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《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之十五:并列连词

发布者: 梦儿 | 发布时间: 2010-8-20 13:47| 查看数: 5299| 评论数: 10|

《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十五:并列连词

并列连词

并列连词(Coordinating Conjunctions)是指用来连接彼此是并列关系的词、短语、从句或句子的词,被连接的两个部分彼此是独立的,在句法上是平等的。

1. 并列连词的种类



类 别


例 词
表示并列关系and  as well as  both…and

not only,but also  neither…nor
表示选择关系oror elseeither…nor
表示转折关系butyetwhile  whereas
表示因果关系forso

2. and

(1) and和;与;及;同;并

Time and tide wait for no man . 时不我待。(and表示并列)

Everything ought to be beautiful in a human being: face,and dress,and soul,and ideas.

人的面貌,衣着,心灵,思想,一切都应是美丽的。

(2) and然后; 接着

They shook hands and began to talk at once.

他们握了手后立刻开始了谈话。(and表示顺序)

He came and sat down and spoke to me.

他来后坐下来和我说话。

(3) and而且;还;又

I know that he has been arrested and that he is in prison.

我知道他已经被捕并且进了监狱。

Shute is healthy and handsome.

舒特既健康又英俊。

(4) and那么;则

Come early and you will see him.

早些来,那么你就会见到他了。

Try again and you will succeed.

再试一次,你就会成功。

3. but

(1) but但是;可是;然而

She wants to go to college but her parents want her to get married.

她想念大学,但她父母希望她结婚。

The car is very old but in good condition. 这辆车旧了,但性能还不错。

(2) but(用于否定结构后)而(是)

Virtue dwells not in the tongue but in the heart.

看人看心不看嘴。

He didn’t come to help,but to hinder us.

他不是来帮忙,而是来阻碍我们的。

4. or

(1) or或;或者;还是

He must be mad or drunk.

他不是疯了就是喝醉了。

Scotch or Bourbon?

要苏格兰威士忌还是波旁威士忌?

(2) or否则; 要不然

Be quick,or it may be too late.

快点,不然就会迟到。

Do not move, or you are a dead man.

不要动,不然要你的命。

(3) or(用于否定句) 也不

He never smokes or drinks.

他从不抽烟,也不喝酒。

5.or else

or else 否则;要不然

Hurry up,or else you’ll miss the last bus.

快点,不然你就赶不上末班车了。

Let’s get moving,or else we’ll miss the train.

我们走吧,不然就赶不上火车了。

6.for

for 因为;由于……的缘故

Sanger has to stay up tonight ,for there is a lot of homework to do.

桑格今晚不得不熬夜,因为有许多作业要做。

The two brothers decided to leave at dawn,for they had many miles to cover.

两兄弟决定黎明启程,因为他们要走许多英里。

7.so

so因此;所以

It began to rain, so we went home. 天开始下雨了,我们就回家了。

Everybody lent a hand, so the task was done on time.

人人动手,所以任务按时完成了。

8.yet

yet可是;然而

He worked hard, yet he failed.

他工作努力,可是他失败了。

She said she would be late, yet she arrived on time.

她说她会迟到,但她却准时到达了。

15.9 whereas

whereas 然而; 但是; 尽管

Some people like fat meat, whereas others hate it.

有些人喜欢肥肉,相反有些人讨厌肥肉。

Some people like strong tobacco,whereas others don?t.

有些人喜欢抽烈性烟,而有些人则不喜欢。

She is diligent,whereas he is lazy.

她很勤快,而他却懒惰。

10.as well as

as well as 除……之外;既……又;与……一样;和

On Sundays, his landlady provided dinner as well as breakfast.

逢星期天,女房东除早饭外还供应他正餐。

Hiking is good exercise as well as fun.

徒步旅行很有趣味,也是很好的锻炼。

In theory as well as in practice,the idea is unsound.

这个主意在理论上和实践上都站不住脚。

He would like to go as well as you.

他和你一样想去。

11.both...and...

both...and ... 和……(两者)都; 不仅……而且; 既……又

Both Mary and Peter are washing the dishes.

玛丽和彼得都在洗盘子。

Mary both washes the dishes and dries them.

玛丽不仅洗盘子,而且把它们揩干。

Both the wheat and the barley will be shipped tomorrow.

小麦和大麦明天都要装船运走。

Chickens are raised for both meat and eggs.

养鸡既可吃肉,又可吃蛋。

12.not only...but also...

not only...but also... 不但……而且……

Such work is not only devalued in that country,its nature is widely misunderstood.

这种工作在那个国家不但被贬低,而且工作的性质也被许多人误解了。

He plays not only the piano,but also the violin.

他不仅弹钢琴,而且还拉小提琴。

He can speak not only English, but also French. 他不仅会说英语,而且会说法语。

I not only heard it,but saw it.

我不但听到而且也看到了。

但要注意:not only...but also...中的but或also有时可省略;当not only... but also...位于句首时,可能引起倒装。

13.either...or..

either...or...或……或……;要么……要么……;不是……就是……

Either come in or go out.

要么进来,要么出去。

He is either drunk or mad.

他不是醉了就是疯了。

The criminal refused to either speak or eat.

罪犯不肯讲也不肯吃。

14.neither...nor...

neither...nor... 既不……也不……; ……和……都不

Neither Mary nor Tom came to our party yesterday.

昨天玛丽和汤姆都没来参加我们的晚会。

He neither drinks,smokes,nor eats meat.

他既不喝酒抽烟,也不吃肉。

但要注意:当neither...nor...位于句首时,可能引起倒装。


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梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:48:20
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十六:名词性从句

名词性从句(Noun Clause)在句子中起名词作用,根据它们在句中所起的语法作用,这类从句又可分别称为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句和形容词补语从句。由于名词从句和名词作用相同,因此,可用作句子的主语、表语、宾语和介词宾语等。

1. 主语从句

(1) that引导的主语从句

that引导的主语从句可以位于句首, 而常见的形式是将作形式主语用的先行词it置于句首。

That he will come to the discussion is certain.

他来参加讨论是肯定无疑的。

That mathematics is one of the most useful and fascinating divisions in human knowledge is widely accepted

数学是人类知识中最有用和最令人着迷的部分之一,这一点受到了广泛的认可。

It is strange that she did not come yesterday.

很奇怪,她昨天没有来。

It is a pity that Mr Brown can’t attend our English meeting.

真可惜,布朗先生不能出席我们的英语晚会。

(2) 连接代词和连接副词以及连接词whether引导的主语从句

Whether it will do us harm or good remains to be seen.

这事会对我们有害还是有益,还要等等看。

Where we shall do the test is still under discussion.

我们在什么地方做这个实验还在讨论。

Why the sun in the morning looks bigger than the sun at noon is very interesting..

为什么早晨的太阳看上去比中午的太阳大,这事很有趣。

疑问词引导的主语从句可以位于句首,也可以借助于先行词it后置。如:

Whether or not an object floats depends on the density of both the object and the water.

一个物体是否会浮起,既取决于该物体的密度,又取决于水的密度。

(3) 名词性关系代词what, whatever, whichever, whoever引导的主语从句。

Whoever breaks this law deserves a fine.

违反本法者应予以罚款。

Whichever (of you) comes in first will receive a prize.

(你们中)谁先来谁得奖。

What one thinks and feels is mainly due to tradition, habit and education.

一个人的思想和感情主要归因于传统、习惯和教育。(What=the thing which/that)

2. 表语从句

(1) that引导的表语从句

My idea is that you should make good use of your time.

我的建议是你该好好利用你的时间。

The reason Tom failed in the exam was that he didn’t work hard.

汤姆考试没过的原因是学习不努力。

(2) 连接代词和连接副词以及连接词whether引导的表语从句

The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow evening.

问题在于我们能不能在明天晚上以前完成这项工作。

(引导表语从句的whether不能换作if)

That is why she had a day –off yesterday .

那就是她昨天请假的原因。

(3) as if等引导的表语从句

It looks as if it is going to rain.

看起来天要下雨。

I felt as though my head were splitting.

我觉得头仿佛要裂开似的。

注:除了as if/as though之外,从属连词as 和 because 也可以引导表语从句。

Things are not always as they seem to be.事情并不总是如其表象。

It may be because he is too busy .这可能是因为他太年轻了。

It is because he doesn’t know hers.这是由于他不认识她。

3. 宾语从句

(1) that引导的宾语从句

I know that he is friendly and hospitable.

我知道他很友好而且好客。

(由连接代词引导)

Almost all economists agree that nations gain by trading with one another .

几乎所有的经济学家都承认,各国在相互的贸易中受益。

注:① they told us once again that the situation was serious .

他告诉我们说形势是严重的。

(亦可以说They told us that once again that the situation was serious).

(他们告诉我们说形势又严重了)但是两句中的that皆不可以省去,否则会产生歧义。

② He said he couldn’t tell you right away and that you wouldn’t understand.

他说他不能马上告诉你,你是不会理解的。

(said 之后可以省去that,但第二个that 不可省去。)

③ That he ever said such a thing I simply don’t believe.

我简直不相信他曾说过这样的话。(that 从句置于句首是,that 不可省去)

④ We decided ,in view of his special circumstances, that we would admit him for a probationary period.

鉴于他的特殊情况,我们决定给他一段试用期

(2) 连接代词、连接副词以及连接词whether/if引导的宾语从句

History innguists stdudy how languages evolve over time

历史语言学家研究语言是如何随着时间的推移而发展的。(由连接副词引导)

Do you know when we shall have a meeting?

你知道我们什么时候开会吗?(由连接副词引导)

I asked him if he sure what he is doing.

我问他是否确信知道自己在做什么?(连接词if以及连接代词引导)

The teacher asked me whether or not I finished my work?

老师问我是否完成了作业。(连接词wheter引导)

(3) 名词性关系代词what,whatever,whichever,whoever引导的宾语从句

He gave whoever asked for it a copy of his latest paper.

不论谁要他都将他最近写的论文给他一份。

The President is determined to resist what he regards as blackmail by the terrorists. 总统决心抵制他所认为的恐怖分子的敲诈。

You can call me whatever you like.

你叫我什么都行。

You may choose which appeals to you.

你对哪个感兴趣就可以选哪个。

Use which method you prefer.

你喜欢哪个方法就用哪个方法。

4. 介词宾语从句

(1) that引导的介词宾语从句

that引导的介词宾语从句仅限于用在except,but,notwithstanding等少数介词后。

His account is correct except that some details are omitted.

除了有些细节未提到外,他的叙述是正确的。

He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.

要不是他那时缺钱,他一定会帮助我们的。

(2) 连接代词和连接副词引导的介词宾语从句

I have no definite information yet as to which route he will take.

对他将走哪条路线,我们还没有确切的情报。

I know nothing about the matter except what you told me.

除你告诉我的情况以外,对此事我一无所知。

但要注意:引导介词宾语从句的whether不能换作if。

(3) 名词性关系代词what, whatever, whichever, whoever引导的介词宾语从句

The boy was interested in whatever he saw here

那孩子对在那里看到的任何事物都感兴趣。

The first prize should go to whoever writes best.

头等奖应颁给最优秀的作者。

5. 同位语从句

(1) that引导的同位语从句

We are very excited at the news that our Chinese athletes won many gold medals.

听到我们中国运动员赢得了许多金牌的消息我们非常激动。

A new idea occurred to him that it could be done in a very simple way.

他想出一个新主意:这件事可以用一种很简单的方法完成。

(2) 连接代词和连接副词引导的同位语从句

同位语从句通常由that引导,但随着与其同位的名词的不同,也可由whether, when, which, who, how, what,why等引出。如:

The question , whether we need it , has not yet been considered

我们是否需要它,这个问题还没有被考虑。

I have no idea when she will be back.

我不知道她何时回来。

I have no idea which dictionary is hers.

我不知道哪本词典是她的。

(3) 同位语从句的位置

同位语从句有时不是紧跟在有关的名词后面,而是被其他的词隔开了。如:

We’ve just heard a warming on the radio that a typehoo may be on its way .

我们刚从广播里听到一则气象警报,说有一股台风即将到来。

The question came up at the meeting whether weo had enough meoney for our research.

会上提出了我们的研究经费是否够的问题。

6. 形容词补语从句

(1) that引导的形容词补语从句

We are certain that he will get over his illness.

我们相信他会康复的。

Ralph was disappointed that he didn?t finish the work on time.

拉尔夫没有按时完成工作,感到很失望。

但要注意:引导形容词补语从句的that可以省略。

(2) 连接代词、连接副词和连接词whether引导的形容词补语从句

I’m not certain whether the train will arrive on time.

我没有把握火车是否会准点到达。

The beggar was too sleepy to be aware how cold it was.

这个乞丐太困了,没意识到天气有多冷。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:49:06
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十七:定语从句

第一章、定语从句

定语从句(Attributive Clauses)通常皆放在它所修饰的名、代词之后,这种名、代词就叫做先行词。引导定语从句的关联词为关系代词和关系副词。定语从句在四、六级和研究生入学考试以及各类应试中都是一项重要的测试内容。

1.关系代词引导的定语从句

在下面几种情况下必须用关系代词that引导定语从句:

(1) 先行词是不定代词all ,few,little,everthing ,nothing anyting,none等。如:

Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop?

你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

(2) 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级。如:

This is the best movie I’ve ever seen.

这是我看到过的最好的一部电影。

(3) 先行词被all, any ,every ,each, few,little, no ,some等修饰时。如:

I have read all the books(that )you gave me.我读了你给我的所有的书。

(4) 先行词被the only , the every ,the same, the last 修饰时。如:

He is the only person that I want to talk to .

他就是我要谈话的那个人。

(5) 当并列的两个先行词分别表示人和物时。如:

They are talking about thins and persons that they remembered.

他们在谈论他们所能回忆起来的人和事。

(6) 为避免重复,在以who或which开头的特殊疑问句中。如:

Who is the girl that is crying ?正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?

Which of the books that borrowed from the library is yours

从图书馆借的哪一本书是你的?

(7) 用作关系代词,修饰表示时间的名词如day, time , moment 代替when 。如:

It happened on the day that/when he was born

这事碰巧发生在他出生的那天。

(8) 如果有两个定语从句,其中一个关系词已用which则另一个用that 。如:

The country built up a factory which produced things that have never been seen before.

这个国家建立了一个工厂,生产以前未曾见到过的东西。

(9) 主句以there be开头。如:

This is a seat in the corner that is still free.那个角落还有个座位空着。

2. 限制性定语从句

(1) who引导的限制性定语从句

关系代词who用于指人,通常在句中作主语。在非正式文体中,who可以代替whom在句中作动词宾语和介词宾语,而且常常省略。在作介词宾语时,不能位于介词之后。如:

A doctor is a person who looks after people?蒺s health.

医生是关照人们健康的人。

Nobody who understands the subject would say such a thing.

懂这一行的人是不会说这样的话的。

The man who I saw is called Smith. 我见到的那个人名叫史密斯。

There’s no one works harder than you. 没有比你更用功的人了。

(no one后省去了用作 主语的who)

(2) whom引导的限制性定语从句

The gentleman whom she encountered addressed her with courtesy.

她相遇的那位先生很有礼貌地和她讲话。

I have just met a lady (whom) I saw last week.

我刚遇到一位我上个星期见过的贵妇人。

关系代词whom用于指人,是who的宾格形式,在从句中作动词宾语或介词宾语,常常省略。whom作介词宾语时,介词可位于whom之前或句末,在非正式文体中常位于句末;紧接介词的whom不能省略。

He wanted to find someone with whom he could discuss books and music.

他想找个能共同研讨书和音乐的人。

This is the teacher (whom) we have talked about.

这就是我们谈论过的那个老师。

(3) whose引导的限制性定语从句

whose是关系代词who的所有格形式,在从句中作定语。whose通常指人,也可指动物或无生命的事物:

An electromagnet is a device whose magnetism is produced by an electric magnet.

电磁铁是一种由充电的磁铁产生磁力的装置。

You're the only one whose advice he might listen to.

只有你的话他可能会听。

I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea.

我想要一个窗户面临大海的房间。

(4) which引导的限制性定语从句

She was not on the train which arrived just now.

她不在刚才到达的那列火车上。

关系代词which在从句中作主语或介词宾语,作宾语时常常省略。which作介词宾语时,介词可位于是which之前或句末,在非正式文体中常位于句末;紧接介词的which不能省略。

which主要用于指无生命的事物,除此之外,还可指婴儿、动物、以及某些表示单数意义的集体名词。

(5) 关系代词that引导的限制性定语从句

关系代词that既可指人,又可指物。它在从句中可以作主语、动词宾语、介词宾语和表语。that作动词宾语或介词宾语时常常省略。在作介词宾语时,介词须位于句末,而不能位于that之前。

Water that is impure often causes serious illness.

水不洁常会引起重病。

Fanny,bring the water and put it down in the middle of the room,lazy creature that you are.

范妮,拿水来,放在屋子当中,你这懒鬼。

(6) when等引导的限制性定语从句

关系副词when指代和修饰主句中表示时间的先行词,在从句中作时间状语,可以省略。在语义上,when相当于“介词+which”。如:

July and August are the months when the weather is hot.

七八月是天气很热的月份。

Every hour since I came has been most enjoyable.

我来之后的每一个小时都是非常好玩的。

On the day before we left home there came a snow storm.

在我们离家的前一天,下了一场暴风雪。

(7) where引导的限制性定语从句

关系副词where指代和修饰主句中表示地点的先行词,在从句中作地点状语,当先行词为place时,where可以省略。在语义上,where相当于“介词+which”:

The knee is the joint where(=at which)the thigh bone meets the large bone of the lower leg.

膝盖是大腿骨和小腿大骨相连处的关节。

She’s going home where she can rest.

她要回家了,在家里她可以休息。

A stone marks the spot where the treaty was signed.

有一块石头标着那个签订条约的地方。

(8) why引导的限制性定语从句

关系副词why的先行词只有reason, 在从句中作原因状语,可以省略:

The reason why he left is not convincing.

他离开的理由无法令人信服。

There was no definite reason why she should do so.

她这样做并没有什么一定的理由。

(9) 关系代词as引导的限制性定语从句

关系代词as既可指人,又可指物,在从句中作主语、宾语、状语或表语。其具体用法如下:

① as与the same连用:

This is the same computer as I have bought.

这台计算机和我买的那台一样。(as作宾语)

I’ll do the experiment the same way as he does.

我将采用和他同样的方法做这个实验。(as作方式状语)

he studies in the same college as I do.

他和我在同一所大学学习。(as作地点状语)

② as与such连用:

They returned with coffee,wine,and such provisions as were needed.

他们带着咖啡、葡萄酒以及所需的给养回来了。(主语)

here are such questions as are of ten asked by the college students.

这是些大学生们常常问的那类问题。(as作主语)

I have never seen such kind of girl as she is.

我从未见过像她这样的女孩。(as作表语)

he didn’t believe such reason as she did so.

他不相信她那样做的理由。 (as作原因状语)

③ as与as连用:

There is as good fish in the sea as ever came out of it.

海里有的是鱼(天涯何处无芳草)。(主语)

She tried to make as few mistakes as she could avoid.

她尽可能地避免犯错误。(动词宾语)

④ as与so连用:

He can tell so interesting a story as moves us to tears.

他能讲把我们感动得流泪的故事。(主语)

Here is so big a stone as no one can lift.

这是一块没人能搬得动的大石头。(动词宾语)

(10) “介词+关系代词”引导的限制性定语从句

在介词后引导限制性定语从句的关系代词为whom, whose和which,介词的选择取决于它与先行词的搭配或与从句中谓语动词的搭配:

The family at whose house we stayed were friends of my father?s. 我们曾住过的那家的主人是我父亲的朋友。

This is the book for which you asked. 这是你所要的书。

The official to whom we applied for a permit was most obliging.

我们向他申请许可证的那位官员非常热情。

第二章、非限制性定语从句

1. 非限制性定语从句

(1) who引导的非限制性定语从句

Our guide,who was a French Canadian,was an excellent cook.

我们的向导,一个法裔加拿大人,擅长于烹调。

Then he met Mary,who invited him to a party.

后来他遇到玛丽,玛丽邀请他去参加晚会。

My gardener,who is very pessimistic,says that there will be no apples this year.

我家的园丁非常悲观,他说今年将不结苹果。

(2) whom引导的非限制性定语从句

关系代词whom用于指人,在句中作动词宾语和介词宾语,作介词宾语时,介词可位于句末。如:

Peter, whom you mey in London, is now back in Paris.

彼得现在回巴黎了,你在伦敦见过他。

Mr Smith,from whom I have learned a lot,is a famous scientist.

史密斯先生是一位著名的科学家,我从他那儿学了许多东西。

(3) whose引导的非限制性定语从句

whose是关系代词who的所有格形式,在从句中作定语。whose通常指人,也可指动物或无生命的事物。如:

The boy, whose father is an engineer, studies very hard.

那位小男孩学习很努力,他的父亲是位工程师。

Above the trees are the mountains whose magnificence the river faithfully reflects on the surface.

在树林的高处是山,其壮丽的景色完全映照在河面上。

The play,whose style is rigidly formal,is typical of the period.

这剧本是那个时期的典型作品,风格拘谨刻板。

(4) which引导的非限制性定语从句

关系代词which在非限制性定语从句中所指代和修饰的可以是主句中的名词、形容词、短语、其他从句或整个主句,在从句中作主语、动词宾语、介词宾语或表语。

① which指代主句中的名词,被指代的名词包括表示物、婴儿或动物的名词、表示单数意义的集体名词以及表示职业、品格等的名词。如:

These apple trees,which I planted three years ago,have not borne any fruit.

这些苹果树是我三年前栽的,还没有结过果实。

She is an artist,which I am not.

她是一位艺术家,而我不是。

Water,which is a clear liquid,has many uses.

水是一种清澈的液体,有许多用途。

The two policemen were completely trusted,which in fact they were.

那两个警察完全受到信任,事实上,也真是如此。

② which指代主句中的形容词。如:

She was very patient towards the children,which her husband seldom was.

她对孩子们很耐心,她丈夫却很少这样。

She is always careless,which we should not be.

她总是马虎大意,我们可不应该这样。

③ which指代主句中的某个从句。如:

He said that he had never seen her before,which was not true.

他说以前从没见过她,这不是真的。

④ which指代整个主句。如:

In the presence of so many people he was little tense, which was understandable.

在那么多人面前他有点紧张,这是可以理解的。

He may have acute appendicitis,in which case he will have to be operated on.

他可能得了急性盲肠炎,如果是这样,他就得动手术。

When deeply absorbed in work,which he often was,he would forget all about eating and sleeping.

他经常聚精会神地工作,这时他会废寝忘食。

(5) when引导的非限制性定语从句

关系副词when在非限制性定语从句中作时间状语,指代主句中表示时间的词语。如:

He will put off the picnic until May 1st, when he will be free.

他将把郊游推迟到5月1号,那时他将有空。

(6) where引导的非限制性定语从句

关系副词where在非限制性定语从句中作地点状语,指代主句中表示地点的词语。如:

They went to London,where they lived for six months.

他们去了伦敦,在那儿呆了六个月的时间。

They reached there yesterday, where a negotiation of sale will be held.

他们昨天抵达那里, 有一个关于销售的谈判在那儿举行。

(7) as引导的非限制性定语从句

as引出非限定性定语从句时,代替整个主句,对其进行说明。但通常用于像as we allaknow, as it is know, as is know to all, as it is, as is said above, as always mentioned above, as is usual, as is often the case, as is reported in the newspaper等句式中。as在非限定性定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,且引出的从句位置比较灵活,可位于句首或句末,也可置于主句中间。通常均由逗号将其与主句隔开。as有“正如……, 就像……”之意。 如:

As it known to the United States, Mark Twain is a great American writer.

美国人都知道,马克?吐温是一位伟大的美国作家。(as在从句中作主语)

He forgot to bring his pen with him, as was often the case.

他忘了带笔,这是常事。(as在从句中作主语)

He is absorbed in work, as he often was.

他正在全神贯注地工作,他过去经常这样。(as在从句中作表语)

Boy as he was, he was chosen king.

他虽是孩子,却被选为国王。(as在从句中作表语)

as we all know, the earth is round.

众所周知,地球是圆的。 (as在从句中作宾语)

The two brothers were satisfied with this decision,as was agreed beforehand.

两兄弟对此决定都满意,这项决定在事前都已得到他们的同意。(as在从句中作主语)

Taiwan is,as you know,an inseparable part of China.

你知道,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。(as在从句中作宾语)

(8)“介词+关系代词”引导的非限制性定语从句

在介词后引导非限制性定语从句。关系代词which有时并不代表主句中某一确定的词,而是概括整个主句的意思。介词的选择取决于它与先行词的搭配或与从句中谓语动词的搭配。

They were short of sticks to make frames for the climbing vines,without which the yield would be halved.

他们缺搭葡萄架的杆儿,没有它们产量会减少一半。

They thanked Tom,without whose support they would not have succeeded.

他们对汤姆表示了感谢,因为没有他的支持他们就不会成功。

These new neighbors,to whom I was introduced yesterday,have come here from Beijing.

这些邻居是北京来的,昨天我被介绍同他们认识了。

(9)“名词/代词+of+which / whom”引导的非限制性定语从句

It now has 20,000 hectares of land,more than two-thirds of which are under cultivation.

现在它拥有两万公顷土地,其中三分之二之多已经耕种。

Light is the fast thing in the world, the speed of which is 300.000 kilometers per second.

世界上光的速度是最快的,其速度是每秒三十万公里。

There are 30 chairs in the small hall, most of which are new.

大厅里有三十把椅子,绝大部分是新的。

The textile mill has over 8,000 workers and staff,eighty per cent of whom are women.

这家纺织厂有8千多职工,女职工占百分之八十。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:49:44
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十八:状语从句

第一章、状语从句(1)

状语从句(Adverbial Clauses)在四、六级、研究生入学考试以及各类应试中是一项比较重要的测试内容。引导状语从句的是一些连词,它们的位置比较灵活,可以置于句首,也可以置于句末。

1. 时间状语从句

(1) when引导的时间状语从句

①.when引导的时间状语从句,其动词既可以是延续性动作的动词,也可以是瞬间性动作的动词,而且可以表示主句的动作和从句的动作同时发生,或者从句的动作发生在主句的动作之前。如:

when you apply for a job, you must present your credentials.

当你申请工作时,你必须递交你的有关证件。(同时)

when the students heard the teacher’s footsteps, they all atopped talking.

当学生们听到老师的脚步声时,他们都停止了讲话。(从句动作发生在前)

② when还可表示just then(正在那时,突然)的意思,此时其所引导的从句只放在主句之后。如:

we were about to start when it began to rain.

我们正要动身,突然天下起雨来。

The game had hardly/scarcely/barely begun when it started raining.

比赛刚刚开始就下起雨来。

(2) as引导的时间状语从句

as引导的时间状语从句其动词的动作是延续性的,而且侧重表示主句和从句的动作并相发生:

We were having breakfast as she was combing her hair.

她梳头时我们在吃早饭。

It will warm up a little bit on Sunday as the cold front passes.

寒流一过,星期日就会有点暖意了。

(3) while引导的时间状语从句

while表示“在某一段时间里”或“在……期间”,其所引导的从句的动作是延续性的,并侧重表示和主句的动作同时发生。如:

When the teacher paraphrased the text in English, the students listened attentively and took notes.

当老师用英语解释课文时,学生们聚精会神地听并做着笔记。

I can learn while I work.

我可以边工作边学习。

(4) before引导的时间状语从句

① before“在……之前”

I have finished my dissertation before my supervisor went abroad.

在我的导师出国之前,我已完成了我的学位论文。

I’ll be back before you have left.

你离开之前我就会回来。

② before“……之后才”

It may be many years before we meet again.

可能要过许多年我们才能再见了。

It was three days before I came back.

他三天后才回来。

(5) as soon as/once/directly/the instant等引导的时间状语从句

as soon as 是最常见的表示“一……就”的从属连词,其他连词还有once,directly,immediately,instantly,the instant (that),the minute(that) ,the moment(that)等,它们通常都可与as soon as换用。如:

As soon as we got home, the telephone rang.

我们一到家,电话就响了。

I recognized her immediately I saw her.

我一看见她就认出她来了。

Directly the teacher came in everyone was quiet.

老师一进来,大家就静了下来。

(6) hardly...when/no sooner...than引导的时间状语从句

关联从属连词hardly/barely/scarcely...when和no sooner...than的意思是“刚……就”,它们所引导的从句中的谓语动词通常为过去完成时。如:

He had no sooner (no sooner had he)arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey.

他刚一到家,就又要他出另一次差。

No sooner had the words been spoken than he realized that he should have remained silent.

这些话刚一出口,他就意识到自己应该保持沉默。

(7) since引导的时间状语从句

在含有since引导的时间状语从句的复合句中,从句的谓语动词通常为一般过去时,主句的谓语动词通常为现在完成时、过去完成时和一般现在时: We’ve never met since we graduated from the college.

大学毕业后我们就再没见过面。

Great changes have taken place since you left.

你走了以后,这里发生了巨大变化。

(8) till/until引导的时间状语从句 till和until同义,作“直到……时(为止)”解,till多用于非正式文体,until多用于句首。如:

Donald will remain in college until(till) he finishes his Ph.D course.

唐纳德将留在学校直到完成他的博士学位课程。

I won’t go with you until(till) I finished my homework.

等我做完作业我才和你一起去。

(9) whenever/each time/every time引导的时间状语从句

whenever在引导时间状语从句时作“每当;每次”解,each time和every time与whenever同义,通常可以与它换用。如:

The roof leaks whenever it rains.

每逢下雨屋顶就漏雨。

Whenever certain chemicals are mixed together,heat is produced.

某些化学物质被混到一起时,就会产生热。

Whenever/ Every time/ Each time I met her, she was studying.

我每次看见她时,她总是在学习。

2. 地点状语从句

(1) when引导的时间状语从句

从属连词where“在(或到)……的地方”

Where there is a will, there is a way.

有志者事竟成。

Put it where you found it.

把它放在原来的地方。

① where 在地点状语从句中,除指地点外,还可指处境等。如:

He said he was happy where he was.

他说他对自己的处境很满意。

It’s your fault that she is where she is.

她今天落到这个地步都怪你。

② 有时地点状语从句中的某些词可以省略。如:

Fill in the blanks with the given phrases. Change the form where necessary.

用所给的短语填空,必要的地方可以改变其形式。

Avoid structure of this kind where possible.

只要可能,就要避免这种结构。

(2) wherever引导的地点状语从句

从属连词wherever“在(或到)……的各个地方”:

You can go wherever(anywhere) you like these days.

这些天你可以去你想去的地方。

Where (Everywhere) they went, the experts were warmly welcomed.

专家每到一处, 都受到热烈的欢迎。

Sit down wherever you like.

你喜欢坐哪儿就坐哪儿。

3. 原因状语从句

(1) because引导的原因状语从句

because表示人们不知道的直接的原因或理由,着重点在从句,其所引导的从句,为全句句意的中心所在。通常用于回答why引出的疑问句,语气最强,除特别强调外,该从句一般位于主句后面。

I didn’t go abrord with her because I couldn’t afford it.

我没有和她一起出国是因为费用太高。

Don’t scamp your work because you are pressed for time.

不要因为时间仓促而马马虎虎。

(2) as引导的原因状语从句

as引导的原因状语从句所传递的通常是已知信息,从句多位于主句之前,通常可以和since换用。如:

As I didn’t know the way,I asked a policeman.

我不认识路,因而问警察。

As it is snowing, we shall not climb the mountain.

由于在下雪,我们不去爬山了。

(3) since引导的原因状语从句

since引导的原因状语从句所传递的通常是已知信息,从句多位于主句之前,通常可以和as换用。如:

Since traveling by air is much faster,they decided to take a plane.

既然乘飞机旅行快得多,他们就决定坐飞机。

Since you won’t help me ,I’ll ask someone else.

你既然不帮我,那我就请别人帮忙。

(4) now(that)引导的原因状语从句

now(that)“因为;既然”,通常可以和since换用。其中that可省去,用来表示一种新的情况,再加以推论。如:

Now(that) you?蒺ve passed your test you can drive on your own.

你既已考试合格,就可以独自开车了。

I do remember,now (that) you mention it.

你这一提,我倒的确想起来了。

(5) seeing (that)引导的原因状语从句

Seeing (that)“鉴于;由于”,通常用于非正式文体。如:

Seeing (that) the weather is bad,we’ll stay at home.

天气不好,我们还是呆在家里吧。

Seeing that he’ s ill,he’s unlikely to come.

(6) in that引导的原因状语从句

in that“因为;基于……的理由”,可以和because换用,多用于正式文体,它所引导的原因状语从句总是位于主句之后。如:

Advertisement is distinguished from other forms of communication in that the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered. 广告不同于其他交际形式,因为登广告的人要为其所提供的信息付费。

I’m in a slightly awkward position, in that he’s not arriving until 10th.

我的处境有点难堪,因为他要十号才来。

4. 目的状语从句

(1) in order that引导的目的状语从句

in order that“为了;以便”。多用于正式文体,通常可以与so that换用。如:

You stopped at Hangzhou in order that they could go around West Lake.

他们在杭州停了下来,以便游览西湖。

The expert spoke slowly in order that everyone should understand.

专家讲得很慢,以便人人听得懂。

(2) so (that)引导的目的状语从句

so that“为了;以便”。so that通常可以与in order that换用,它所引导的目的状语从句总是放在主句之后,在非正式文体中,常省略that。如:

Speak clearly so that they may understand you.

你要讲得清楚,他们才听得懂。

She wanted tea ready at seven so she could be out by eight.

她要七点钟备好茶点,这样她八点以前就可以出门了。

(3) in case/for fear (that)/lest等引导的目的状语从句

in case,for fear(that)和lest这三个从属连词都表示否定目的,意思是“以免”,“以防”。in case多用于英国英语,它所引导的从句中的谓语动词可以是陈述语气形式,也可以是虚拟语气形式;for fear(that)引导的从句中的谓语带有may,might,should等情态动词;lest用于正式文体,它所引导的从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气形式。如:

Take your umbrella with you,lest it should rain.

带上你的伞,以防下雨。

Take your umbrella in case it rains.

带上你的伞,以防下雨。

He took an umbrella with him for fear that it might rain.

他带了一把伞,以防下雨。

第二章、状语从句(2)

1. 结果状语从句

(1) so that引导的结果状语从句

① so that引导的结果状语从句只能位于主句之后,中间可以有逗号。如:

Suddenly it began to rain heavily,so that it was almost impossible to carry on driving.

突然下起了大雨,几乎无法继续开车。

Linda phoned me in on arrival so that I know she was safe and sound.

琳达到达后给我打了电话,因而我知道她平安无事。

②“so that”既可引导结果状语从句也可引导目的状语从句。究竟是引导的结果状语从句还是目的状语从句,除了根据句意来判断外,还可根据结构形式来加以判断。若从句前有逗号,一般为结果状语从句,如果从句中有情态动词,通常则为目的状语从句。如:

They started out early, so that they didn’t miss the train.

他们早早就出发了,所以没误火车。(结果状语从句)

They started out early so that they would not miss the train.

他们早早出发是为了不误火车。(目的状语从句)

(2) so...that引导的结果状语从句

so...that“如此……以致”,that在非正式文体中可以省略,so后面接形容词或副词。如:

She spoke so fast that nobody could catch what she was saying.

她说话如此之快竟没有人听出来她在讲什么。

There is so little time left that I have to tell you about it latter.

现在剩下的时间不多了,我只好以后再给你讲这件事。

(3) such...that引导的结果状语从句

引导结果状语从句的such...that的具体内容是:such+a/an+形容词+名词+that从句。其中的名词可以是可数名词的单数或复数,也可以是不可数名词。such+a/an+形容词+单数名词+that从句可换成so+形容词+a/an+单数名词+that从句。如:

The Japanese student made such rapid progress that he soon began to write article in Chinese.

那个日本留学生进步很快,不久就开始用中文写文章了。

The professor told us such a funny story that all the students laughed.

(=The professor told us so funny a story that all the students laughed.)

教授讲了个很有趣的故事,(以致于)所有的学生都笑了起来。

(4) such that引导的结果状语从句

such that引导的结果状语从句多用于正式文体,主句为“主—系—表”句型。如:

The force of the explosion was such that it blew out all the windows.

爆炸的力量很大,所有的窗户都被炸掉了。

His anger was such that he lost control of himself.

他气得不能克制自己的感情。

2. 条件状语从句

(1) if引导的条件状语从句

if可引导非真实条件状语从句(见“虚拟语气”)和真实条件状语从句。如:

If he said that,he can’t be telling the truth.

如果他说了那样的话,他不可能是说实话。

(2) unless引导的条件状语从句

unless引导的是否定条件状语从句,在意义上相当于if...not,而且语气较强,一般不用于虚拟语气。如:

You’ll be late unless you hurry.

你会迟到的,如果不赶快的话。

(3) if only引导的条件状语从句

if only在引导条件状语从句时意为“只要;如果”。如:

I’ll let you use the car if only you keep it in good condition.

只要你把车保养好,我就让你用。

(4) as/so long as引导的条件状语从句

as/so long as意为“只要;如果”。如:

As long as it doesn’t rain, we can play.

只要不下雨我们就能玩。

(5) provided (that)/providing (that)引导的条件状语从句

provided (that)/providing (that)意为“如果;只要”。如:

I will agree to go provided’ providing (that my expense are paid.)

假如为我负担费用,我就同意去。

Providing you promise not to tell anyone else I’ll explain the secret.

3. 让步状语从句

(1) although/though引导的让步状语从句

although和though,都作“虽然;尽管”解,通常可以换用,although的语气较重。如果要强调“但是”语气,可使用yet,still或nevertheless来表示“但是”、“依然”或“然而”之意。

Although they have been talking for a long time, he cannot make her believe him.

虽然和她谈了半天,他还是不能让她信任自己。

(2) even if引导的让步状语从句

even if “即使,纵然”,从句表示的是尚未发生的动作或存在的情况。如:

Even if it rains tomorrow,we won’t change our plan.

即使明天下雨,我们也决不改变计划。

Even if I failed again, I will not give up the experiment.

即使我再次失败,我也决不会放弃实验。

(3) even though引导的让步状语从句

even though“虽然,尽管”,从句所表示的是已经发生的动作或存在的情况,通常可以和although/though换用。如:

Even though I didn’t understand a word,I kept smiling.

即使我一个字也不懂,我还是保持微笑。

Even though you say so,I do not believe it.

即使你这样说,我也不信。

(4) much as引导的让步状语从句

much as“虽然,尽管”,通常可以和although/though换用:

Much as I’d like to,I can’t come.

我虽然很想来,但是来不了。

Much as I admire his courage,I don’t think he acted wisely.

我虽然佩服他的勇气,但我认为他这样做是不聪明的。

(5) while引导的让步状语从句

while“虽然,尽管”,多用于正式文体,通常可换作although/though。如:

While I understand your point of view,I do not share it.

我虽了解你的观点,但不敢苟同。

While I sympathize,I really can’t do very much to help.

虽然我很同情,但我确实帮不了什么忙。

(6) whatever/no matter what引导的让步状语从句

whatever和no matter what用法相同,都作“无论什么”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:

Whatever/No matter what he says,don’t go.

不管他说什么,你都不要走。

We are determined to fulfill the task,whatever/no matter what happens.

不管发生什么了,我们决心完成任务。

(7) whichever/no matter which引导的让步状语从句

whichever和no matter which用法相同,都作“无论哪个”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:

Whichever/No matter which you buy, there is a six-month guarantee.

不论你买哪个,都有六个月的保修期。

Whichever/No matter which of the two men had stolen her purseBarbara was determined to find them.

不管这两个人是谁偷了她的钱包,芭芭拉决心找到他们。

(8) whoever/no matter who引导的让步状语从句

whoever和no matter who用法相同,都作“无论谁”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:

You can’t come in, whoever you are.

不管你是谁,都不能进来。

Whoever/No matter who wants to speak to me on the phone, tell him I’m busy.

不管谁要我接电话, 就说我现在正忙着呢。

(9) whereverno matter where引导的让步状语从句

wherever和no matter where用法相同,都作“无论在(或到)哪里”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:

Wherever/No matter where you go, I’m right here waiting fo ryou.

无论你到哪里,我都依然在这里等着你。

(10) however/no matter how引导的让步状语从句

however和no matter how用法相同,都作“无论如何……”解,后者多用于非正式文体。

However much you regret doing that, there is nothing you can do about it now.

无论你可能多么懊悔你曾经做过的事,现在也无济于事了。

However high it may be,it can’t reach the sky.

它不论有多高,也高不到天上去。

(11) whenever/no matter when引导的让步状语从句

whenever和no matter when用法相同,都作“无论何时”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:

Whenever I’m unhappy,he cheers me up.

每当我不高兴时,他就给我鼓劲儿。

(12)(no matter) whether...or引导的让步状语从句

whether...or和no matter whether...or用法相同,都作“不论……还是”解,后者的语气强一些。如:

When it rains or not, we’re playing football on Sunday.

无论下不下雨,我们星期天一定踢足球。

(13) as引导的让步状语从句

as在引导让步状语从句时作“虽然;尽管”和“即使”解,但是它不位于句首,在它前面的可以是形容词、名词、副词等。如:

Strong as you maybe, you cannot lift it.

虽然你可能很有力气,你却无法把它提起来。

Late as it was, they continued to study.

时间尽管不早了,他们仍继续学习。

4. 方式状语从句

(1) as引导的方式状语从句

as在引导方式状语从句时意为“以……方式;如同……那样”,从句有时是省略句。如:

Do as I say. 要照我说的做。

I did just as you told me. 我正是照你说的办的。

Air is to man as water is to fish. 空气之于人犹如水之于鱼。

(2) as if/as though引导的方式状语从句

as if和as though的用法相同,都作“好像,仿佛”解。如:

二者引导的状语从句往往用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反。as if比as though更为常用。但也可用陈述语气,表示所说的情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。如:

They looked at me as if ‘as though I were mad.

他们瞧着我好像我发疯了似的。

They look as if/as though they know each other.

他们看来好像互相认识。

5. 比较状语从句

(1) as...as 引导的比较状语从句

as...as表示同级比较,主句中用形容词或副词的原级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:

We were as fortunate as them (they were)

我们和他们一样幸运。

I hope she will make as much progress as you (have done).

我希望她将取得和你同样的进步。

(2) not so/as...as 引导的比较状语从句

not so/as...as表示同级比较,主句中用形容词或副词的原级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:

That’s not so/as simple as it sounds.

那件事情不像听起来那么简单。

(3) than引导的比较状语从句

than引导的比较状语从句表示同等比较,主句中用形容词或副词的比较级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:

He has lived here longer than I(has lived).

他在这儿住的时间比我长。

They love the girl than(they love) him.

他们爱这个女孩而不爱他。

(4) the..., the...引导的比较状语从句

The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes.

英语听得越多就越容易。

The harder you work , the greater progress you will make.

工作越努力,取得的进步就越大。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:50:56
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十九:倒装

英语句子的语序通常是主语在前,谓语在后,这种语序称作正常语序或自然语序。但有时出于语法或达到某种修辞目的(强调、承上启下、平衡等)的需要,要把谓语动词放在主语前面,这种语序称作倒装(Inversion)语序。将谓语动词完全移至主语之前,称完全倒装(Full Inversion);如果只是把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前,称为部分倒装。

1. there be结构的倒装

在“there be”(或there + appear to be,come,exist, happen to be, lie, live, occur, remain, seem, seem to be, stand, used to be) 雪结构中,倒装形式为完全倒装。如:

There were many students in the reading room in this evening.

今晚阅览室里有许多学生。

There is a TV set, a stereo system and a number of chairs in the sitting room.

客厅里有一台电视机,一套组合音响和一些椅子。

2. here,there,now,then等引起的倒装

在以here,there,now,then等简短副词引起的句子中(前三个须用一般现在时),动词往往是be,come,go等时, 这类句子大多带有引起注意的含义。如:

Here comes the bus.

公共汽车来了。

Here is the letter you have been looking forward to.

你久盼的信在这儿。

但要注意:如果主语是人称代词,则不用倒装。如:

Here they are. 他们在这儿。

3. 省略if的非真实条件状语从句中的倒装

虚拟结构中的条件从句省去if时,were, had, should须移至主语之前。如:

Had you worked harder at college, you would have got better job.

如果你在大学期间读书用功些,现在就会找到一份更好的工作。

Were he better qualified, he would apply for the position.

要是他的条件再好些,他就申请这个职位。

4. 副词so, neither, nor等引起的倒装

在用so, nor, neither表示“也/不……”这一类结构里其公式是:

肯定: so+be/have/助动词/情态动词+主语

否定: Neither(nor)+be/have/助动词/情态动词+主语。如:

—He has been to Beijing.他去过北京。

—So have I.我也去过。

—They can’t answer the question.他们不会回答这个问题。

—Neither than I.我也不会。

5. what,how引起的倒装

以What, how开头的感叹句(表语或宾语提前)。如:

What beautiful weather (it is)!

多好的天气啊!(表语提前)

What a lovely picture he painted!

他画了一张多好的画啊!(宾语提前)

6. 疑问词或连接词引起的倒装

在疑问词或连接词whether等引起的从句中。如:

Whatever you may say, I won’t go there.

无论你怎样说,我都不会去那儿。(状语从句中宾语提前)

What book he wants is not clear.

他要什么书还不清楚。(主语从句中宾语提前)

7. 否定词位于句首时引起的倒装

(1). never,seldom,hardly,little,few等引起的倒装

否定词never,seldom,rarely,hardly,barely,scarcely,little,few等位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Never shall I forget the days when you were with us.

我很少有时间去看电影。

(2). nowhere,no longer,no more等引起的倒装

nowhere(无处),no longer(不再),no more(也不)等否定词位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式:

No longer was he in charge of this work.

他不再负责这项工作了。

(3). not until,not a,not in the least等引起的倒装

not until(直到……才),not a(一个……也没有),not in the least(一点儿也不),not for a minute/moment(一点儿也不)等位于句首时,通常引起倒装(not a之后的名词作主语时除外),其形式通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Not until all the demands had been turned down did the workers decide to go on strike.

一直到所有的要求遭到拒绝之后,工人们才决定罢工。

Not once did he talk to me.

他一次也没有和我谈过。

(4). under no circumstances,by no means,in no way等引起的倒装

in/under no circumstances(无论如何不),by no means (决不),in no case (无论如何不),in no way (决不),on no account (决不可),on no condition(决不)等短语位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

In no case must force be resorted to.

决不准许诉诸武力。

By no means is it true that all English people know their own language well.

并非所有的英国人都通晓本国语。

8. 关联连词位于句首时引起的倒装

(1). not only...but also引起的倒装

not only...but also位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时形式或一般过去时形式,则为完全倒装形式。如: Not only should we not be afraid of difficulties, but also we should try our best to overcome them.

我们不仅应该不怕困难,而且应该尽最大努力去克服它们。

(2). neither...nor引起的倒装

neither...nor位于句首引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Neither Peter wanted the responsibility,nor did his wife.

彼得不想担此责任,他妻子也不想担此责任。

(3). hardly...when/no sooner...than引起的倒装

hardly/scarcely/barely...when或no

sooner...than位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Hardly had he arrived when/No sooner had he arrived than he was asked to leave again.

他刚到就又被请走了。

(4). so...that引起的倒装

so...that位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

So angry was he (He so angry) that he couldn’t speak.

他如此愤怒,以致说不出话来。

(5). such...that引起的倒装

such...that位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:

Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken.

爆炸的威力如此之大,以致所有的窗户都被震破了。

9. only引起的倒装

当副词only位于句首并修饰状语或宾语时,引起句子的倒装,其形式通常为部分倒装,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装。如:

Only in this way can you solve this problem.

只有用这种方法,你才可以解决这个问题。

Only yesterday did I finish this the book.

到昨天我才读完那本书。

10. 表语位于句首时所引起的倒装

当作表语的形容词、副词、介词短语等位于句首时,常常引起倒装,其形式为完全倒装:

Aristotle says,“Plato is dear to me,but dearer still is truth.”

亚里斯多德说,“吾爱柏拉图,但更爱真理。”

Present at the meeting were Professor Smith,Professor Brown,Sir Hugh and many other celebrities.

到会的有史密斯教授、勃朗教授、休爵士以及许多其他知名人士。

11. 状语位于句首时所引起的倒装

(1). 当位于句首的状语是一些表示地点的介词短语或表示运动方向的副词(如away,back,down,in,off,out,up)时,常常引起倒装,其形式为全部倒装。如:

Away went the runners.

赛跑手们刷地跑开了。

Down came the rain.

雨哗地落下来了。

(2).介词短语作地点状语,放在句首,后面跟的是不及物动词be,come,sit live,stand,lie,exist等时常常引起倒装,其形式为全部倒装。如:

Next to the table is a chair.

桌旁有把椅子。

At the South Pole lies Antarctica, the coldest and most desolate region on earth.

南极洲位于南极,它是地球上最寒冷和最荒凉的地区。

12. 状语从句中的倒装

(1).让步状语从句中的倒装

as引导的让步状语从句中的倒装:

在as引导的让步状语从句中,位于句首的可以是形容词、名词、副词,还可以是谓语动词的一部分,从而形成从句的部分倒装。如:

Tires as he was, he continued the work.

虽然他累了,但是仍然继续工作。

(2).方式状语从句中的倒装

as引导的方式状语从句一般为正常语序,但是,如果主语比谓语长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装。如:

He believed,as did all his family,that the king was the supreme lord.

他和他全家人一样,都认为国王是至高无上的君主。

(3).比较状语从句的倒装

than引导的比较状语从句中的倒装:

由than引导的比较状语从句一般为正常语序。但是,如果主语较长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装:

Western Nebraska generally receives less snow than does eastern Nebraska.

内布拉斯加西部地区的降雪通常比东部地区少。

13. the more...,the more...结构中的倒装

在以the more..., the more...引导的倒装结构中,采用部分倒装;如果主句的主语较长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装。如:

The more books you read(宾语提前),the wider your knowledge is(表语提前).

书读得越多,知识就越渊博。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:51:39
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十:一致关系

1. 概述

所谓一致关系就是在英语句子中各个成分之间必须在人称、性、数等方面保持一定的语法关系。一致关系必须遵循三个原则,即语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

(1). 语法一致

主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。如:

The number of mistakes was surprising.

错误的数量很惊人。

(2). 意义一致

①. 主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词要用复数形式。如:

My family are having supper now.

我们一家人现在正吃晚饭。

②. 主语形式为复数而意义上却是单数,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:

Thirty dollars is too expensive for this dictionary.

这本词典30美元太贵了。

(3). 就近一致

谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如:

Not only the teacher but also his students like playing football.

不仅老师喜欢踢足球,而且学生也喜欢踢足球。

2. 主谓一致(名词与动词的一致)

(1). 单复数同形的名词作主语时谓语动词的形式

单复数同形的名词作主语时,如果表示单数意义,谓语动词用单数形式;如果表示复数意义,谓语动词用复数形式:

This glass works was set up in 1980.

这家玻璃厂建于1990年。

(2). 只有复数形式的名词作主语时谓语动词的形式。

只有复数形式的名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

Where are my spectacles?I can’t find them.

我的眼镜呢?我找不着。

(3). 以-s结尾的不可数名词作主语时谓语动词的形式

以-s结尾的不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

What’s the news?

有什么新闻?

(4). 以-s结尾的专有名词作主语时谓语动词的形式

① 以-s结尾的表示国家、组织等名称的专有名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,如:

the Netherlands荷兰  the United States美国  the United Nations联合国  The Canterbury Tales《坎特伯雷故事集》

② 以-s结尾的表示山脉、群岛等复数意义的专有名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

the Alps阿尔卑斯山 the Philippine lslands菲律宾群岛 the Appalachians阿巴拉契亚山脉 the Himalayas喜马拉雅山脉

The Alps are the greatest mountain range in Europe. They cover an area of about 200,000 sq.km..

阿尔卑斯山脉是欧洲最大的山脉,其面积为20万平方公里。

(5). 集体名词作主语时谓语动词的形式

① 集体名词作主语时,如果表示整体概念,谓语动词用单数形式,如果就其中一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

Nowadays almost every family in the villiahe owns a televison.

如今村上几乎每家都有电视机。

army, association,audience,band,board(董事会),cast(全体演员),choir(唱诗班),chorus, clan (部落;党派),class,city,club, college,commission, committee, company, corporation, council, couple,crew,crowd, department, enemy, faculty, family, federation, firm, gang, generation, government, group,institution,jury(陪审团), majority, mainkind, military, minority, nation, navy, opposition, orchestra, pair, party, personel, population, public, school, staff, team, tribe, union, univerty.

② 有些集体名词如:cattle, folk, militia, people, police, police, youth等,只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。如:

There are many people in the meeting room.

会议室有很多人。

③ 具有单数意义的集体名词作主语时,谓语动词为单数形式。如:

There is a lot of furniture in his living-room.

他的客厅里有很多家具。

(6). 主语为外来的复数名词时谓语动词的形式

某些外来的复数名词已没有复数意义,故谓语动词常用单数。如:

This data is very interesting.

这项数据很有意思。(也可用复数动词are)

(7). 表示时间、距离、金钱等的复数名词作主语时谓语动词的形式

当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

Three years has passed.

三年已经过去了。

(8). 代词作主语时谓语动词的形式

① 不定代词each, every, no等修饰的名词即使以and或逗号连接成多个并列主语,谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:

Every man has his fault.

每个人都有缺点。

No man is born wise.

人非生而知之。

② 如果主语由more than one…或many a …构成,尽管从意义上看是复数,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:

More than one student has seen the film.

不止一个学生看过那部电影。

③ both, (a) few, many, several等限定词修饰主语时,要用复数形式。如:

Both (of) these films are boring.

这两部电影都没意思。

Few (of) the guests are familiar to us.

客人中没有几个是我们熟悉的。

④ such, the same 起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。如:

Such is our plan.

我们的计划就是这样。

⑤ all, most, none, some等代词作主语时,要遵循意义一致的原则,即其谓语动词的单、复数形式要根据它们所代替的词的含义来确定。如: All of my classmates work hard 我们班所有同学学习都很用功。

All of the water is gone.所有的水都用光了。

⑥ 由代词each, every one, no one, either, neither,another,the other作主语,以及由合成代词some(any,no,every)+thing(body, one)雪作主语时,均跟单数谓语动词。如:

Each of the twenty guests was given a present.

给20位客人每人赠送一份礼品。

⑦ 关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中的先行词的数一致。如:

Those who want to go please sign your name here.

想去的人请把名字签在这里。

(9). 表示不定数量的短语作主语时谓语动词的形式

① a (great) number of, many, a few 修饰可数名词,其短语作主语,谓语动词一般用复数;a little, much, agreat deal of, a large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 如:

在美国发现了许多其他种类的植物,如豆类、马铃薯以及各种各样的果类。

A number of other plants were found in America, for example, beans, potatoes, and different fruits.

许多学生到农场帮助农民摘苹果去了。

② (a large) quantities修饰可数复数名词以及不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数。large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数。如:

Large quantities of water are needed for pouring purpose.

冷却需要大量的水。

③ a series of的后面接复数名词,作主语时谓语用单数形式。如:

There has been a whole series of accidents on this stretch of road recently.

最近在这一段路上发生了一连串事故。

④ the number of+可数名词, the amount of + 不可数名词,the quantity of

+可数复数名词或不可数名词构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 如:

As a result, the number of the people who travel by plane in china is larger than ever before.

结果,在中国乘飞机旅游的人数比以前大大增加。

(10). 分数或百分数作主语时谓语动词的形式

“分数或百分数 + of + 名词”构成短语或有“a lot of ,lots of,half of,plenty of ,a (large) quantity of ,the rest of,the remainder of,a heap of,heaps of + 可数或不可数名词”构成短语作主语时,谓语形式是用单数还是复数取决于它们表示的意义。试比较:

Half of the students have read the bovel.一半学生读过这本小说。

Half of the food is unfit to eat.一半的食物不能吃了。

(11). 数词、量词作主语时与谓语动词的形式

① 基数词单纯表示数字作主语时,其谓语通常用单数形式,但当基数词表示的不是数值而是数量时,谓语动词可用复数形式。如:

Ten billion is a large number.

100亿是个大数字。

② 用作运算的数词作主语时,其谓语常用单数形式。如:

Three plus(and) five is (makes, equals, gives) eight.

三加五等于八。

(12). 名词化形容词作主语时谓语动词的形式

名词化的形容词作主语,“the+形容词(或过去分词)”结构充当主语时,如表示一类可数的人或事物时,用复数谓语;如表示一类不可数的事物或少数过去分词与定冠词连用时指个别,则用单数。这类词往往有:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the dead, the deaf and dumb, the sgreeable, the oppressed, the injured, the wounded, the unemployed等。如:

The rich are for the plan, but the poor are against it.

富人赞成这项计划,但穷人反对这项计划。

(13). 非限定动词短语作主语时谓语动词的形式

动名词短语、动词不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 如:

Nodding the head means agreement, while shaking it means disagreement

点头意味着同意,摇头意味着不同意。

(14). 名词性从句作主语时谓语动词的形式

从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;由what引导的主语从句,如果从句谓语或从句后的表语是复数形式时,则要求用复数形式的谓语。如:

Whether he will come or not is uncertain.

他来不来还不一定。

(15). 用连接词连接的名词或代词作主语时谓语动词的形式

① 由连接词连接的名词或代词作主语。

用and或both…and连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。如:

Lucy and Lily are twins

露茜和莉莉是孪生姐妹。

Chapter three and the last chapter are written by Professor Liu.

第三章和最后一章是由刘教授写的。

② 当名词或代词后跟有with, as well as, as much as, no less than, along with, like, rather than, together with, but,except, besides, including, in additionto, combined with等连接作主语时,谓语动词一般和前一名词或代词的人称和数一致。 如:

John, rather than his roommates, is to blame.

约翰,而不是他的室友,应该受到责备。

(16). or,either...or,neither...nor,not only...but also等连接的并列主语的谓语动词形式

以or, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but

also等连接的并列主语的谓语动词形式,通常依据就近原则,即人称和数的形式与最靠近它的名词或代词保持一致。如:

You or he is in the wrong.

不是你错了,就是他错了。

(17). there+be句型中并列主语的谓语动词形式

在“there+be”句型中,there+be之后的名词是句子的主语。主语是单数则谓语动词为is/was,主语是复数则动词为are/were。如果句子的主语是两个以上的名词,又有单数和复数的区别,则采取就近一致原则。即邻近动词的名词是单数则动词用is/was,邻近动词的名词是复数则动词用are/were。如:

There is a laser printer and a cordless telephone on the desk.

桌子上有一台激光打印机和一部无绳电话。

3. 主语与状语逻辑主语的一致

表示时间、条件以及伴随情况等状语的逻辑主语必须和句子的主语保持一致,否则意义就会含混不清。如:

误: Having been delayed by heavy traffic, it was important for her to arrive on time.

正: Having been delayed by heavy traffic, she found it important for her to arrive on time.

由于交通堵塞的耽搁,她觉得不可能按时到达了。

误: After finishing his speech, the audience was invited to ask question.

正: After finishing his speech, he invited the audience to ask question.

他发完言后,邀请听众提问题。

4. 同等成分的一致

(1).句子中的同等成分应该在结构上保持一致,否则会使句子失去平衡和协调。

Sleep, rest and relaxed are the best remedies for many headaches.

睡眠、休息和娱乐是治疗多种头痛的最好方法。(应改为:relaxation)

The oxygen in the air we breathe has no tasted, smell, or color.

我们所呼吸的空气中的氧是无味、无嗅和无色的。(应改为:taste)

误: Collecting stamps, playing chess and to catch butterflies are Mary’s hobbies.

正: Collecting stamps, playing chess and catching butterflies are Mary’s hobbies.

集邮、下棋和捉蝴蝶是玛丽的爱好。

(2).在比较结构中,被比较的事物应是同等成分。在比较从句中常用that代替前面单数名词,用those代替复数名词。

误: The workers in that factories are fewer than our factory.

正: The workers in that factories are fewer than those our factory.

那个工厂的工人比我们厂的工人少。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:56:53
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十一:省略

省略(Elliptical Sentences)是将句子中一个或多个成分省去,避免重复,使语言简练紧凑的一种语法手段,在英语中,凡是能省去的词语通常都应省去,省略后的结果不仅能使句子更加精炼,而且还可起到连接上下文使相邻词语受到强调的作用。

1. 简单句中的省略

(1). 省略主语

通常多用在祈使句或口语中的固定表述中

Thank you for your help. 谢谢你的帮助。

Have a good time. 愿你过得愉快。

Hurry up!  快一点!

Haven’t seen you for ages. 好久不见了。

(2).省略谓语或谓语的一部分

(Does) Anybody need help?  谁要帮忙吗?

(Is there)Anything you want? 你要什么东西吗?

Who (comes) next?  该谁了?

(3).省略主语和谓语的一部分

(Do you) Understand?  (你)明白吗?

(Come) This way, please.  请这边走。

(I am) Afraid I can?t come. 恐怕不能来了。

(4).同时省略多种句子成分

Diana likes reading better than going to parties.(than后省掉了she likes)

黛安娜爱读书而不爱去参加聚会。

You are a college student, aren’t you? (=aren’t you a college student?)

你是一名大学生,不是吗?

Has she gone or not?(= Has she gone or has she not gone?)

她走了没有?

2. 并列句中的省略

(1).当并列的主语相同时,后面的主语被省略

The car was quite old but (it) was in excellent condition.

这部车相当旧了,但机器性能还非常好。

They shook hands and (they) began to talk at once.

他们握了手后立刻开始谈话。

(2).当并列的谓语动词相同时,动词(包括助动词、不定式等)可省略

Reding makes a full man;conference (makes) a ready man;writing an exact man.

读书使人充实;讨论使人机智;写作使人准确。

Some of us study French,others (study) German.

我们中有的学法语,有的学德语。

(3).省略动词宾语和介词宾语

Let’s do the dishes.I’ll wash (the dishes) and you dry (the dishes).

我们洗碗吧,我来洗碗,你来把碗弄干。

(4).省略定语

A group of young boys and (young) girls are dancing on the meadow below the hill.

一群少男少女在山下的草地上跳舞。

(5).省略状语

He was not hurt. (How) Strange!

他没有受伤。真奇怪!

(6).省略多种句子成分

We tried to help her but (we tried) in vain.

我们想法子帮他,但没用。

Kate is easy in conversation and (she is) graceful in manner.

凯特谈吐从容,举止优雅。

3. 名词性从句中的省略

(1). 在wh-从句中的省略。

He came to see me once, but I don’t remember when (he came to see me).

他曾经来看过我,但我忘了是什么时候了。

Somebody has taken away my dictionary by mistake, but I don’t know who (has taken my dictionary).

有人错拿了我的词典,但我不知道是谁。

You were late again,and I hope you will explain why (you were late again).

你又迟到了,我希望你能解释一下为什么。

(2). 引导宾语、主语、表语从句的连词that通常可以省略。

It is a pity (that) he can’t come.

遗憾的是他不能来。

4. 定语从句中的省略

(1). 关系代词的省略

① who(m),which或that在从句中作动词宾语时可以省略。如:

The computer(which) I wanted to buy was sold out.

我想买的那种电脑卖完了。

The actress (whom/who/that) he admired so much died last week.

他崇拜不已的那位女演员上个星期去世了。

② who(m),which或that在从句中作位于句末的介词宾语时可以省略。如:

This is the person (whom/that/who) you are looking for.

这就是你要找的那个人。

③ 在以there is, it is,this is, who is开头的句子里,作主语用的关系代词被省略。如:

This is the fastest train (that) is to Beijing.

这是到北京最快的一趟列车。

(2). that在定语从句中作表语时可以省略。

He is no longer the man (that) he used to be.

他不再是过去的那个人了。

My hometown is not a polluted place (that) you think it to be.

我的家乡不是像你认为的那样,是一个污染严重的地方。

(3). the same...as引导的定语从句中的部分内容通常可以省略

I have the same trouble as you (have).

我和你有同样困难。

5. 状语从句中的省略

(1). 在时间状语从句中,如果从句中的主语和主句的主语相同,而且从句中的动词为be,则把从句中的主语和be一并省略。

Look out for cars when (you are) crossing the street.

穿越街道时注意车辆。

(2). 在地点状语从句中,如果从句中的主语和主句的主语相同,而且从句中的动词为be时,则把从句中的主语和be一并省略。

Fill in the blanks with the given phrases.Change the form where (it is) necessary.

用所给的短语填空,必要的地方可以改变其形式。

Avoid structure of this kind where (it is) possible.

只要可能就要避免这种结构。

(3).在条件状语从句中,如果从句中含有“It+be+形容词”结构,将it和be省略。如果从句中的动词为“助动词+-ed分词”则将主语和助动词一并省略。

If (it is) necessary I’ll have the paper copied.

如果必要我可以请人把这篇文章复印一下。

(4). 在让步状语从句中,当从句中的主语和主句中的主语相同,而且从句的动词为be,则将从句中的主语和be一并省略。

Though (they are) reduced in numbers,they are still strong.

虽然人数减少了,但他们仍很强大。

(5). 在方式状语从句中,省略主语和be的某种形式,只保留形容词、介词短语、不定式、现在分词、过去分词等。

Lucy hurriedly left the room as if (she was) angry.

露西急匆匆地走出房去,好像很生气的样子。

(6). 在比较状语从句中的省略。

省略作主语的what。如:

They have got more than (what) is necessary.

他们得到的太多了。

省略谓语动词。如:

He has lived here longer than I (has lived).

他在这儿住的时间比我长。

省略主语和谓语或谓语的一部分。如:

It was not so hot yesterday as (it is) today.

昨天没有今天热。

6. 各类词语的省略

(1). 名词(短语)的省略

One hour today is worth two (hours) tomorrow. 今天的一小时胜过明天的两小时。

She likes classical (music) and country music. 她喜欢古典音乐和乡村音乐。

(2). 限定词或代词的省略

(A)Friend of mine gave it to me. 我的一位朋友给我的。

(The)Trouble is we can’t afford it.  问题是我们买不起。

My teachers and (my) fellow students have never heard about it.

我的老师和同学都未听到过这件事。

(3). 介词的省略

(Of)Course that’s only a beginning. 当然这只是一个开头。

Why don’t you catch up on it (on) Sunday? 为什么不想办法星期天把它做完。

(4). 不定式的(短语)的省略

He didn’t come,though we had invited him to (come).

我们曾邀请过他,但他没来。

Her work is to look after the child and (to) cook.她的任务是看孩子做饭。

(5). 分词的省略

The meeting (being) over, we all left the room. 会议结束以后,我们都离开了房间。

Our work (having been) finished, we went home. 工作完成之后,我们就回家了。

(6). 存在句中there的省略

(There) Must be something wrong with the car. 汽车一定出了什么毛病。

(There)Appears to be an accident over there. 那边好像出了事故。

7. 省略的一些特殊用途

(1). 用于成语、谚语及一些固定的说法

What if it rains when we can’t get under shelter?

假如下起雨来,我们又没处避雨可怎么办?

How about going to France for our holidays? 咱们到法国去度假好吗?

More haste, less speed.欲速则不达。

An idle youth, a needly age.少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。

First come, first served.先来先卖。/先到的先招待。

Better late than never.迟做总比不做好。

No pains, no gains.不劳则无获。

(2).用于口语中常见的省略句型

Thanks! (=I thank you very much!) 多谢你!

Not at all! (= You needn’t thank me at all) 不客气。

Sorry. (=I’m sorry.)  对不起。

Never mind.(=You never mind.) 没关系。

Enough! (=That’s enough.) 够了!

See you later.(=I shall see you later.) 再见!

(3). 用于电报、广告、公共揭示用语、笔记、摘要、日记、报纸标题以及一些固定的表格

Congratulations on Your Great Success in Exam for Ph.D.Degree!

祝贺你参加博士学位考试成绩优异! )电报)

Passed TOEFL Exam Marks 636. 通过托福考试成绩636分。(电报)

Wanted: a typist.招聘: 打字员一名。(广告)

Keep off the Grass(Lawn)!勿踏草地!(揭示)

No Unauthorized Photography!未经准许,不准拍照!(揭示)
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:58:59
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十二:IT用法

it的用法很重要也很复杂。it除作人称代词外,还可用作先行代词,引导后面的短语或从句。此外, it还用于强调句中。

1. it的用法

(1). it用作人称代词

① it用作人称代词,通常指人以外的生物和事物,无阴阳之分。如:

There is a car near the building. It is my neighbour’s.

楼旁有辆小汽车,它是我邻居的。

Mr Zhang wrote a novel. It is about the miserable life of a young woman.

张先生写了一部小说,它是关于一个年轻妇女悲惨生活的。

② it有时可用来代替小孩 (child) 和婴儿 (baby) 。 如:

The child smiled when it saw its mother.

小孩看到母亲就笑了。

(2).it可用作指示代词相当于this和that

It is a very good translation.

这是一篇很好的译文。

(3).代表前面已提到的或将要发生的某件事情

I had a talk with our boss. It was very helpful.

我同我的上司谈了一次话,这次谈话很有帮助。(it代表前句的内容)

They were asked to complete the task in two weeks. It is not an easy job.

要求他们两周内完成任务,这可不是件容易的事。(it代表前句的内容)

(4).指时间、距离和自然现象等,此时it在句中作主语

What time is it now? It’s half past eight.

几点了? 八点半。(指时间)

Is it very far to the station? 到火车站很远吗?(指距离)

(5).It用作先行代词

① it作形式主语

代替不定式短语。如:

It is necessary for us to learn something about the use of “it”.

对我们来说了解一些“it”的用法是必要的。

代替动名词短语。如:

It’s no use crying over spilt milk.

牛奶泼出了,哭也没有用。(覆水难收/事已如此,后悔无用)

代替that引导的主语从句。如:

It appears that Geoffrey might change his mind.

杰弗里可能改变主意。

② it作形式宾语

代替不定式(短语)。如:

I found it very interesting to study English.

我觉得学习英语很有趣。

代替动名词(短语)。如:

I think it no use telling them.

我认为告诉他们没用。

代替that引导的宾语从句。如:

They want to make it clear to the public that they are doing an important and necessary job.

他们要向公众表明,他们在做一件必须做的重要工作。

2. it用以引导强调句

(1). it强调句的几种强调情况

要强调句子的某一部分(通常是主语、宾语、状语)时,通常用 “It is(was)+被强调部分+that(who)+句子的其余部分”这种句子结构。强调部分指人时用who或that,指其他成分时用that。假如原来的句子为:

David bought a walkman from a store yesterday.

大卫昨天在商店买了一台随身听。

下面四个强调结构分别强调句中的主语、宾语和两个状语。

It was David who/that bought a walkman from a store yesterday. (强调主语 David)

It was a walkman that David bought from a store yesterday. (强调宾语walkman)

It was from a store that David bought a walkman yesterday. (强调地点状语 from a store)

It was yesterday that David bought a walkman from a store. (强调时间状语 yesterday)

(2). It 强调句式的判断方法

It 强调句式中被强调的成分是句中的某个成分。对句中的某个成分进行强调,就是把该成分提到强调句式的It is/was之后,that/who之前。可以看出,强调位置上的成分正好是that/who 后面句子中所缺少的成分。因此,把一个句子中的It is/was…that/who…这一框架去掉以后,剩余的仍是一个完整的句子(若是强调宾语,需适当调整一下语序),我们就可以判断该句为强调句式。如:It was a factory that we visited last Sunday. 若去掉It was…that…这一框架,剩余部分稍作语序上的调整可成为We visited a factory last Sunday. 这是一个完整的句子,所以原句是强调句式。

再如:It is a fact that we visited a factory last week.若去掉It is…that…框架,剩余的部分不是完整的句子,所以原句不是强调句式,是一个含有主语从句的主从复合句。

(3). It 强调句式的判断误区

① 把具有实际意义的指示代词it后接be…that (that 引导定语从句)...的情形误认为是强调句式。如:

—What’s on your desk?

—Oh, it’s the very dictionary that you’ve been looking for.

此句对话的意思是:“你书桌上放着什么?”“正是你一直在找的那本词典”。其中it指代前句中的what,that引导定语从句修饰dictionary,全句是一个含有定语从句的主从复合句,不是强调句式。

② 把充当形式主语的it后接be…that(that 引起主语从句)...的情形误认为是强调句式。如:

It is a pity that Jack should have missed the wonderful film.
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:59:41
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十三:强调结构

在句子当中,有时为了突出句子的某些成分以加强语气、增强感情色彩或加强对比,需要改变句子结构,这种结构叫做强调结构(Emphatic Structure)。强调结构通常采用四种方式进行强调。

1. Do (does/did) + 动词原形表强调

这种结构用来强调谓语动词,往往只用于“一般现在时 / 过去时”的肯定陈述句或肯定结构的祈使句。如:

He does know the place well.

他的确很熟悉这个地方。

The children do hope to go to college.

孩子们真的很想上大学。

She did come yesterday.

昨天她确实来过。

Do come and visit us!

你一定来看我们!

Do shut up!

你闭上嘴巴!

Do be careful!

务必小心。

2. 用what引导的名词从句来强调主语和宾语

What hurt me most was her indifference.

最让我伤心的是她漠不关心的态度。(比较:Her indifference hurt me most.)

What they value most is freedom and independence.

他们最珍惜的是自由和独立。(比较:They value freedom and independence most.)

What I need is some rest.

我需要的是休息。(比较:I need some rest.)

What they lack is experience.

他们缺少的是经验。(比较:They lack experience.)

3. 改变语序,将所强调的状语置于句首

(1) 为了加强语气或为了上下文的衔接通顺。如:

On his desk I found a book about love story.

在他的桌子上我发现了一本关于爱情故事的书。

Suddenly the rain stopped.

突然间雨停了。

Under her arm she was carrying a great album.

她的腋下挟着一本很大的相册。

(2) 在谓语动词为come, sit, lie,

stand和walk等不及物动词时,为了强调状语,通常将强调的状语放在句首,其语序是动词在前,主语在后,不借用助动词do。如:

In a corner of the room sat a little girl.

房间的角落里坐着一个小女孩。

Down the street marched the band.

乐队沿着街道走远了。

Here comes the devil.

说曹操,曹操到。

(3) 以否定副词如never,not only,hardly,no sooner,seldom,at no time,on no account,in no way等开头的句子表示强调。注意此时句子为倒装要借用助动词do/does/did或have/has/ had来构成。如:

Not only did we lose our money, but we were also in danger of losing our lives.

我们不仅丢了钱,还险些丢了命。

Hardly had I entered the room when the telephone started to ring.

我刚刚进屋电话铃就响起来了。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 14:00:23
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十四:标点符号的用法

1. 概述

标点符号是书面语中一系列表停顿、节奏和语调等的符号,用以表示句子或句子成分的隔离或特指。如:

China is in Asia. It is a vast and beautiful land. 中国地处亚洲。它幅员辽阔而美丽。

(句号在两句之间起隔离作用)

How calm the sea is! 大海多么平静啊!(感叹号特指惊讶或赞赏)

英语常用标点符号与汉语的标点符号比较: 英语标点符号 汉语标点符号

符号 名称 符号 名称

. period (full stop) 。 句号

, comma , 逗号

: colon : 冒号

; Semicolon ; 分号

? question mark ? 问号

! Exclamation mark ! 感叹号

— Dask — 破折号

“ ” ‘ ’ Quotation marks “ ” ‘ ’﹃﹄ 引号

- Hayphen 无 连字线

’ apostrophe 无 省字符

注: 英语标点符号除上述十种外,还有删节号(通常为...)、括号( ( )、[ ]、〈 〉、{ }等)、斜线(/或\)、星号(*)、代字号(~)、脱字号(∧)、小记号(√)、斜十字(×)、斜体字以及字下划线等。

2. Full stop(美式英语称period)句号(.)

(1). 句号用在一句子的末尾,表示一句话说完后的停顿。句号不但用于陈述句,亦可用于祈使句和疑问句。如:

I really don’t know. 我确实不知道。(陈述句) Take it or leave it. 要就要,不要就算。(祈使句)

Will you weigh it,please. 请你称一称它。(不需要对方回答的疑问句)

(2). 用于缩略语、编号的数字和字母后。如:

kg.公斤  a.m.上午  No.第……  n. 名词  Mr先生  1.A. (表示第一条,A项)

3. Full stop(美式英语称period)句号(.)

(1). 在句子里面用于并列的词语之间。如:

Id you keep calm, tak eyour time, concentrate and think ahead, you’ll pass your drinving test.

假如你保持镇定、不慌不忙、集中精力注意前方,驾驶考试就能及格。

(2). 常用于主句与状语从句或较长的词组之间。如:

When a policyholder has a loss, he or she asks for payment from the insurance company. 当投保人遭受损失后,他们要求保险公司支付损失。

(3).用于在句首非限定的或无动词的短语之后。如:

Discoved in 1789 and isolated from other elements in 1841, uranium is valued as a source of atomic enegy.

铀于1789年被发现,1841年被从其他元素中分离出来,它被珍视为原子能的一个来源。

(4). 用以将引导性词语或转折性词语(如there fore, however, by the way, for instance, on the contrary)与句子的其余部分隔开。

如:In the United States, for example, nodding your hand up and down means“yes”. In the same parts of Green and Turkey, hower, this motion can mean”no’。

比如在美国,点头表示“是”或“可以”,而在希腊和土耳其的某些地区,这一动作却表示“不行”。

(5).用于插入句中的从句等成分的前后。如:

Every individual cell, whether it exists as an independent microorganism or is part of a complex creature, has its own life circle.

每个单独的细胞,不论它是作为一个独立的微生物而存在,还是作为一个复杂生物的一部分而存在,都有自己的生命周期。

(6). 用于非限定性定语从句或同位短语前后,进一步说明前面的名词或句子。如:

The painter lived more than a decade in Europe, where he could be in close contact with other cubists.

(7).有时用以分隔并列复合句(尤指较长的),用于连词(如and ,as,but,for,or)之前。如:

The fragrances of many natural substances comes from oils, and this oils may be used in manufacturing perfumes.

许多自然物质的香味来自油类,因此,这样的油可以用来生产香水。

(8). 用以将附加疑问句或类似词语与句中其余部分隔开。如:

He is an excellent scholar, isn’t he? 他是位优秀的学者,是吗?

(9). 在直接引语中作者提示“某某说”之类的词语(如he said, she told, etc.)用逗号与引用语分开。如:

“This house is very big an dbeautiful”said Fritz.“这所房子又大又漂亮,”弗里茨说。

(10). 引语里面的引语用逗号隔开。如:

“When the Judge said,‘Not guilty’, I could have hugged him.”

“当法官宣布,‘无罪’,我当时真想去拥抱他。”

(11). 用于表示日期。如:May 1, 2003 2003年五月一日

4. Colon 冒号(:)

(1). 用以表示一些或一类事物的用语之后或用于说明性的词语(如as follows,in the following manner)之后,用来提起下文各项。如:

I can’t go on my vacation this summer.The main reasons are as follows: firstly, I have no money;second, Ihave no time.

今年夏天我不能去度假。主要原因如下:首先是没钱,其次是没时间。

Open-pit mining follows the same sequence of oprations as underground mining: drilling, blasting, and loading and removing waste and ore.

露天采矿遵循与地下采矿相同的作业顺序:钻孔、爆破、装载并运走废料和矿石。

(2).(郑重文体)用于说明或解释主句的从句或词组之前。如:

The garden had been neglected for a long time.

那个花园长期无人照料,里面长满了杂草。

(3).用以表示时间。如:6:30p.m.下午六点三十分

5. Semicolon 分号(;)

(1).用以代替逗号,隔开句中已含逗号的部分。如:

She wanted to be successful, whatever it might cost; to achieve her goal, whoever might sufferas a result.

她决意求成,不惜一切代价;为达到目的,不管谁遭殃。

(2).(郑重用法)用以隔开并列从句,尤用于无连词的句中。如:

He couldn’t have gone home this weekend’ I saw him at the ball game on Saturday and in the ibrary on Sunday.

他这个周末不可能回家;我在周六的球赛中看到了他,而且周日在图书馆也看见了他。

The perfectionist is exacting for the sake of exacting; his approach has little to do with the requirements of a situation.

十全十美主义者为苛求而苛求;其方法几乎与形势的需要毫无相干。

6. Question mark 问号( ?)

(1). 用于直接问句末尾。如:

where do you live? 你住在什么地方?

May I have a look at your photo? 我可以看你的照片吗?

(2).用于括号内表示存疑。如:

Louis(1287?-1347)路易四世 (1287?-1347)

7.Exclamation mark(美式英语亦称作 Exclamation point)感叹(!)

(1). 用于表示大怒、惊讶、欣喜或其他强烈感情,置于句子或话语的末尾。如:

What a fine day!选多好的天气啊!

(2).在不规范的用法中,有时用不止一个感叹号或一个感号加一个问号。如:

“Your wife’s just given birth to triplets.”“Triplets!?”

“你妻子刚生了三胞胎。”“三胞胎!?”

8.Dash 破折号(—)

(1).(通俗用法)用以代替冒号或分号,表示对前面的话的解释、总结或结论。如:

He is modest, considerate, warm-hearted—he is a good man.

他谦逊、体谅别人、热心肠——是一个不错的人。

(2).(通俗用法)单个使用或成对使用,以隔开插入句中的附加信息、补充说明或评语。如:

The materials used—copper, stainless steel, concrete and glass—give the building a striking beauty.

这些建筑物所使用的材料——铜、不锈钢、混凝土和玻璃——使这些建筑物更具非凡的魅力。

9.Quotation marks (英式英语亦称作 Inverted commas)引号(‘ ’ “ ”)

在英式英语中,引号通常用单引号:‘Help!’。在美式英语中通常用双引号:“Help!”。

(1). 用以表明直接引语中的所有词语和标点符号。如:

“What kind of computer did you buy?” she asked.“你买了一种什么样的计算机?”她问道。

(2).用以引起对文中某特殊词语的注意(如术语或俚语或为某种效果而使用的词语)。如:

The“Little Ice Age”was a period of unsettled weather that lasted from the mid-sixteenth to the early eighteenth century.

“小冰川期”是从16世纪中叶到18世纪早期气候变化无常的一个时期。

(3).用以表明文章、短诗歌、广播及电视节目等的名称。如:

I was watching “Soccer Night”.我正在看“足球之夜”。

(4).用以表明短小的引语或谚语。如:

Do you know the origion of the saying “the love of money is the root of all evil”

你是否知道“爱财是万恶之源”这句谚语的出处。

10. Hyphen 连接号(-)

(1).用于复合名词:

有时用以将两个词组成复合词。如:

well-informed 有见识的;消息灵通的  good-looking好看的  first-rate第一流的

用以将前缀和专有名词组成复合词。如:

pro-America亲美  anti-Semitism反犹太主义

用以将两个词及夹在中间的介词组成复合词。如:

editor-in-chief总编辑  father-in-law岳父 comrade-in-arms战友

(2).(尤用于英式英语)有时以隔开某些带前缀的词,这些前缀的尾字母与后面连接词的首字母为同一元音。如:

co-operation共同合作  re-elect重选  pre-eminent卓越的,优秀的

(3).用于在一行位置的词的前半部之后。如:

They man who makes no mistakes does not usually make any-thing.

不犯错误的人往往也就是无所作为的人。

(4).用于两个数字或日期之间,意为包括其中的所有数字或日期。如:

pp.208-345第208-345页 Queen Elizabeth I(1558-1603)伊丽莎白女王一世(1558-1603)

11. Apostrophe 撇号,省略号,名词所有格符号(’)

(1). 与s连用表示所有格。如:

the cat’s tail 猫的尾巴(单数名词) the princess’s smile 公主的微笑(以s结尾的单数名词)

Dickens’novels OR Dickens’novel 狄更斯的小说 (以s结尾的专有名词)

all the students’books 所有学生的书(以s结尾的复数名词)

the women’s cosmatics女人的化妆品(不规则的复数名词)

(2). 用于缩写式,表示省略了字母或数字。如:

I’m (=I am) today’d (=they had/would)  the spring of‘98 (=1998)

(3). 有时与s连用构成字母、数字或缩略语的复数形式。在现代用法中,在一数字或大写字母后,此号常被省去。如:

during the 1990’s(during the 1990s)在二十世纪九十年代
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 14:00:53
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十五:公共场所常见提示用语

公共场所常见提示用语 Useful Phrases in Public Places

Keep Silence肃静 Smoking Prohibied严禁吸烟

Spitting Forbidden严禁吐痰 No Admittance不许入内

Closed 此门不通 Knock 请先敲门

Push 请向前推 Push请向后拉

Queue up for Bus 排队上车 Admittance free免费入场

Admission by Ticket Only 凭票入场 Seat by number对号入座

Closed during Repairs 儿童谢绝入场 Inspections Declined 谢绝参观

Closed during Repairs修理店面,暂停营业 Times’s Over下班时间

Road up, Detour 马路翻修,车辆绕行 No Overtaking禁止超车

Danger Ahead 前面危险 Slow(or Drive Slow)车辆慢行

Commit No Nuisance禁止小便 Keep Off the Grass勿踏草地

Cameras Forbidden严禁拍照 Shooting Prohibited 严禁打猎
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