in time for a trade summit.(1.10)

Explain these phrases with time:

1I was on time for my appointment with my dentist.

2In times like these people become cautious about spending money.

3I'm glad I didn't live in the middle ages.In those times people died young.

4Fortunately, I was just in time to catch the last train home.

5I missed the celebrations in Hong Kong.I was in Singapore at the time.

Multiple choice questions多项选择题

Choose the correct answers to the following questions.

Comprehension理解

1Which one of these statements is true?

a.American farmers are the only ones who are complaining about trading standards.

b.Problems with trading standards don't affect only American farmers.

c.Europe is happy to import American poultry.

d.There is general agreement about regulations for world trade.

2An electric razor made in the EU can only be sold in the US ____.

a.if it conforms with European required standards

b.when it is safe to use

c.when it has hit the markets in Europe

d.after it has been given approval by US authorities

3Business people on both sides of the Atlantic ____.

a.question whether two sets of tests are necessary

b.think the present situation is satisfactory

c.have agreed to abandon two sets of tests

d.have set up a single test which has everyone's approval

4The main difference between the two sides is that ____.

a.it's difficult to construct agreements

b.one side wants a general agreement and the other wants lots of separate ones

c.neither of them can agree about electronic goods and drug manufacturing

d.the EU follows fine continental traditions

Structure句型

5American farmers can't export chickens to Europe ____ differences in national regulations.(1.1)

a.through

b.according to

c.in respect of

d.because of

6An electric razor from the EU ____ sold in the US unless it meets US standards.(11.4-5)

a.oughtn't to be

b.can't be

c.shouldn't be

d.doesn't have to be

7America and the EU ____ to reach a deal.(1.9)

a.are still trying

b.always try

c.tried

d.were trying

8The details are ____ that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal.(11.11-12)

a.so complex

b.enough complex

c.such complexity

d.too complex

Vocabulary词汇

9 There are many differences in national ____.(11.2-3)

a.laws

b.rules

c.commands

d.orders

10An electric razor that ____ Europe must be approved by American testers.(11.4-5)

a.fits

b.matches

c.is suitable for

d.likes

11America and the EU have been trying to get ____ double tests.(1.9)

a.away from

b.rid of

c.out of

d.lost in

12Although negotiators are ____...(1.11)

a.clear-sighted

b.uncertain

c.hopeful

d.enthusiastic



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winner360 发表于 2021-7-19 16:12:48
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