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薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之五:动词时态

发布者: 梦儿 | 发布时间: 2010-8-20 13:32| 查看数: 7589| 评论数: 9|

第一章、动词的时态



时间


一般时态


进行时态


完成时态


完成进行时态


现在
work

works

一般现在时
am

is working

are

现在进行时
has

have worked

现在完成时
has

have been working

现在完成进行时


过去
worked

一般过去时
was

were working

过去进行时
had worked

过去完成时
had been working

过去完成进行时


将来
shall

will work

一般将来时
shall

will be working

将来进行时
shall

will have worked

将来完成时
shall

will have been working

将来完成进行时


过去将来
should

would work

一般过去将来时
should

would be working

过去将来进行时
should

would have worked

过去将来完成时
should

would have been working

过去将来完成进行时


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动词的现在时

1. 一般现在时

(1) 一般现在时表示经常性的动作或状态

  一般现在时表示经常性动作或状态时,常与often, always, usually, sometimes, every day等时间状语连用。如:

The shop opens at nine every day. 这家商店每天九点开门。

It seldom snows here. 这儿很少下雪。

(2) 一般现在时表示客观存在或普遍真理

Light travels faster than sound. 光速比声速快。

Food easily goes bad in hot weather. 天气热时食物容易坏。

(3) 一般现在时表示主语的特征或状态

The picture looks very beautiful. 这幅画看起来很美。

Air contains oxygen and nitrogen. 空气含有氧和氮。

(4) 一般现在时在时间和条件状语从句中表示将来的动作或状态

I'll tell her about it as soon as I see her.

When does the train arrive? 火车几点到?

(5) 用于图片说明或剧本中的动作提示和背景说明

INSIDE THE SHELTER: Stockton slowly turns to face his wife. The angry screaming cries of the people ring in their ears even as they depart.

防空洞中:斯道克顿慢慢转过身,面对他的妻子。那群人正在离去,而他们愤怒的尖叫声却还回响在他们的耳边。

(6) 电视节目直播解说

It's Carter to serve- he needs just one more point. He serves. And Smith misses. What a great serve!So the championshipgoes to 19-year-old Harry Carter.

该卡特发球了,他只需再得一分就赢了。他发球了,史密斯接球失误。多漂亮的发球!冠军属于了19岁的哈利-卡特。

2. 现在进行时

(1) 现在进行时表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作

表示现阶段正在进行的动作,通常有表示现阶段的时间状语,如:today, this week, this month, this year, this term,now等。如:

He is writing a novel now. 他目前正在写一部小说。

(2) 现在进行时表示经常性的动作

现在进行时在表示经常性、重复性或习惯性的动作时必须与only, merely, simply, really,fast, rapidly, steadily, forever, all the time, always, constantly, continually, repeatedly等频度副词连用。如:

She is always complaining. 她总是在抱怨。

(3) 现在进行时表示按计划或已安排好要做的事

这一用法只适用于某些动词,如:go, come, leave, start, arrive, return, spend, sail, meet, fly等。如:

The guest is leaving by train tonight. 客人今晚坐火车走。

(4) 补充说明

[1] 在不少情况下,表示正在进行的动作的汉语句子,并没有“正在”这样的字眼,但在译为英语时必须用进行时态。如:

It's raining heavily. 下大雨了。

How is everything going? 事情进展如何?

[2] 有些动词通常不能用进行时。不能用进行时的动词有:

表示感觉或感情的词,如:hear, see, smell, taste, feel, seem, notice, hate, love, like, want, wish, refuse, prefer, forgive等。

表示存在或所属的词,如:exist, stay, remain, obtain, have, own, form, contain等。

表示认识或理解的词,如:understand, know, remember, forget, believe, think, doubt等。

3. 现在完成时

(1) 现在完成时表示从过去持续到现在的动作或状态

现在完成时的这种用法通常与由since或for引导的时间状语连用。如:

The old man have lived here for more than twenty years.

老人已在此住了20多年了。

(2) 现在完成时表示过去发生的对现在有影响的动作

[1] 现在完成时的这种用法有时不带时间状语,有时可以和already, before, ever, just, lately, never, once, recently, yet等一些所指时间不具体的时间状语连用。如:

Have you ever been to Australia? 你去过澳大利亚吗?

[2] 有时现在完成时和now, today, this morning, this week, this year等表示现在的时间状语连用。如:

I haven' t seen him today. 我今天没见过他。

I have seen him only once this year. 我今年只见过他一次。

(3) 现在完成时在时间和条件状语从句中表示将来完成的动作

I'll go to the party as soon as (or when) I have finished my homework.

我完成作业后就去参加聚会。

(4) 现在完成时和until now, so far, in the past few years, up to the present等表示从某时到目前这段时间的状语连用 I have not heard from her so far. 到目前为止,我没有收到过她的信。

We have learned five hundred words up to the present.

到目前为止,我们已学了五百个生词。

但要注意:当意义明确时,适用现在完成时的句子可以不用时间状语。如:

He has done a lot of work. 他干了许多工作。

She has told me about her story. 她跟我讲过她的故事。

4. 现在完成进行时

(1) 现在完成进行时表示从过去一直持续到现在的动作或刚刚结束的动作

I've been writing letters all this morning.

我写了一上午信。(动作不再继续)

O'Neil is ill. He' s been lying in the bed for three weeks.

奥尼尔在病中,已卧床3个星期了。(动作会继续下去)

(2) 现在完成进行时表示从过去到现在的重复性动作

  现在完成进行时的这种用法所表示的并不是一直在进行的动作,而是断断续续地反复发生的动作。如:

What have you been doing all this time?

你一直都在干什么来着?(动作可能继续下去)

That reporter has been contributing articles to this magazine all these years.

这些年那个记者一直为这家杂志撰稿。(断断续续地反复发生的动作)

第二章、动词的过去时

1. 一般过去时

(1) 一般过去时表示过去的动作或状态

[1] 一般过去时通常与表示过去的时间状语连用。

  与一般过去时连用的时间状语有:yesterday, last night(week, year, month, Sunday),then, at that time, at that moment, just now, a few days(weeks, months, years) ago等。例句:

Lucy turned off all the lights before she went out.

出门前露茜关了所有的灯。

[2] 一般过去时也可以与today, this week(month, year)等时间状语连用,但这些时间状语应指过去。如:

Did you see him today? 你今天见他了吗?(today指今天已过去的某一时刻)

[3] 一般过去时还可以和for或since引导的时间状语连用。如:

I stayed there for two months. 我在那里呆了两个月。

Nothing happened since then. 打那以后什么事都没有发生。

(2) 有时一般过去时的时间状语或是在上下文、或是暗含于句中

Who was that? 那人是谁?

I saw Ker in town. 我在城里看见了克尔。

(3) 一般过去时在时间和条件状语从句中表示过去将来的动作或状态。

Hans said he would let us know if he got any news.

汉斯说要是得到消息就告诉我们。

2. 过去进行时

(1) 过去进行时表示过去某时正在进行的动作

[1] 过去进行时通常和时间状语连用。如:

We were having dinner when they came.

他们来的时候,我们正在吃饭。

[2] 过去进行时表示过去某段时间内持续的动作。如:

Carlos was staying at home all last week.

上周整整一周卡洛斯都在家呆着。

They were building a dam last spring. 去年春天他们一直在修一个水坝。

[3] 过去进行时表示与过去某个动作同时发生的动作。如:

I was reading while she was writing. 我在读书,她在写字。

[4] 有时过去进行时用于主句,位于其后的when引导的从句表示意外发生的情况:

I was walking in the street when it began to rain.

我正在街上走着,突然下起了雨。

(2) 过去进行时表示过去将来的动作

  过去进行时的这种用法多表示过去的打算,通常仅限于come, go, leave, depart, start等一些表示移动的动词。如:

He didn't know whether she was coming. 他不知道她是否会来。

The delegation was departing three days later. 代表团打算三天后动身。

3. 过去完成时

(1) 过去完成时表示过去某时之前结束的动作或状态

When he got there, the train had already left.

他到了那儿时火车已经离开了。

Ina realized she had made a mistake.

艾娜意识到她犯了个错误。

(2) 过去完成时与when等从句连用

  had+just / barely / hardly / scarcely+done...when..., no sooner...than... 是表示“刚……就……”或“不等……就……”的固定句型。如:

No sooner had we left the house than it began to rain.

我们刚离开家就开始下雨了。

I had not gone much farther before I caught them up.

我没有走多远就赶上他们了。

(3) 过去完成时表示持续到过去某时之前的动作或状态

We had finished the work by nine o'clock yesterday.

昨晚九点前我们已完成了工作。

The company had completed the project by the end of 1999.

到1999年底公司已完成了那个项目。

(4) 过去完成时表示未实现的愿望

  过去完成时表示未实现的愿望的用法仅限于expect, hope, intend, mean, plan, think,want等动词,过去时间往往由一般过去时表达。如:

I had intended to speak, but time did not permit.

我本想发言,可是时间不允许。

I had hoped you might know. 我本希望你会知道的。

4. 过去完成进行时

过去完成时主要表示持续到过去某时之前的动作。如:

I had been looking for it for days before I found it.

这个东西,我找了好多天才找着。

The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before it was answered.

电话铃响了三分钟才有人接。

He was tired. He'd been working all day.他累了。他工作了一整天。

After he'd been lecturing for half an hour, Professor Brown had a drink of water.

布朗教授讲了半小时课之后,他喝了一点水。

第三章、动词的将来时

1. 一般将来时

(1) 基本用法

[1] 一般将来时常用来表示将来时间的动作或状况。如:

Helena will be twenty next year. 海伦娜明年就二十岁了。

[2] 一般将来时用于真实条件句和时间状语从句的主句中表示将来的情况。如:

I'll tell you as soon as he comes. 他一来我就告诉你。

[3] 用于条件状语从句表示愿望或意愿。如:

If you will wait for me, I shall come back soon.

如果你愿意等我,我马上就回来。

[4] 一般将来时可用来表示一种倾向或习惯性动作。如:

The shop won't open until nine. 这家商店九点才会开门。

Children will be children. 孩子就是孩子。

(2) be going to +动词原形

  这一结构表示打算或准备好要做的事或有迹象表明要发生的天气变化等情况。如:

What are you going to do during the summer holiday? 你暑假打算做什么? The train is going to arrive. 火车就要到了。

(3) 现在进行时(be +现在分词)

  有些动词的现在进行时可以表示将要发生的动作,表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。这类动词有:go, come, leave,start, arrive, return, spend, sail, meet, fly等。如:

Annie is coming to supper this evening. 安妮今晚要来吃饭。

(4) be to +动词原形

  这一结构可表示约定、命令或按计划要做的事。如:

When are they to come? 他们什么时候来?

We are to meet at the school gate. 我们约好在校门口见。

(5) be about to +动词原形

  这一结构表示“即将做”或“马上做”的意思。如:

He is about to leave. 他马上就要动身。

The vacation is about to start. 假期即将开始。

2. 将来进行时

  将来进行时表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作。常表示已安排好之事,给人一种期待感。如:

What will you be doing this time tomorrow?

明天这个时候你将做什么?

The train will be leaving in a second. 火车马上就开。

3. 将来完成时

(1) 将来完成时表示在将来某一时间之前完成的动作,往往对将来某一时间产生影响。如:

I shall have finished reading the book by the end of this week.

我将在本周末前读完这本书。

Before long,he will have forgotten all about the matter.

过不久,他很快就会把这件事全然忘记。

(2) 将来完成时表示持续到将来某时的动作或状态。如:

By the time he graduates, he will have studied French for four years.

到他毕业的时候,他学法语就满四年了。

By the time Pierce comes back from the meeting, we will have waited here for three hours.

到皮尔斯开会回来的时候,我们已经在这儿等了三个钟头了。

4. 过去将来时

(1) 过去将来时表示过去某时之后将出现的情况,通常用于宾语从句中。如:

I thought he would come. 我以为他会来。

Jenny never imagined that she would become a doctor.

詹妮从没想到自己会当医生。

(2) 表示从过去某时看将要发生的事情。如:

The old lady was fifty-eight then. In two years she would be sixty.

老太太当时五十八岁,再过两年就六十了。

I didn’t think they would have any objection to it.

我想他们不会有什么反对意见。

(3) 表示过去习惯性动作(不管什么人称都用would)。如:

Whenever he had time, Harris would go to see his grandmother.

哈里斯一有时间就去看他奶奶。

Joanna would go for a walk after she had supper.

乔安娜吃完晚饭总要去散步。


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梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:33:18
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之六:被动语态

现在范畴 一般现在时 am/is/are made

现在进行时 am / is /are being made

现在完成时 has/have been made

过去范畴一般过去时 was/were made

过去进行时 was/werebeingmade

过去完成时 had been made

将来范畴 一般将来时 shall/will be made

将来完成时 shall/will have been made

过去将来时 should/would be made

过去将来完成时 should/would have been made

1. 被动语态的各种时态

  被动语态(The Passive Voice)是动词的一种形式,表示主语是谓语动词的承受者。被动语态便于论述客观事实,故常用于科技文章、新闻报道、书刊介绍以及景物描写。被动语态没有将来进行时、过去将来进行时和完成进行时形式。

(1) 一般现在时的被动语态

I am not so easily deceived. 我不会轻易上当受骗的。

Computers are widely used in the world.

计算机在世界范围内得到广泛应用。

(2) 一般过去时的被动语态

The car was seriously damaged. 汽车受到严重损坏。

Printing was introduced into Europe from China.

印刷术是由中国传入欧洲的。

(3) 现在进行时的被动语态

The question is being discussed at the meeting.

这个问题现在正在会上讨论。

The children are being taken care of by their aunt.

孩子们现在正由其姑妈照看。

(4) 过去进行时的被动语态

When I called, tea was being served.

当我来访时,正值上茶之际。

When they arrived, the experiments were being made.

他们到达时,实验正在进行。

(5) 现在完成时的被动语态

The meeting has been put off. 会议已被推迟了。

The party has been planned since the new year.

这次聚会自新年起就已筹划了。

(6) 过去完成时的被动语态

By the end of last month,he had been robbed at least three times.

到上月底,他已被抢了至少三次。

(7) 将来完成时的被动语态

It is said that the building will have been completed before September.

据说大楼将于九月前竣工。

This class will have been taught by Mr Brown for two years by next summer.

到明年夏天,布朗先生在这两个班执教已有两年了。

2. 含有情态动词的被动语态

Water mustn't be wasted. 绝不能浪费水。

Electric energy can be changed into light enery.

电能可以转变成光能。

Cross the road very carefully. Look both ways, or you might be knocked down.

过马路时要特别小心,要往两边看,不然会被撞倒。

3. Get+过去分词构成的被动语态

  Get+过去分词也可以构成被动语态,用这种结构的句子侧重于动作的结果而不是动作本身。如:

the man got hurt on his way home. 那个男人在回家的路上受伤了。

Mary is going to get married. 玛丽准备结婚了。

How did the glass get broken? 杯子怎么破了?

4. 短语动词的被动语态

(1) 动词+介词

This matter has been talked about recently.

这件事近来一直被谈论着。

Such a thing has never been heard of before.

这样的事从未被听说过。

The old man was looked after carefully. 那位老人被精心照顾着。

He has never been listened to. 人家从不听他的话。

(2) 动词+副词

The sports meeting was put off. 运动会被推迟了。

A short play will be put on by them at the party.

一个短剧将要由他们在晚会上演出。

What he said must be thought over. 他说的话必须仔细思考。

(3) 其他短语动词

Privileges must be done away with. 特权必须被取消。

The light has just been turned off. 灯刚被关上。

Their plans are being carried out. 他们的计划正在执行中。

5. “主+动+宾+宾补”句型变为被动结构

  这种句型有两个宾语,一般地说一为间接宾语,一为直接宾语。变为被动结构时,只将主动结构中的一个宾语变为被动结构中的主语,另一宾语不变。

We call him Xiao Wang. 我们叫他小王。(主动句)

He was called Xiao Wang. 他被叫做小王。(被动句)

He painted the table green. 他把桌子漆成了绿色。(主动句)

The table was painted green. 桌子被漆成了绿色。(被动句)

6. “主+动+that从句”句型的被动句

  有些以that从句作宾语的主动句可以转换成两种形式的被动句。如:

People say that he is the richest man in the city.

人们说他是全市头号富翁。

→It is said that he is the richest man in the city.

据说他是全市头号富翁。

→He is said to be the richest man in the city.

据说他是全市头号富翁。

  当说话人认为主动句的主语无关紧要,或者不清楚谁是谓语动作的发出者时,便常常使用上述形式的被动句。如:

It was reported that the boy had been found.

据报道,男孩已被找到。

The boy was reported to have been found.

据报道,男孩已被找到。

  常用于上述被动句型的动词有:acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, declare, estimate, expect, find, know, presume, report, say, think等。

7. 含有被动意义的主动语态

  英语中有一些表示被动意义的主动句,其谓语所表示的不是主语的动作,而是其内在的性能。这种句子的特点是:主语为无生命名词,谓语动词为一般现在时;肯定句必须带方式状语;否定句的谓语可以带情态动词。如:

She is to blame. 她应该受到责备。

The house is to rent. 这个房子要出租。

Food can keep fresh in a fridge. 食物放在冰箱里能保鲜。

The pen writes smoothly. 这支钢笔很好写。

The cloth feels soft. 这布摸上去很柔软。

The cake tastes good. 这蛋糕很好吃。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:37:06
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之七:助动词

第一章、助动词be、have和do

1. Be动词的用法

(1) 助动词be和现在分词一起构成进行时或完成进行时。如:

He is reading. 他在读书。

I'll be waiting for you there then. 我到时在那儿等你。

(2) 助动词be和过去分词一起构成被动语态。如:

Is he taken good care of? 他被照顾得好吗?

They shall be punished. 他们一定要受惩罚的。

(3) 助动词be用作系动词。如:

Matthew is a teacher. 马修是个老师。

We were late today. 我们今天迟到了。

(4) 助动词be和不定式连用,可以表示下面几种情况。

表计划,只用于肯定句和疑问句。如:

We are to discuss it the following week.

我们打算下周讨论那件事。

When is the wedding to be? 婚礼什么时候举行?

表命令,只用于肯定句和否定句。如:

All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once.

全体下级军官都必须立即向上校报到。

Tom says I am to leave you alone. 汤姆要我不理会你。

表可能,多用于被动结构。如:

Her father was often to be seen in the bar of this hotel.

在这家旅馆的酒吧经常可见到她父亲。

Where is he to be found? 在哪儿可找到他?

表示“必须”,“应该”多用于现在式。如:

Nobody is to leave this room. 谁也不许离开这个房间。

What am I to do next?下一步我该做什么?

He's to blame. 该怪他。

表注定,多用于过去式。如:

He was to be my teacher and friend for many years to come.

在后来许多年里,他是我的老师和朋友。

The professor did not know at the time that he was never to see his native place again.

当时教授不知道他再也见不到他的故土了。

(5) 助动词be用于条件从句。如:

If we are to succeed, we must redouble our efforts.

我们要想成功,必须加倍努力才行。(are to意为“想要”)

(6) be后接going to, about to, on the point of等表示将来时间或根据计划、意图等将要发生的事。如:

It's going to rain. 快要下雨了。(将来时间)

He's about to leave. 他正要走。(将来时间)

2. Have的用法

(1) 助动词have与过去分词一起构成各种完成时态。如:

I have read the book. 我读过这本书。

Kenny has left. 肯尼已经走了。

(2) 助动词have与been+现在分词构成各种完成进行时态。如:

I have been washing the clothes the whole morning.

整个上午我都在洗衣服。

Lambert has been working as a worker here for nearly five years.

兰伯特一直在这里当工人,几乎有五年了。

(3) 助动词have构成had better, had best, had rather等词组。

Had better和had best是“最好还是……”或“还是……好”的意思。在had better中,had不表示过去时间,不能用have或has代替。had better 后可接不带to的不定式或接进行式、完成式或被动语态。had better的否定式是had better not。如:

You had better stay at home.你最好呆在家里。

You'd better have had that experience before.

假如你以前有过那个经验就好了。

You'd better not run the risk. 你最好不要冒那个险。

(4) 补充

  Have还可用作使役动词和实义动词(表示”有”,”吃”等意义)。如:

They have had the problem solved.

他们让其他人解决了这个问题.(使役动词)

Bad news has wings. 丑事传千里. (实义动词)

What shall we have for lunch? 我们午饭吃甚么? (实义动词)

3. Do的用法

(1) 助动词do, does和did用于构成否定句、疑问句和倒装句。如:

Do you understand all this? 你明白这一切吗?

Don't go yet. 先别走。

(2) 助动词do, does和did用于代替句中的主要动词,以避免重复。如:

He didn't go to the party. Neither did I. 他没有去参加晚会,我也没有去。

I do not agree. Nor does he. 我不同意,他也不同意。

(3) 用于加强语气, do, does和did位于陈述句的动词原形前, do位于祈使句中的动词原形前。如:

Do have another cup of coffee before you go.

走前请一定再喝一杯咖啡。

That's exactly what he did say. 他就是那样说的。

But I do want to go. 可是我确实想去。

(4) 在一些以否定副词如never, rarely, scarcely, only等为首的句子中,如果实义动词是现在时或过去时,助动词do和did可以构成主谓倒装。如:

Never did I tell him about that. 我从来没有告诉过他那件事。

Rarely does it snow in the South. 南方很少下雪。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:39:55
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之八:情态动词

第一章、情态动词can、may、must的用法

1. can的用法

(1) can表示主语的能力。如:

The hall can seat 1,000 people. 这个大厅能坐1 000人。

Can you play the piano? 你会弹钢琴吗?

(2) can表示说话人的猜测(即可能性),多用于否定句和疑问句。如:

Can it be true? 这能是真的吗?

The moon can't always be at the full. 月不可能总是圆的。

What can she mean? 她可能是什么意思呢?

(3) can表示许可。如:

This sort of thing can't go on. 这样的事不能再继续下去了。

You can't smoke here. 你不可在这里吸烟。

(4)“can+完成式”表示说话人对过去情况的猜测(只用于否定和疑问结构中)。如:

He can't have missed the way.I explained the route carefully and drew him a map.

他不会迷路。我对他详细说明了路线,还画了一张地图。

Can the team have left already? 球队已经离开了吗?

2. could的用法

(1) could表示主语的能力,为can的过去时形式,如:

Daisy couldn't come yesterday because she was ill.

戴西昨天不能来是因为她病了。

They said they could swim. 他们说他们会游泳。

(2) could表示说话人的猜测(即可能性)。如:

He could be right. 他或许是对的。

Could it be Henry? 可能是亨利吗?

At that time we thought the story could not be true.

那时我们认为所说的事不可能是真的。

(3) could表示许可。如:

Father said I could swim in the river.

爸爸说我可以在河里游泳。

Could I help you? 我能帮忙吗? (比Can I help you?婉转)

The man asked if he could smoke in the hall.

那个人问可不可以在大厅里吸烟。

(4)“could+完成式”用于肯定句时一般表示过去可能完成却未完成的动作。如:

I could have reported you. 我本可以报告你的。

You could have let me know earlier. 你本来该早一些告诉我。

3. may的用法

(1) may表示许可,多用于肯定句和疑问句中,否定句中不常用。如:

May I ask you a question?

我可以问你个问题吗?(比Can I ask you a question?更礼貌)

You may keep the book for two weeks.

这本书你可以借两周。

(2) may表示可能性,常用于肯定句和否定句中,指现在或将来的可能性。如:

It may be true. 那可能是真的。

The road may be blocked. 这条路可能不通了。

(3)“may+完成式”表示说话人对过去情况的猜测。如:

Eva may have missed her train. 伊娃可能误火车了。

He may have read the book. 他可能读过这本书。

(4) may as well(=might as well)是一个习语,作“不妨”或“完全有理由”或“还是……的好”解,用于提出建议。如:

You may as well stay where you are. 你还是原地呆着好。

All the pubs are closing.We may as well go home.

所有的酒馆都打烊了。我们还是回家吧。

  在对由may引出的“请求许可”的问句做出肯定回答时,通常不用过于严肃和正式的“Yes, you may.”,而多用“Yes, please?(请便)”或“Of course/ Certainly(当然可以).”;否定回答时,常用 “Please don't(请不要).”或“No, you mustn't(不行).”

4. might的用法

(1) might表示许可。如:

Might I have a word with you? 我可以同你说句话吗?

Might I make a suggestion? 我可以提一项建议吗?

Might we ask you a favour? 我们可以请你帮个忙吗?

但要注意:Might I...比May I...更客气,但是不如May I...常用。

(2) might表示说话人的猜测,其把握性比may小。如:

Mr Smith might be right. 史密斯先生或许是对的。

He might have some fever. 他可能有点发烧。

(3) might用于委婉地提出建议、责备等。如:

You might ask him for help. 你可以请他帮忙嘛。

You might ask before you borrow my car.

你可以先问问我再借我的车嘛。

(4)“might+完成式”(表示说话人对过去情况的抱怨、责备、遗憾等)。如:

You might have considered her feelings. 你本应考虑她的感受。

You might have let me know earlier. 你本来该早一些告诉我。

5. must的用法

(1) must表义务或强制。如:

I must go now. 我必须走了。

Soldiers must obey orders. 军人必须服从命令。

Visitors must leave bags in the cloakroom.

参观者须把包放到物品寄存处。

  must用于一般疑问句时,其肯定答语应用Yes, please.或I'm afraid so.其否定答语应用needn't或don't have to.

—Must I go tomorrow? 明天我必须去吗?

—Yes, please. 是的。

—No, you needn't. 不,你不必去。

must的否定式must not/mustn't表示禁止。

You mustn't leave here. 你不许离开这儿。

Cars mustn't be parked in front of the entrance. 车不能停在入口处。

(2) must表示说话人有把握的猜测,仅限于肯定句。如:

He must be at home now. 他现在肯定在家。

You must be joking. 你一定是在开玩笑。

He must be mad. 他一定是疯了。

(3)“must+进行式”表示对现在情况有把握的猜测,仅限于肯定句。如: You must be joking. 你一定是在开玩笑吧。

(4)“must+完成式”表示对过去情况有把握的猜测,仅限于肯定句。如:

You must have known what he wanted.

你当时肯定知道他想干什么。

Emm must have been very young when she got married.

埃玛结婚时一定很年轻。

(5)“must+完成进行式”表示对过去情况有把握的猜测,仅限于肯定句。如:

He must have been working. 他肯定一直在工作。

第二章、情态动词的其他形式

1. shall的用法

(1) shall用于疑问句中,征求对方的意愿;这时可以用第一人称和第三人称。如:

Shall I turn on the light? 要开灯吗?(我把灯打开好吗?)

Shall we sit here? 咱们坐这儿怎么样?(坐这儿好吗?)

Shall we begin now? 我们现在开始,好吗?

Shall he send you a check? 要不要他给你寄张支票?

(2) shall用于陈述句,与第二人称或第三人称连用,表示允诺、命令、警告和强制,或表示说话人的决心等。如:

She shall get her share. 她可以得到她的一份。(允诺)

Then you shall come. 那你就得来.(命令)

Nothing shall stop us from carrying out this plan.

什么也不能阻止我们实现这项计划。(决心)

2. should的用法

(1) should表“应该”,用于所有人称,表示常理认为是对的事或适宜做的事,通常意义为“应该”。如:

You should be more careful next time. 你下次应该再细心些。

We should always bear this in mind. 我们要把这一点常记在心里。

(2)“should+完成式”表示说话人对过去情况的抱怨、责备、后悔等。如:

I should have taken her advice. 我本该采纳她的建议的。

I shouldn't have treated her like that. 我不该那样待她来着。

(3) 表示说话人对过去情况的猜测。如:

The guests should have arrived now. 客人可能已经到了。

3. will的用法

(1) will表示主语的决心或意愿。如:

I won't argue with you. 我不愿意跟你争辩。

I will do all I can. 我会尽力去做。

If you want help, let me know, will you?

需要帮忙就告诉我,好吗?

(2) 作为情态动词,will表示说话人的猜测,意为“大概”。如:

That will be the book you want. 那大概是你所要的书。

Ask him. He will know. 问他吧,他大概知道。

(3) will表示主语的习惯或习惯能力。如:

The young man will sit there for hours doing nothing.

那个年轻人常几个小时坐在那儿无所事事。

Water will boil at 100℃. 水在100℃时沸腾。

4. would的用法

(1) would表示主语的意愿。如:

That's just what he would want. 那正是他想要的。

His daughter wouldn't listen to anybody.

他女儿谁的话也听不进去。

(2) “Would you...?”表示客气的请求。如:

Would you please lend me your pen? 借用一下你的钢笔好吗?

What would you like to drink? 你想喝点什么?

(3)“Would you like / prefer...?”表示提议或邀请。如:

Would you like some coffee? 你要不要喝点咖啡?

(4) would表示说话人的猜测,其把握性比will小。如:

It would be about ten o'clock when he left home.

他离开家时大概是10点左右。

That would be in 1976, I think. 我想那可能是在1976年。

(5) would表示过去的习惯性动作。如:

Sometimes he would come to see us. 他有时来看看我们。

Every evening he would come to say goodnight.

每天晚上他都来道晚安。

(6)“would+完成式”表示对过去情况的猜测。如:

The tour group would have reached New York.

旅游团可能已经到纽约了。

I thought you knew. I thought Maxim would have told you.

我以为你知道了。我以为马克西姆会告诉你的。

5. have to的用法

  have to主要用于表示客观外界向主语施加的义务。它有一般现在时单数第三人称形式has to和过去时形式had to,也可以与助动词和其他情态动词连用。如:

I shall have to go to the clinic today for my bad cough.

我咳嗽得很厉害,今天得去诊所。

You will have to come tomorrow. 你明天得来。

在口语中也可用have(has)got to(美国英语可省去have)。英国英语还可用其否定与疑问结构。如:

You haven't got to work tomorrow. 明天你不用上班。(got可省去)

Have you got to work tomorrow? 你明天得上班吗?(got可省去)

有时 don't have to与haven't got to的含义有所不同,如:

You don't have to change at London. 你不用在伦敦换车。(指通常)

You haven't got to change at London. 你不用在伦敦换车。(指这一次)

6. ought to的用法

(1) ought to表示出于义务、责任、道义等方面的要求而该做的事。如:

You ought to go to see the doctor. 你该去看病。

He said you ought to tell the police.

他说你应该去报警。

(2) ought to表示说话人的猜测。如:

John ought to know how to use the mchine.

约翰可能知道怎么用这个机器。

但要注意:在表示义务和猜测时,ought to通常可以和should换用。

7. need的用法

(1) 表必要性,多用于疑问句、否定句或否定意味的疑问句中。如:

You needn't hurry. 你不必着急。

Need I repeat it? 需要我重复吗?/p>

(2) “need+完成式”表示对过去情况温和的责备、后悔等,通常限于否定句。如:

We needn't have hurried. 我们当时不必那么匆忙。

The car needs cleaning.=The car needs to be cleaned.

车需要清洗了。

We need some more money. 我们还需要些钱。/p>

8. dare的用法

(1) 作为情态动词, dare没有人称和数的变化,现在时和过去时的形式相同,通常用于否定句和疑问句。如:

Dare you jump down from the tree? 你敢从树上跳下来吗?

How dare you be so rude? 你怎么敢如此无理?

(2) dare还可用作实义动词,作实义动词时,它有动词的全部形式,后面要跟带to的不定式。如:

The girl didn't dare to go by herself. 那女孩不敢独自去。

He dared to say no more.他不再敢说什么了。

(3) dare作实义动词时有人称和数的变化,有现在时和过去时形式,可以和助动词连用,也不仅只用于否定和疑问句,而且dare之后的不定式符号to可以省略。如:

Who dares (to) go? 谁敢去?

She did not dare (to) go out after dark.

她天黑以后不敢出门。

(4) 作为实义动词, dare除了作上面的“敢于”之外,还可以作“向……挑战”和“敢于面对”解。如:

I dare you to do it. 我谅你不敢做这事。

The young man dared the anger of the entire family.

那年轻人不怕惹起全家人的愤怒。

9. used to的用法

(1) used to表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在已不存在,没有人称和数的变化。如:

Natalie told us she used to go church.

纳塔莉告诉我们她过去常去做礼拜。

It used to be a prosperous town.

这里过去是一个繁荣的城镇。

(2) used to的否定式和疑问式有两种形式。一种是不用助动词,另一种是借助于助动词did,而借助于助动词的形式更为常见。如:

I didn't use to/usedn't to/used not to get tired when I played tennis.

我过去打网球时不感到累。

Did you use to / used to play tennis?或Used you to play tennis?

你过去打网球吗?

There used to be a pub here,didn't use there / usedn't there?

过去这里有一个小酒馆,对吗?

(3) used to do(作“过去经常做”解)与be used to sth / doing sth (作“习惯于某事 / 做某事”解)。如:

I'm used to life in the country. 我习惯于乡村生活。

She was not used to getting up early. 她不习惯早起。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:40:46
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之九:虚拟语气

第一章、虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的用法

1. 非真实条件句中谓语动词的形式

条件从句 结果从句

与现在事实相反 If I (we,you,he,they)+ 动词过去式(be的过去式用were) I(we) should.You would. He would .They would+动词原形

与过去事实相反 If I (we,you,he,they)+had+过去分词 I(we) should.You would.He would .They would +have+动词原形

与将来事实可能相反 If I (we,you,he,they)+ 动词过去式(be的过去式用were)/were to/should I(we) should.You would. He would .They would +动词原形

但要注意:美国英语的结果主句,不管什么人称,皆常用would。

2. 与现在事实相反的非真实条件句

虚拟语气用在与现在事实相反条件句中时,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式 (be的过去式用were),结果主句的谓语用should(第一人称)或would(第二、三人称)+动词原形。如:

I am sorry I am very busy now. If I had time, I would certainly come to see you.

很抱歉,我很忙。如果有时间,我一定去看你了。

If it weren’t for their support, we would be in a difficult situation.

要不是有他们的支持,我们的处境会很困难。

if places were alike, there would be little need for geographers.

如果各个地方都一样,就不需要地理学家了。

If I were you, I would apply for the job.

如果我是你,我会申请那份工作的。

What would you do if you knew who broke the glass.

要是你知道谁打破了玻璃,你会怎么办?

Even if I had the money, I wouldn’t buy it.

即使我有钱也不会买它。

3. 与过去事实相反的非真实条件句

虚拟语气用在与过去事实相反的条件句中时,条件从句的谓语用had+ 过去分词,结果主句的谓语用should(第一人称) 或would(第二、三人称) + have+ 过去分词。如:

If I had taken your advice, I wouldn’t have made such a mistake.

如果当时听了你的话,我就不会犯这样的错误了。

If it had not been for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work so easily.

要不是你的帮助,我的工作不会这么容易完成。

If we had known the basic principles, we should have controlled the process even better.

如果我们知道这些基本原理,我们早就能更好地控制这个工序了。

If facts had been collected one week earlier, we should have had more time to study them.

假使早一个星期收集事实,我们就有更多的时间研究它们了。

The conference wouldn’t have been so successful if we hadn’t made adequate preparation.

如果我们不做充分的准备,会议是不会开得这么成功的。

4. 与将来事实相反的非真实条件句

(1)虚拟语气用在与将来事实相反的条件句中时,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be的过去式用were),were to或should,结果主句用should(第一人称)或 would(第二、三人称)+ 动词原形。如:

If it rained( were to rain/ should rain) tomorrow, I should stay at home.

如果明天下雨,我会呆在家里。

If the teacher knew it, he would be angry.

万一老师知道了这事,他会生气的。

I wouldn’t lose courage even if I should fail again.

即使再次失败我也不会气馁。

If I made a mistake, I should try to remedy it.

假如我犯了错误,我就会设法补救。

If something should go wrong, the control rods would drop.

万一发生什么事故,控制杆就会下落。

(2) 在与将来事实相反的条件句中,其条件从句的谓语也可用were to + 动词原形。这种虚拟式比较正式,多用于书面语中,其假想性很强,实现性很小。如:

If I were to do it, I would do it another way.

要是我来做这件事,我会用另一种方法。

If he were to come tomorrow, I would speak to him about it.

假如明天他来,我会跟他谈这个问题。

5. 情态助动词用于虚拟语气

有不少情态助动词也可用于虚拟语气。如:

May you live a long and happy life.

愿你长寿幸福。(may只用于表示愿望)

If there were no friction, an automobile could not move.

没有摩擦力,汽车就不能开动。

But for your help, we couldn’t have succeeded.

要不是你的帮助,我们是不会成功的。

If computers had not been invited, many problems on space flight could not have been solved.

如果没有发明计算机的话,宇宙飞行的许多问题就不可能解决。

6. were, had, should等置于主语之前

在书面语中,条件从句可以不用连词if,而将谓语中的过去式were,had或 should 等移至主语之前。如:

Were you in my position, what would you do?

假如你处在我的位置,你会怎么做?

Were he to leave today, he would get there by Friday.

如果他今天动身,星期五前会赶到那儿。

Had some work been done, energy would have been applied.

如果做了一定量的功,就一定消耗了能量。

Had they time, they would come to see you.

如果他们有时间,他们就会来看你。

Should it rained tomorrow, the meeting would be postponed.

万一明天下雨,会议就会延期。

Should he come, he would be able to examine the trial run of the machine.

如果他来,他就能检验这台机器的试车情况了。

7. 条件从句与结果主句所表示的时间不一致

(1) 当条件从句与结果主句所表示的时间不一致(如一个是过去发生的,一个是现在发生的)时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。如:

If you were in better health, we would have asked you to come.

如果你身体好一些,我们早就请你来了。

If we had consulted him on the question yesterday, we should know what to do now.

假如昨天我们向他请教了这个问题,现在就知道该怎么办了。

You would be much better now if you had taken my advice. 假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。

(2) 如果条件从句用if I were...,结果主句则可用任何时间的虚拟形式。如:

If I were not busy, I would have come.

假如我不忙,我就会去的。(were表过去)

8. 虚拟语气在含蓄条件句中的用法

(1) 条件暗含在短语中。如:

We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him.

我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。(暗含条件是otherwise)

Without your help, we wouldn’t have achieved so much.

没有你的帮助,我们不可能取得这么大的成绩。

(暗含条件是介词短语without your help)

But for your help, I would not have succeeded in the experiment.

如果没有你的帮助,我的实验就不会成功。(暗含条件是but for your help)

It would cause great trouble not to lubricate the bearing immediately.

不立即润滑轴承就会引起很大的故障。

(暗含条件是not to lubricate the bearing immediately)

Alone, she would have been terrified.

(2) 条件暗含在上下文中。如:

I would not have done it that way.

我是不会那么做的。(可能暗含if I were you)

I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have come to help you.

我那天很忙。否则我会来帮你的。(可能暗含if I hadn’t been so busy.)

You might come to join us in the discussion.

你可以参加我们的讨论。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

I would have bought the DVD player.

我是会买下那台影碟机的。(可能暗含if I had the money)

But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier.

要不是碰到暴雨,我们还会早些到。(可能暗含if it had not been for the storm)。

9. 省去结果主句的非真实条件句

非真实条件句若省去结果主句,则常表示一种不可能实现的愿望。这种条件句常用if only来引导。如:

If I could see him once我只要再见到他一次就好了。

If only he were here.

如果他在这儿就好了。

If only I hadn’t done that.

我要是没做那事就好了

If only I had more time to think about it.

我要是有更多的时间考虑这个问题就好了。

If only you would take my advice.

你如果听我的意见就好了。

If only she didn’t drive so fast!

她要是别开那么快就好了。

10. 不用if引导的条件句

非真实条件句的条件从句除用if引导外,还可用when, unless, lest, as if, for fear, in case, on condition that等词语来引导。如:

The government prepared to award them when the experiment should be completed.

政府已准备在实验完成后嘉奖他们。

Steel parts were usually covered with grease lest they should rust.

钢部件通常涂有油脂以免生锈。

Unless I were well, I wouldn’t be at work.

除非我好了,否则我不会去上班。

The electric current flows through a conductor as if it were a fluid.

电流好像液体般地流过导体。

He handled the instrument with care for fear (that) it should be damaged.

他小心地摆弄那仪器,生怕把它弄坏。

Take some more money with you in case you should need it.

多带点儿钱以备急用。

He can use the car on condition that he should return it tomorrow.

如果明天车能还回来,他就可以把车借去。

Suppose you were given a chance to get the job, would you accept?

假如你有机会得到那份工作,你会接受吗?

但要注意:与if一样,上述词语所引导的条件从句也可用直陈语气,表可能实现或发生的事。

第二章、虚拟语气在从句中的用法

1. 主语从句中的用法

(1) 在以it为形式主语的复合句中,虚拟语气在主语从句中表示建议、要求、命令等,谓语动词用should be型或be型虚拟式,在美国英语中常用be型虚拟式。如:

It’s natural that she should do so.

她这么做是很自然的事。

It is essential that we should tell her the news.

我们有必要告诉她这个消息。

It is important that we should make full use of our mineral resources.

对我们来说,充分利用我国的矿产资源是重要的。

It is strange that the result of the experiment should be unsatisfactory.

奇怪的是实验结果竟然如此令人不满意。

It is desired that we should get everything ready by tonight.

希望一切在今晚准备好。

It was arranged that Mr Sam should go and help Bettie.

他们作了安排,由萨姆先生去帮助贝蒂。

(2) 主句的谓语为某些动词的被动语态,常用在It is (was) desired (suggested,settled,proposed, recommended,requested,decided,etc.) that...句型中。

It is suggested that the question should be discussed at the next meeting.

有人建议在下次会上讨论这个问题。

It is vital that he should be warned before it is too late.

在还不太晚的时候警告他是非常必要的。

It has been decided that the sports meet should be postponed till next Friday.

已决定运动会延期到下星期五。

It was requested that a vote (should) be taken.

有人要求进行表决。

2. 在宾语从句中的用法

(1) wish的宾语从句中的谓语动词形式

① 动词的过去式表示对现在情况的假设。如:

I wish prices would come down.

我真希望物价会下降。

I wish you would stop asking silly questions.

我希望你不要再问这种愚蠢的问题。

I wish I knew his address.

可惜我不知道他的地址。

I wish we could go with him.

我们要是能跟他一起去该多好。

② had+过去分词表示对过去情况的假设。如:

I wish I had known it before.

我真希望我预先知道这件事。

He wishes he hadn’t been rude to his parents.

他真希望他没有对父母无礼。

She wished that she had stayed at home.

她想那时要是留在家里就好了。

I wish I could have been there yesterday.

要是我昨天到过那里该多好。

(2) would rather等的宾语从句中的谓语动词形式

用would rather(=would sooner)和would(just)as soon(=would sooner)等表示愿望,但其宾语从句常用虚拟过去式。如:

I would rather you came tomorrow than today.

我宁愿你明天来,而不是今天。

I could do it myself but I would sooner you did it.

我自己也可以做,但我宁愿你去做。

I would rather you had told me the truth.

我倒想你本该把事实真相告诉我。

(3) suggest等的宾语从句中的谓语动词形式

① 用should+ 动词原形或只用动词原形的that 从句,作为demand, order, prepose, request, require, suggest,arrange, insist, command, desire, advocate, maintain, urge, direct, move, prefer, arrange, recommend等词的宾语。如:

The expert proposed that TV should be turned off at least one four every day.

专家提议每天至少应该关掉电视一个小时。

The board recommended that the company should invest in the new property.

董事会建议公司投资新的房地产。

The committee has given instructions that the manager should fly to New York.

委员会已发出指示,要经理飞往纽约。

Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton ordered that James Van Metre should be released.

陆军部长埃德温·M·斯坦顿命令将詹姆斯?范?米特释放。

He asked that the arrangements be made to help them finish the work.

他要求做好安排,帮他们完成工作。

Experiments demand that accurate measurements be made.

实验要求做到准确的计量。

She insisted that we take up the matter at the meeting.

她坚持要求我们在会上谈这个问题。

② 有些动词,如think, expect, believe 其否定式的宾语从句亦可用should + 动词原形。如:

I never thought he should refuse.

我万没想到他会拒绝。

I had not expected that things should turn out like this.

我没料到事情的结果竟是这样。

3. 在表语从句中的用法

虚拟语气也可用在表语从句中。这种从句由that(可省略)所引导,其谓语是 should +动词原形。句子主句中的主语常常是suggestion, proposal, idea, motion, order, recommendations, plan, impossibility, possibility等名词。如:

His suggestion was that everyone should have map.

他的建议是每人发一张地图。

My idea is that the electronic device should be tested at once.

我的意见是这一电子器件要立即试验。

在主句中作主语的名词常见的有:

advice, aim, desire, idea, insistence, motion, necessity, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, regulation,requirement, suggestion, wish等。

4. 虚拟语气在同位语从句中的用法

当与同位语从句同位的是suggestion等表示建议、计划、命令等的名词时,从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,美国英语中常用动词原形。

They made the request that the problem should be discussed as soon as possible.

他们要求尽快讨论这个问题。

He gave orders that the work should be started at once.

他命令工作马上开始。

The proposal that he (should) be dismissed was supported at the meeting.

大会对开除他的提议表示了支持。

5. 虚拟语气在状语从句中的用法

(1) 虚拟语气在让步状语从句中的用法

① 由连接词whether, if, even if/though, whatever, so ong as 引导的状语从句,其谓语可用虚拟语气,即其谓语用动词原形。如:

Whether the figures be accurate or not, they have to be rechecked.

不管那些数字准确与否,都得重新核对。

The earth is powerful magnet and all magnets behave the same whether they be large or small.

地球是一个强大的磁体,而所有的磁体无论大小其作用都是一样的。

They have decided to build a reservoir, whatever the difficulties may be.

他们决心建造一座水库,不管有多少困难。

I won’t let you in whoever you may be.

无论你是谁我都不让进去。

However hard the task may be, we must fulfill it on time.

不管任务多么艰巨,我们必须按时完成。

If the defendant be found guilty, he shall have the right of appeal.

如果被告被判有罪,他有权上诉。

② 倒装的让步状语从句中的虚拟语气。如:

Come what may,we will go ahead.

不管怎样,我们一定要前进。

However hard it may rain,we shall have to go.

无论雨多大,我们都得走。

(2) 虚拟语气在方式状语从句中的用法

以连接词as if引导的状语从句(谓语形式与wish后的宾语从句相同,be在第一、三人称可用was或were)。如:

You speak as if you had really been there.

你说的好像你真的去过那里。

Light often behaves as though it were made of particles.

光的性状,常常有点儿像由粒子组成的。

He spoke to me as if I was(were)deaf.

他跟我说话时就好像我是聋子似的。

(3) 虚拟语气在目的状语从句中的用法

以lest, for fear that 和in case 引出的状语从句(谓语多用should加动词原形构成)。如:

Batteries should be kept in dry places lest electricity should leak away.

电池应放在干燥的地方,以免漏电。

He handled the instrument with care for fear that it should be damaged.

他小心地弄那仪器,生怕把它弄坏。

I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should change your mind.

我给你留一个位子,说不定你会改变主意。

6. 虚拟语气在it is time后的定语从句中的用法

虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中,这种从句常用在it is (high, about) time (that)...句型中。定语从句常用虚拟过去式。如:

It is time we started.

我们该出发了。

It is time we set to work.

我们该着手工作了。

It is time we left.

我们该走了。

It is time we should leave.

我们该走了。

It is time I were off.

我该走了。

It’s high time the weather improved.

天气真该好起来了。

但要注意:位于time之前的high起着强调“为时稍晚”的作用。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:41:44
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之十:不定式

第一章、不定式(短语)作主语、表语、宾语、补足语

1. 不定式(短语)作主语

不定式作主语时既可位于句首,又可用先行词it作形式主语。不定式短语作主语时,为了保持句子平衡,往往用it作形式主语,而把不定式短语置于谓语动词之后。

To improve our teaching method is very important.

改进我们的教学方法是非常重要的。

It would be a waste of time to look up every new word as it comes along.

碰到生词就查词典是很浪费时间的。

It would take some 100 workers a year’s time to complete the project.

完成这项工程大约需要一百名工人一年的时间。

2. 不定式(短语)作表语

His ambition is to become a successful scientist.

他的抱负是要成为一名成功的科学家。

The primary reason why the Constition requires a census every ten years is to provide a basis for the apportionment of representatives among the states.

宪法要求每10年进行一次人口普查,其主要原因是为各州之间众议院议员的比例分配提供一个基础。

3. 不定式(短语)作动词宾语

(1) 有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。这些动词有: affored 担负得起 agree 同意 arrange 安排 ask 要求 attempt 试图

beg 乞求 begin 开始 care 介意 choose 愿意 claim 声称

consent同意 continue继续 contrive发明 dare 敢 decide决定

decline谢绝 demand要求 deserv 值得 desire希望 determine决心

endeavor尽力 expect期望 fail未能 fear害怕 forget忘记

guarantee 保证 happen 碰巧 help 帮助 hesitate犹豫 hope希望

intend 企图 learn 学会 long 渴望 manage设法 mean意欲

need 需要 offer 提出 petition 请求 plan 计划 pledge 保证

plot 密谋 pray 祈祷 prepare 准备 pretend假装 promise许诺

refuse拒绝 resolve解决 seek寻求 swear发誓 think想起

tend倾向于 threaten威胁 undertake承担 venture冒险 volunteer志愿

vow 宣誓 want 想要 wish 希望

如:

They decided to change their mind.

他们决定改变主意。

I can’t afford to live in a detached house.

我住不起独门独院的房子。

(2) 疑问词+动词不定式作宾语的动词有: ask 询问 consider 考虑 decide 决定 discover 发现

discuss 讨论 explain 解释 find out 查明 forget 忘记

inquire 打听 know 知道 learn 学会 remember 记得

show 演示 tell 说出 think 考虑 understand 懂得

wonder 想知道

如:

I don’t know what to do next.

我不知道下一步该干什么。

He found out where to buy fruit cheaply.

他打听出在哪儿买水果便宜。

(3) 不定式(短语)作复合宾语中的宾语:

不定式(短语)在consider, find, make, regard, think等动词后作复合宾语中的宾语时,通常用先行词it作形式宾语:

I find it interesting to study English.

我觉得学英语很有趣。

The boy feels it difficult to answer the question.

那男孩感到回答这个问题很困难。

4.不定式(短语)作介词宾语

不定式(短语)作介词宾语主要用于作介词except和but的宾语。

The old man’s son did nothing but play games.

老人的儿子除了玩游戏之外,什么都不干。

He wanted nothing but to stay there.

他只想待在那儿,别的什么都不想。

但要注意:如果句中的except或but之前有实义动词do的限定形式或非限定形式,其宾语为不带to的不定式,否则,其宾语为带to的不定式。

5. 不定式(短语)作宾语补足语

(1) 动词不定式可用作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。常跟不定式作宾补的动词有: advise 劝告 allow 允许 ask 要求 beg 请求

cause 促使 compel 强迫 convince 使信服 command 指挥

direct 指导 enable 使能够 encourage 鼓励 expect 期望

feel 觉得 force 迫使 get 使得 hate 不喜欢

have 使 hear 听见 help 帮助 hire 雇请

inspire 鼓舞 intend 打算要 invite 邀请 instruct 指示

lead 引导 let 让 listen(to) 听 look(at) 看

make 使得 notice 注意到 observe 观察 order 命令

permit 允许 persuade 说服 press 迫使 remind 提醒

request 请求 teach 教 tell 告诉 urge 激励

want 想要 watch 注视 warn 警告 wish 希望

如:

My English techer advised me to buy a better dictionary.

我的英语老师建议我买本好一点的词典。

I’d prefer you to stay out of the dispute.

我宁愿你不要介入这场争论。

(2) 在feel, have, hear, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, observe, see, watch等动词后面,复合宾语中动词不定式的标记to 通常被省略。动词help后的不定式的to可以省去,也可以保留。如:

I saw her enter the cinema.

我看见她进了电影院。

A conductor uses signals and gestures to let the musicians know when to play carious parts of a composition.

乐队指挥使用信号和手势让音乐家们知道乐曲的各个部分何时演奏。

6. 不定式(短语)作主语补足语

(1) 要求不定式作宾语补足语的大部分动词(have,let,motice,watch等除外)都可以作被动句中的谓语,这样,在主动句中作宾语补足语的不定式(短语)便在被动句中作主语补足语。如:

The room was found to be empty.

那个房间被发现是空的。(to be 是主语补语)

The young man was considered to have great promise.

这个青年被认为大有前途。(to have是主语补语)

值得注意的是,作宾语补足语的不带to的不定式在被动句中作主语补足语时须带to。如:

They were made to wait for hours.

他们被迫等了好几个小时。

(2) 不定式(短语)在“主—动—that从句”的被动句中作主语补足语。如:

It is reported to be true.

据报导那是真的。(to be是主语补语)

He is said to be from New Zealand.

据说他是新西兰人。(to be是主语补语)

7. 不定式(短语)作形容词补语

有不少形容词(包括已变成形容词的分词)可后接不定式。有的语法家将这种不定式也叫做宾语。如:

I am very glad to see you.

我见到您很高兴。

The students are sorry to leave.

学生为离去而难过。

He is sure to come.

他一定会来的。

Are we likely to arrive in time?

我们能够及时到达吗?

但要注意:这样的形容词多是表示思想感情的。除上述形容词外,还有able, afraid, anxious,careful,content, foolish, inclined, prepared, ready, slow, willing等。

第二章、不定式(短语)作定语、状语、独立成分

1. 不定式(短语)作定语

(1) 被修饰的名词或代词与作定语的不定式之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。如:

She has a brother to help her.

她有个哥哥帮她。

The question will be discussed at the conference shortly to open in Beijing.

这个问题将在不久于北京召开的会议上讨论。

The next train to arrive was from New York.

下一列到站的火车是从纽约开来的。

He was always the first to come and last to leave the office.

他总是第一个到办公室,最后一个离开。(first与last之后省去了person)

(2) 被修饰的名词或代词与作定语的不定式之间存在着逻辑上的动宾关系。如:

It was a game to remember.

那是一场令人难忘的球赛。

The manager has too many things to do.

经理要做的事太多了。

I have nothing to say on this question.

在这个问题上,我没有什么话要说。

(3) 不定式(短语)作某些抽象名词的定语。

The sales manager had every reason to complain.

销售经理有充足的理由表示不满。

My cousin expressed his intention to resign.

我表兄表达了辞职的打算。

I could see her eagerness to see you.

我看得出她渴望见到你。

His failure to pass the examination surprised us.

他的落榜使我们吃惊。

That diplomat is reputed for his ability to speak four languages.

那位外交官以能讲四种语言而闻名。

(4) “介词+关系代词+不定式(短语)”作定语。如:

The employer has a lot of people from whom to select.

雇主可以在许多人中进行挑选。

A notebook is a book in which to write notes.

笔记本用来记笔记。

I must buy a hammer with which to nail down the box.

我必须买一把锤子钉箱子。

(5)“不定式(短语)+介词”作定语

I need a pen to write with.

我需要一支笔写字。

Give me some paper to write on.

给我一些纸写字。

① 作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须加相应的介词。如:

She is looking for a room to live in. 她在寻找一间房子住。

There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么可担心的。

但是,不定式所修饰的名词如果是time, place或way,不定式后面的介词习惯上可省去。如:

He had no place to live. 他没有居住的地方。

② 在there+be这一句型中,动词不定式作定语时可能出现动词不定式的被动式,其含义与主动式基本相同。但当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形式,如果说话人强调的是事情本身必须完成,则用被动形式。如:

There are many books to read/ to be read. 有好多书要读。

There’s plenty of work to do.(somebody has to do the work.)

There’s plenty of work to be done.(The work has to be done.)

请注意下面两个句子含义的区别:

There is nothing to do.(We have nothing to do now.)

(意为无事可做,感到十分无聊。)

There is nothing to be done. (We can do nothing now.)

(意为某东西坏了,无法使之恢复正常。)

2. 不定式(短语)作状语

(1) 不定式(短语)作目的状语

Every morning he gets up very early to exercise.

每天早晨他早早起床去锻炼身体。

A fuel is a sucstance used to generate light, heat or energy.

燃料是一种用来产生光、热或能量的物质。

Dams are used to control flooding, provide water for irrigation, and generating electricity for the surrounding area.

水坝被用于防洪、提供灌溉用水、并为周围地区发电。

He hesitated in order to/so as to choose the right word.

他迟疑了一下,以便选择合适的字眼。

(2) 不定式(短语)作结果状语

① 不定式作结果状语时,往往仅限于learn(得知), find(发现), see(看见), hear(听见),to be told(被告知),

make(使得)等几个具有终止含义的动词。如:

Sam returned home to learn his son had gone to the countryside.

萨姆回家后才知道他的儿子已去了乡下。

A few years later we came to our home to find that our home town had greatly changed.

几年后我们回到家里,发现家乡的面貌大大地改变了。

② 不定式(短语)也可用enough和too...to结构表示结果。如:

Uncle Tom was too ill to attend the meeting.

汤姆叔叔病得很重,无法出席会议。

He is old enough to join the army.

他够参军年龄了。

You are old enough to take care of yourself now.

你长大了,足能照料你自己了。

The boy is too short to reach the top of the shelf.

那男孩太矮了,够不着书架的顶层。

Attention:

(ⅰ) 某些形容词在”too…to…”结构中没有否定的含义,而是表示肯定,这类形容词有anxious,apt, delighted, eager, easy, glad, kind, pleased, ready, surprised, willing等。如:

He is too ready to find fault.他老是爱挑毛病。

She was too surprised to see how angry her father was.看到爸爸那么生气,她非常吃惊。

(ⅱ) 在not, never, only, all ,but等后的“too…to…”结构中,“too”的含义为“very”,不定式没有否定含义。如:

I’m only too pleased to help you. 我非常愿意帮助你。

It’s never too late to learn. 活到老,学到老。

(ⅲ) 动词不定式和only连用时,常表示未预料到的结果。如:

He went to the station hurriedly only to find the train had left.

他匆匆地赶到车站,却发现火车已经离开了。

I went to see my friend only to learn he was in hospital. 我去看我的朋友,不料他住院了。

He survived the crash only to die in the desert. 他幸存于坠机事故,结果却死在沙漠里。

③ 不定式(短语)在“so+形容词/副词+as”之后作结果状语。

She wouldn’t be so careless as to forget her luggage. 她不可能粗心到忘了带行李的程度。

The house is so high and narrow as to resemble a tower. 这房子又高又窄,像一座塔。

④ 不定式(短语)在“such(+名词短语)+as”之后作结果状语。

His indifference is such as to make one despair. 他如此冷淡,令人感到绝望。

Baker can’t have done such a terrible thing as to keep you waiting for so long. 贝克不可能做出这么糟糕的事让你等了这么久。

(3) 不定式(短语)作方式状语

不定式(短语)作方式状语时,前面由as if / as though引导:

He opened his mouth as if to speak. 他张开嘴,好像要说话。

She stood up as if to leave. 她站了起来,好像要离开。

3. 不定式(短语)作独立成分

(1) 不定式(短语)可以作句子的插入语。

To begin with,I do not like its colour.

首先,我不喜欢它的颜色。

To tell the truth,the film was a great disappointment to me.

说实在的,那部影片使我大为失望。

To make a long story short,we agreed to disagree.

长话短说,我们同意各自保留不同的看法。

How time flies,to be sure!

时光真是过得快啊!

The dog is,so to speak,a member of the family.

那狗可以说是家庭的一员了。

(2) 常见的用作插入语的不定式短语有: to be brief简言之 to be exact确切地说 to be frank坦率地说

to be sure肯定地说 to begin with首先 to conclude最后

第三章、不定式的时态、复合结构及省略

1. “疑问词(who, what, which, when, where, how)+不定式(短语)”结构

(1) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作主语。如:

When to start has not been decided.

何时动身尚未决定。

How to use this new technique will be discussed tomorrow.

如何利用这一新技术将在明天讨论。

(2) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作表语。如:

The trouble is how to get in touch with him.

问题是如何同他取得联系。

The difficulty was how to cross the river.

困难在于如何过河。

(3) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作动词宾语。如:

I don’ t know what to do. 我不知道该怎么办。

The policeman did not know whether to go there or not.

警察不知是否该去那儿。

He told me which way to take. 他告诉我该走哪条路。

(4) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作介词宾语。如:

They were concerned with how to solve the problem. 他们关心的是如何解决问题。

I have no idea of how to do it. 我不知道如何做此事。

2. 不定式时态的形式(一般式、进行式、完成式和被动式)

(1) 不定式的一般式通常表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生或在其后发生。如:

I often hear Dick play the piano in the next room.

我常常听见迪克在隔壁弹钢琴。 (hear与play两个动作同时发生)

They saw him go out.

他们看见他出去了。 (saw与go out同时发生)

(2) 但在多数情况下,动词不定式一般式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之后。如:

He hopes to become a university student this year.

他希望今年能成为一名大学生。 (to become这个动作发生在hope之后)

They decided to plant more trees this spring.

他们决定今年春天栽更多的树。 (to plant这个动作发生在decided之后)

(3) 不定式的进行式通常表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生。

My supervisor happened to be correcting my dissertation when I came in.

当我进来的时候,碰巧我的导师在修改我的论文。

They seemed to be discussing something important.

他们似乎在讨论重要的事情。

(4) 不定式的完成式通常表示其动作在谓语动词的动作之前完成。如:

I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.

很抱歉,让你久等了。 (to have kept发生在am所表示的时间之前)

Robert is said to have written a book on war on Iraq.

听说罗伯特写了一本关于伊拉克战争的书。

(to have written 发生在is said 所表示的时间之前)

(5) 不定式的被动式表示其逻辑主语为不定式动作的承受者。如:

It’s a great honour to be invited to Mary’s birthday party.

被邀请参加玛丽的生日聚会十分荣幸。 (作主语)

No harm seems to have been done.

似乎并没有造成损害。 (作表语)

I wish to be sent to work in the country.

我希望被派往乡下工作。 (作宾语)

In 1924 Nellie Taylor Ross of Wyoming became the first woman to be elected governor in the United States.

1924年,怀俄明州的内利?泰勒?罗斯成为美国第一位当选州长的妇女。(作定语)

I had to shout to be heard.

我大声呼喊以便能被听得见。 (作状语)

He did not like his intention to be laughed at.

他不喜欢他的意图被人取笑。(作宾语补足语)

3. 不定式复合结构

不定式可以与其逻辑主语一起构成不定式复合结构,其形式:for+名词/人称代词宾格+带to的不定式。其中的名词或人称代词宾格与不定式构成逻辑上的主谓关系。不定式复合结构的句法作用如下:

(1) 不定式复合结构作主语。如:

For a child to do that job is just inconceivable.

让一个孩子做这项工作真是不可思议。

For the goods to be packed in strong cases is necessary.

把货物包装在坚实的箱子里是必要的。

(2) 不定式复合结构作表语。如:

That is for you to decide.

那个由你决定。

A solution would be for shops to open at noon and close about 9 p.m..

办法是商店中午开门,晚9点关门。

These books are for children to read.

这些书是给孩子们读的。

(3) 不定式复合结构作宾语。如:

It’s time for us to go. 我们该走了。

That would be a matter for the people to decide.

(4) 不定式复合结构作状语。

不定式复合结构作目的状语。如:

The gentleman stood aside for her to pass.

那位先生靠边站让她过去。

He opened the window (in order) for the fresh air to come in.

他打开窗户让新鲜空气进来。

4. 不定式的省略

如果句子前面已出现过同样的动词,为了避免重复,常省去不定式动词,只保留不定式符号“to”。主要用在以下方面:

(1) 在hate, hope, like, love, mean, plan, try, want, wish等动词以及glad, pleased形容词之后。 如:

—Did you get a ticket?

—你买到票了吗?

—No. I tried to. But there were not any left.

—没有。我去买过,但却卖完了。

(2) 情态动词ought to, used to, need后。如:

—Do you smoke? —Not now, but I used to.

—你抽烟吗? —现在不抽了,但过去常常抽的。

Why hurry? There’s no need to.

急什么? 没有必要。

(3) 类似于助动词,情态动词的be able to, be going to, have to 之后。如:

I wanted to go but I wasn’t able to.

我本想去的,但没能去。

—Have you fed the cat? —No, but I’m just going to.

—你喂猫了吗? —没有,但我正要去喂。

(4) 有时to可以省略,也可以保留。如:

Royce may go if he likes (to).

罗伊斯如果想去也可以去。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:44:12
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十一:动名词

第一章、动名词在句子中的成分

动名词(the Gerund)是非限定动词,由动词原形加词尾-ing 构成。它具有动词的特征与名词的特征,在各类应试中都是一项重要的测试内容。

1. 动名词(短语)作主语

动名词(短语)作主语时通常位于句首。如:

Swimming is the best exercise in summer.

在夏天,游泳时最好的锻炼方式。

Living without an aim is like asiling without a compass.

生活没有目标就像航海没有指南针一样。

Eliminating problems by transferring the blame to others is often called looking for scapegoat.

通过把过错转嫁到别人身上把问题抹得一干干净,常常被称为寻找替罪羊。

注:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,一般可以互换,但有时又略有区别,动名词作主语往往表示一般或抽象的多次行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的行为。如:

Playing with fire is dangerous. (泛指玩火)

To play with fire will be dangerous (指一具体动作)

Smoking is prohibited here .这里禁止抽烟。(抽象)

It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具体)

但在 It is not use (good), not any use ( good ) ,useless等后一般用动名词。如

It is no use arguing with him. 同他争论是无用的。

It is no good learning English without practice. 学英语不练是不行的。

如上所示,当以it 为形式主语时,句中的表语常常为no good,no use,fun 等名词,形容词或介词短语。

2. 动名词(短语)作表语

⑴动名词和不定式都可以作表语,但是略有区别:表示比较抽象的一般的行为是,多用动名词;表示某次具体的动作或具有将来时的意义时,多用不定式。如:

My job is teaching English .

我的工作是教英语。

My today’s job is to teach you how t study English .

我今天的任务是教你如何学英语。

⑵动名词作表语时不可与进行时态相混淆。进行时态说明动作由主语完成的。动名词做表语,说明主语的性质或情况。试比较:

He is collecting stamps.

他在集邮。(现在进行时)

His hobby is collecting stamps.

他的爱好是集邮。(动名词)

3. 动名词(短语)作动词宾语

⑴在某些动词后,只能用动名词(短语)而不能用不定式(短语)作宾语。常见的只能以动名词作宾语的动词有: admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 consider 考虑

delay 耽误 deny 否认 endure 忍耐 enjoy 喜欢

escape 逃避 excuse 原谅 fancy 想象 finish 完成

forbid 严禁 imagine 想象 mind 介意 miss 错过

We’d better postpone discussing it till next week.

我们最好把这事推迟到下个星期讨论。

The girl avoided giving her any personal information.

这个女孩拒绝告诉她的任何个人情况。

⑵动名词(短语)作短语动词的宾语。如:

She could’t help thinking about the matter.

她不由自主地要想那件事。

Peter is fond of playing football

彼得喜欢踢足球。

The patient gave up smoking on medicine advice.

病人遵从医嘱,戒烟了

4. 动名词(短语)作介词宾语

He is against dancing all night. 他反对通宵跳舞。

The college is a new type of college for training cadres.

这所大学是新型的培育干部的大学。

注:下面短语中的“to”是介词,而不是不定式符号,因此后面须接名词或动名词形式。 in addition to 除…之外 admit to 承认 devote oneself to 献身于

be equal to 能胜任 be familiar to 对…熟悉 find one’s way to 设法到达

get down t 着手做 give way to 对…让步 give one’s mind to 专心于

5. 既可用动名词(短语)有可用不定式(短语)作宾语的动词

(1) 在下列动词后,作宾语的动名词通常可以和不定式换用,有些及物动词既可以跟动名词也可以跟不定式作宾语。如: Attempt 试图 begin 开始 can’t bear 忍不住

cease 停止 continue 继续 deserve 值得

hate 不喜欢 intend 打算 learn 学习

两者的区别不是很大,动名词所表示的动作,在意义上比较一般和抽象,时间观念不强,不指某一次动作;动名词不定式则常表示具体的动作,有将来是的意思〉如:

The boy like playing football.

这些男孩喜欢踢足球。(经常性的动作)

Would you like to play football with us this Sunday ?

这个周日愿意和我们一起踢足球吗?(一次的动作)

注:① 在以下两种情况下,begin 和start 的后面只能跟不定式。

谓语动词beigin 或start 为进行时。如:

It’s beginning /starting t orain .开始下雨了。(比较:It began/started raining / to rain.)

Begin 和start 的宾语为没有进行时的静态动词。如:

I began/ started to understand his point of wiew.我开始理解他的观点了。

② 当like 与should / would 连用表示愿望或选择时,后面只能跟不定式。如

I’d like to thank you again. 我愿意再次感谢你。

I’d like to go to the cyber café to play games. 我想去网吧玩游戏。

I’d like to come sometime. 日后我愿意来。

③ 当prefer 与would 连用表示选择时,后面只能跟不定式。如:

Would you prefer to live in the south or in the north ?

你愿意住南方还是住在北方?

④ 虽然continue 和like 之后既可以跟动名词,有可以跟不定式,但是它们的反义词discontinue 和dislike 的宾语却只能是动名词。如:

He discontinued running in the hot weather .在闷热的天气里,他中止了跑步。

The horse dislike wearing blinkers.那匹马不喜欢带眼罩。

(2) 在forget, remember 和regret 之后,动名词表示先于谓语动词发生的动作,不定式表示后与谓语动词发生的动作。如:Iremember reading the book. 我记得读过这本书。(已做)

记得做过某事

I must remember to read the book.我必须记得去读这本书。(未作)

记得去做某事。

The old lady forgot telling us the story and told us a second time.

那个老太太忘记给我们讲过这个故事,她又讲了一遍。(此事已做过或已发生。)

(忘记做过某事)

I forget to lock the door this morning.今天早晨我忘记锁门了。(此事未做)

(忘记要去做某事)

(3) Mean 后面跟动名词时,作“表示,意味着”解,后面跟不定式时,作“打算'解。如:

Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。(意味着)

I mean to come early today.

我打算今天早些来。(打算,有意要)

(4) try后面跟动名词,作“试试看”解,表示已完成的动作或具有名词意义的概念性动作,后面跟不定式,作"试图"解,表示未完成的动作。如:

Why not try knocking at the back door, even if nobody hears you at the front door.

即使前门没人听到,为什么不试试敲敲后门。(实验,试一试某种方法)。

He’ll try to improve his spoken English.

他设法提高他的英语口语。(努力,企图做某事)

(5)going on doing sth 作“不停的做一件事”解,go on to do sth 作“接着做另外一件事”解。如:

They went on working after dark.

天黑之后,他们继续工作。(继续原来没有做完的事情)

Afer finishing the letter, he went on to read a book.

写完信后,他接着读书。(继而去做另外一件事情)

(6)Stop 后面的动名词为宾语,不定式为目的状语。

Though they were all tired, they wouldn’t stop working.

虽然他们都很累,但是他们也不肯停止工作。(停止正在或经常做的事)

After walking a long time, he stopped to have a rest.

走了好长一段时间之后,他停下来休息。(停止,中断某件事,目的是去做另外一件事)

(7) 在need, require 和want 后,主动语态的动名词表示被动意义,主动语态的不定式表示主动意义。如:

The house needs / requires / want repairing (=to be repaired)

房子需要修缮。

6. 动名词作定语

动名词作定语时不以短语的形式出现,而且总是位于所修饰的名词之前,表示它所修饰的名词的目的,用途或场合。如:

he teacher has many reading materials.

老师又很多阅读资料

A swimming pool was built on our college last year.

我们的大学去年修建了一个游泳池。

Our teacher uses a very good teching method.

我们教师的教学方法很好。

注:动名词作定语和现在分词作定语是有区别的。动名词作定语时,和它修饰的名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系,即它不是该名词发出的动作,只是表明所修饰名词的“目的”“或用途”。现在分词作定语时则表明所修饰的词与分词有逻辑上的主谓关系。如:

a sleeping car (=a car for sleeping) 卧车(动名词作定语)

a sleeping babay (=a baby who is sleeping) 睡觉的婴儿(现在分词作定语)

常见的动名词作定语的例子还有: a reading room 阅览室 drinking water 饮用水 a writing course 写作课

the getting—up bell 起床铃 living condition 生活条件 walking stick 手杖

fishing pole 钓鱼竿 bathing cap 游泳帽 dinning hall 餐厅

第二章、动名词的结构和形式

1. 动名词的否定结构

动名词的否定结构由not 动名词组成。如:

Trying without success is better than not trying at all.

实验没有成功也比不实验好。

He hated himself for not having work hard.

他悔恨自己没有用功。

I’m sorry for not having telephoned you before.

很抱歉,没有早给你打电话。

He felt sorry for not having done the work well.

他为没有把工作做好感到难过。

I fancy it has done you a lot of good not going.

我看不去对你倒好了。(not going 是动名词一般式的否定形式)

There is no denying the fact that he si diligent. (no denying 也是动名词一般式的否定)

2. 动名词复合结构

通常情况下,动名词的逻辑主语为谓语动词的主语。如果动名词动作的发出者不失谓语动的主语时,则需要有自己的逻辑主语物主代词或名词所有格加动名词就构成了动名词的复合结构,这种结构在句中可以作主语,宾语等。

(1)逻辑主语是有生命的名词作主语时,必须用名词或代词所有格,作宾语时(尤其在口语中),也可用名词普通个或人称代词宾格。如:

Do you think my going there will be of any help?

你看我去会有什么帮助吗?(宾语)

The student’s knowing English well helps him in learning French.

这位学生通晓英语对他学法语很有帮助。(主语)

Do you mind my(me) smoking ?

你介意我抽烟吗?(宾语)

They insist on Mary’s (Mary) going with them there.

他们坚持要玛丽跟他们一起去那儿。(介词宾语)

(2)逻辑主语是无生命名词是,通常只用名词普通格。如:

Do you hear the rain pattering on the roof?

你听见雨点打在屋顶上了吗?

Is there any hope of our team winning the match ?

我们对赢得比赛有希望吗?

(3) 逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词this that , somebody , someone , nobody, none, anybody, anyone 时,只用普通格。如:

She was woken up by somebody shouting outside.

她被外面喊叫的人吵醒了。

3. 动名词的形式(一般式,完成式和被动式)

(1) 动名词的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词表示的动作之后。如:

We are very interested in collecting stamps.

我们对集邮很感兴趣。

His coming will be of great help to us .

他来对我们大有帮助。

但是有些明确表示时间的动词和介词 after, on,upon, 或for之后,常用一般式代替完成式,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。如:

I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time.

我永远不会忘记第一次看到长城的情景。

On hearing that bad news , the mother couldn’t help crying.

一听到这个糟糕的消息,母亲就禁不住哭了起来。

Excuse me for coming late.

我来晚了,请原谅。

Thank you for giving us so much help.

谢谢你给了我们这么多帮助。

(2) 动名词的完成式所表示的动作或状态在谓语动词之前完成或结束。

He regrets not having taken part in the work.

他后悔没有参加这项工作。

We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time.

我们因提前完成了这项工作而受到了表扬。

(3)动名词的被动式:当动名词的逻辑主语是行为承受者时,用被动语态。如:

I like being given harder work.

我喜欢接受难点的工作。

She is proud of being admitted into the university.

她为被大学录取而感到自豪。

The meeting was put off without his having been consulted.

会议延期并未和他商量。

He doesn’t mind having been criticized.

他不介意过去受到的批评。
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:44:49
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十二:现在分词

第一章、现在分词在句子中的成分

现在分词(The Present Participle)是一种限定动词。它由动词原形加词尾-ing构成。现在分词有双重性,它一方面有动词的性质,可以有状语和宾语,另一方面又有形容词的性质,可以用作定语。现在分词在各类考试中都是一项重要的测试内容。

1. 现在分词(短语)作表语

(1) 分词作表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词作表语,一种是过去分词作表语,究竟是用现在分词还是用过去分词作表语是学生们经常困惑的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如excite,interest等都是及物动词,汉语意思不是“激动”,“高兴”,而是“使激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed形式。换句话说,若人对……感兴趣,就是somebody is interested in..., 若人/ 物本身有兴趣时,就是说sb/sth is interesting。这类词常见的有:

interesting 使人感到高兴 — interested感到高兴的

exciting令人激动的— excited感到激动的

delighting令人高兴的— delighted感到高兴的

disappointing令人失望的— disappointed感到失望的

encouraging 令人鼓舞的— encouraged感到鼓舞的

pleasing令人愉快的— pleased感到愉快的

puzzling令人费解的— puzzled感到费解的

satisfying令人满意的— satisfied感到满意的

surprising令人惊异的— surpsried感到惊异的

worring令人担心的—worrred感到担心的

如:

Traveling is interesting but tiring.

旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳

The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.

如果让学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。

The argument is very convincing.

他的论点很令人信服。

They were very excited at the news.

听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

(2) 分词作表语时,相当于形容词,不可与构成进行时态和被动语态中的分词混淆起来。它们的形式是一样但可以从意义上予以区别。试比较:

The film is moving.

这电影很感人。(表语,说明主语的性质)

They are moving next Sunday .

他们下个周日搬家。(现在进行时,表示动作)

The bookstore is now closed.

书店现在已关门了。(表语,说明主语所处的状态)

The bookstore is usually closed at 7:30 p. m. .

书店通常在下午7:30关门。(被动语态,表示动作)

2. 现在分词(短语)作定语

(1) 单个的现在分词作定语时通常前置。如:

I’m reading an interesting novel.

我在读一本非常有趣的小说。

She is a charming child.

她是一个招人喜爱的孩子。

One of the delegates asked an embarrassing question.

其中有位代表提了一个令人难堪的问题。

This is a pressing question. 这是一个紧迫的问题。

(2) 现在分词短语作定语时通常后置,相当于一个定语从句。如:

Most of the young teachers working in the university are Ph.D. .

在这所大学工作的大多数年轻教师都是博士。(working=who working in this university)

Do you know the number of people coming to the party ?

你知道来参加晚会的人数吗?(coming=who will come)

The man speaking to us the other day has gone to Japan.

那天同我们讲话的那个人到日本去了。(speaking=who spoke)

3. 现在分词(短语)作状语

(1) 现在分词(短语)作时间状语

Walking along the street one day, sha saw a little girl running up to her.

(=when she was walking along the street one day .)

有一天当她正沿着大街向前走时,她看见一个小女孩朝她跑了过来。

While crossing the street, you must be careful.

当你横过马路时,一定要小心。

(=while you cross the street.)

现在分词(短语)强调与谓语动词的动作同时发生时,前面可带when,while,after,before,since 等从属连词。如:

When visiting a strange city,I like to have a guide-book with me.

游览陌生城市时,我喜欢随身带着导游手册。

While flying over the Channel,the pilot saw what he thought to be a meteorite.

飞过英吉利海峡时,驾驶员认为他看见了一颗陨星。

(2) Having no place to go to , the man wandered about in the street.

由于没有要去的地方,那个男人只好在街上徘徊。

Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday.

他由于病了,昨天就没有去上学。 ? (=because he was ill)

Living in the country,we had few social engagements.

(=Because we were living in the country)

我们住在乡村,交际的机会很少。

Seeing that it was raining,George put on his mackintosh.

鉴于下雨,乔治穿上了雨衣。(seeing that是一个原因的固定说法)

(3)现在分词(短语)作结果状语

Jane fell off the bike,cutting her leg.

简从自行车上摔下,划破了腿。

It rained heavily,causing severe flooding in that country.

大雨滂沱,造成了那个国家洪水泛滥。

(4) 现在分词(短语)作条件状语

Working hard, you will succeed.

努力工作,你就会成功。

Standing on the building ,you can see the whole city.

站在那座楼上,你会看到整个城市。

(5) 现在分词(短语)作让步状语

Such committees, being evenly balanced, almost never succeed in making unequivocal judgements.

这种委员会虽然代表性很均衡,但几乎从未做出十分明确的决断。

Although living miles away,he got around to visiting her.

尽管住在几英里以外,他还是去看她了。

While not being optimistic,I have not given up all hope.

虽然不乐观,但是我还没有放弃一切希望。

(6) 现在分词(短语)作方式状语

She came running back to tell usthe news

她跑着回来告诉我们这个消息。

Mary stood at the school gate wating for Betty.

玛丽站在校门口等贝蒂。

She looked out of the window,as though thinking.

她向窗外望去,似乎在思考。

(7) 现在分词(短语)作伴随状语

His wife came into the house carrying a bundle of clothes.

他妻子拿着一包衣服走进屋内。

Raymond entered college at the age of eighteen,graduating four years later at the head of his class.

雷蒙德18岁上大学,4年之后毕业时名列前茅。

(8) 现在分词(短语)在某些固定结构中作状语

① 现在分词(短语)在spend time / money / energy doing中作状语。如:

I wish you wouldn’t spend so much time watching television.

我希望你不要花这么多时间看电视。

He spends a lot of money entertaining his friends.

他花很多钱款待朋友。

The secretary spent his energy organizing the rally.

秘书为大会的组织工作用尽了力气。

② 现在分词(短语)在(be)busy doing中作状语。如:

The workers were busy unloading carts.

工人们忙着卸车。

He was busy packing.

他正忙着收拾行装。

③ 现在分词(短语)在have difficulty/trouble/a difficult time doing中作状语。如:

The boy had little difficulty learning mathematics.

那男孩学数学没有什么困难。

The two friends had a hard time getting here.

两位朋友到这里来一路辛苦。

At first she had a little trouble following the lectures.

起初她上课听讲有点困难。

④ 现在分词(短语)在keep doing中作状语。如:

Why do you keep saying that?

你为什么老说那件事?

⑤ 现在分词(短语)在go doing中作状语。如:

He often goes running.

他经常跑步。

4. 现在分词(短语)作宾语补足语

(1)现在分词(短语)在感官动词feel,hear,notice,observe,perceive,see,smell,watch,listen to,look at等之后作宾补。如:

I saw the naughty boy hitting the dog.

我看见那个顽皮孩子打狗。

One could hear her singing as she ran upstairs.

你可以听到她边唱歌边跑上楼。

We found him waiting to receive us.

我们发现他等着欢迎我们。

Many people observed the ship leaving the harbor.

许多人看到船驶离了港口。

(2) 现在分词(短语)在使役动词get,have 及bring(致使),keep(使),leave(使),send(使),set(使开始), start(使开始)等之后作宾补。如:

The doctor will soon have you walking about again.

医生将很快地使你能再走动。(have在此表示允诺)

I won’t have you shouting at me the way.

我不容许你这样对我喊叫。(have在此用于不允许)

The children kept the fire burning all the time.

孩子使火一直燃烧着。

(3) 现在分词(短语)在其他动词catch,detect,discover,find,want等之后作宾补。如:

The manager caught me smoking in the office again.

经理又抓住我在办公室抽烟了。

We don’t want you becoming too confident.

我不希望你变得太自信。

I found her reading in bed.

我发现她在床上看书。

第二章、现在分词的结构和时态

1. 现在分词独立结构

现在分词可有其独立的逻辑主语。这种主语常常是名词或代词主语,置于现在分词之前,二者构成一种分词独立结构。现在分词独立结构常用作状语,置于句首或句末,偶尔也置于句中。分句独立结构多用在书面语中。

(1) 表时间。如:

The bell ringing, the children all stopped talking.

铃声一响,孩子们都不说话了。

The dark clouds having dispersed,the sun shone again.

乌云已散去,太阳又普照大地了。

The question being settled,we went home.

问题解决之后,我们就回家了。

(2) 表原因。如:

It being a holiday,I went fishing.

那天放假,我钓鱼去了。

The night being dark, she was afraid to go there.

天黑,她不敢去那儿。

The river having risen in the night,the crossing was impossible.

夜里河水上涨,渡河不可能了。

(3) 表条件。如:

Weather permiting, we’ll have an outing tomorrow.

要是天气许可的话,我们明天就去郊游。

Other things being equal,I would buy the black dress not the white one.

其他方面若都相同,我将买那件黑的衣服,不买那件白的。

(4) 表方式或伴随情况。如:

The teacher came in, his hand carring a book.

老师手中拿着书进来了。

Their room was on the third floor,its window overlooking the sportsground.

他们的房间在三层楼上,窗户俯视着操场。

He guiding her,they stumbled through the street.

他引着她,两个人蹒跚着穿过那条街。

(5) 现在分词独立结构有时可由介词with或without引导。如:

She came without anyone accompanying her.

她来了,没有任何人陪着她。

2. 现在分词的否定结构

现在分词的否定式由“not+现在分词”构成。如:

Not knowing where to go, she went to the police for help.

她不知道该往哪儿走,就去请警察帮助。(现在分词一般式的否定结构)

Not seeing John, I asked where he was.

我看不见约翰,于是问他在何处。(现在分词一般式的否定结构)

Not being seen by anyone, the thief escaped.

那个贼趁无人看见时逃跑了。(现在分词被动式的否定结构)

Not having done it right,I tried again.

我由于没有做对,所以又试了试。(现在分词完成式的否定结构)

3. 现在分词的一般式

(1) 现在分词的一般式通常表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生。如:

She sat there reading a novel.

她坐在那里看小说。

A little child learning to walk often falls.

学走路的小孩常常跌跤。

(2) 现在分词的一般式所表示的动作有时在谓语动词的动作之前发生。如:

Going into the room,he shut the door.

走进房间,他就关上了门。

4. 现在分词的完成式

现在分词的完成式表示其动作在谓语动词的动作之前完成。

Having finished her homework, the little girl began to watch TV.

做完作业后,这个小女孩开始看电视。

Haning lived in Beijing for many years, Carter knew the city well.

因为在北京住了多年,卡特对这个城市很熟悉。

5. 现在分词的被动式

现在分词的被动式表示其逻辑主语为现在分词动作的承受者。

(1) 现在分词的一般被动式。如:

The building being built is our library.

正在建的那栋楼是我们的图书馆。

The question being discussed is of great importance.

正在讨论的问题非常重要。

(2) 现在分词的完成被动式。如:

Having been warned by the teacher, the students didn’t make such mistakes.

老师警告他们之后,学生们不再犯这样的错误了。

Having been told many times , he still did not know how to do it.

(人家)已经告诉他多少次了,他还是不知道怎么做。

6. 垂悬现在分词

现在分词作状语时,其逻辑主语应该与句子的主语一致,但有时现在分词的主语与其所在句中的主语并不一致,这种现在分词即所谓的垂悬现在分词。垂悬现在分词容易使句意模糊,甚至造成歧义,因而通常被认为是不合规范或错误的用法。

Searching along the deck,it had taken him some time to find a doctor.

他沿着甲板找了好久才找到一名医生。(searching的逻辑主语是句中的him)

Walking or sleeping,this subject was always in my mind.

不论是走路或睡觉,我总是在想着这个问题。

(walking or sleeping的逻辑主语是句中的my)
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:45:33
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十三:过去分词

第一章、过去分词在句子中的成分

过去分词(The Past Participle)是一种非限定动词。它通常由动词原形加-ed构成,少数不规则动词的过去分词为不规则形式。过去分词一般只有一种形式,但是有的不规则动词的过去分词有两种形式。在各类应试中,过去分词都是一项重要的测试内容。

1. 过去分词(短语)作表语

The traverllers were completely exhausted.

游客完全筋疲力尽了。

The scientists were excited about the result of the experiment.

科学家们对实验结果感到很兴奋。

Never touch an electric wire when it is broken.

绝不要动断了的电线。

We are determined to build a reservoir here in the shortest possible time.

我们决心尽快地在这里建一水库。

I am convinced of his honesty.

我深信他的诚实。

Are you satisfied that I am telling the truth?

你相信我说的是实话吗?

2.过去分词(短语)作定语

(1) 单个的过去分词作定语时通常前置。及物动词的过去分词具有被动和完成意义。如: the unexpected loss意外损失 planned economy计划经济

a complicated problem复杂问题 changed conditions改变了的情况

armed forces武装部队 canned food罐装食品

stricken area灾区 a delighted look高兴的神色

(2) 不及物动词的过去分词具有主动和完成意义。如: fallen leaves落叶 faded flowers凋谢的花

newly arrived goods新到的商品 the exploded bomb已爆炸了的炸弹

the risen sun升起的太阳 departed friends离去的朋友

an escaped prisoners逃犯 a retired teacher退休教师

retured students归国留学生 an expired passports过期护照

(3) 过去分词短语作定语时通常后置,其意义相当于一个定语从句,但比从句简洁,多用于书面语。如:

The concert given by the symphony was a great success.

该交响乐团举行的音乐会大为成功。

A drop of water seen through microscope is filled with living things.

通过显微镜能看到一滴水里充满了各种生物。

(4) 以“名词+过去分词”或“副词+过去分词”组成的复合形容词作前置定语。如:

state-owned enterprises 国有企业

a poverty-stricken plac e贫穷的地方

quick-frozen food 速冻食品

a much-needed reform 急需进行的改革

3. 过去分词(短语)作状语

(1) 过去分词(短语)作时间状语 Seen under a microscope ,a fresh snowflake has a delicate six-pointed shape.

在显微镜下观察,刚飘下的雪花呈精巧的六角形。

(=when it is seen under the microscope)

When heated, ice will be changed into water.

当冰受热时,它就会变成水。

(=when it is heated)

(2) 过去分词(短语)作原因状语

Many of us, being so excited ,could not go to sleep that night

我们很多人是那样的激动,那天晚上都没有睡着。

(=because we were so excited)

Born and bred in the countryside,sister Carrie was bewildered by the big city.

嘉莉妹妹生长在乡下,对这座大城市感到迷惑。

Gone from home so long,they joyously embraced their mates of boyhood.

他们久离家乡,高兴地拥抱他们的儿时伙伴。

Raised in an atmosphere of love,Shaw is always willing to help others.

肖在充满了爱的环境中长大,所以他总是愿意帮助别人。

(3) 过去分词(短语)作条件状语

Some metropolitan newspapers would make sizable volumes if printed in book form.

如果印成书的形式,有些大城市的报纸的销量会相当可观。

Seen in this light,the matter is not as serious as people generally suppose.

从这个角度看,问题并不像人们一般料想的那样严重。

Given better attention,the cabbages could grow even faster.

白菜照管得好会生长得更快。

Considered from this point,the question is of great importance.

从这一点看,这个问题很重要。

(4) 过去分词(短语)作让步状语

Mocked at by everybody,he had my sympathy.

人人都嘲笑他,但我却同情他。

Left to his own devices,Charles did not relax his efforts.

查尔斯虽孤立无援,但他并没有放松自己的努力。

Although exhausted by the climb,he continued his journey.

他虽然爬得很累,但他仍继续前进。

(5) 过去分词(短语)作方式状语

I finished the work as requested.

我按要求完成了工作。

As scheduled, the two friends met on May 10.

根据安排,两个朋友于5月10日见了面。

That fellow was walking with a limp as if injured.

那家伙一瘸一拐地走着,似乎受了伤。

但要注意:过去分词(短语)作方式状语时,前面通常带有as, as if等从属连词,此时可视为省略的让步状语从句。

(6) 过去分词(短语)作伴随状语

Found in all parts of the state,pines are the most common trees in Georgia.

松树在佐治亚州随处可见,是该州最普通的树木。

He went to work,burdened with worries.

他心事重重地上班去了。

The headmaster went into the lab, followed by the foreign guests

校长走进了实验室,后面跟着外宾。

第二章、过去分词的结构

1. 过去分词独立结构

过去分词有时可有其独立主语,二者构成一种独立分词结构。过去分词独立结构多用于书面语中,常用作状语,用来表示时间、条件、原因、伴随情况等。如:

He rushed into the room,his face covered with sweat.

他满脸是汗跑进屋来。(表伴随)

This done,we went home.

做完此事,我们就回家了。(表时间)

All our savings gone,the couple started looking for jobs.

积蓄全部用完了,这对夫妻就开始找工作。(表原因)

That point settled,the speaker went on to the next one.

那个问题讲完了,演讲人继续讲下一个问题。(表时间)

2. with/without+宾语+过去分词表示伴随情况的独立结构

With everything taken into consideration,we all think this is a very good plan.

每件事都考虑到了,我们都认为这是一项不错的计划。

With different methods used,different results are obtained.

采用不同的方法,得到不同的结果。

She went angrily away without a word spoken.

她一个字也没说,就生气地走了。

3. 过去分词(短语)作宾语补足语

(1) 过去分词(短语)在感官动词和使役动词等之后作宾语补足语,这些词语有: have 让,使 keep 使处于某状态 get 使得

see 看见 hear 听见 find 发现

feel 感觉到 leave 使处于某状态 make 使

want 想要 start 引起 notice 注意

observe 观察 watch 注视 set 使处于某状态

如:

The work left him exhausted.

这个活使得他筋疲力尽。

The doorkeeper heard the chain and bolts withdrawn.

看门人听见门上的链和拴被拉开了。

The tenant found the house renovated.

房客看到房子已整修过了。

It’s better to leave some things unsaid.

有些事倒是不说的好。

I don’t want my name linked with him.

我不要把我的名字和他联系在一起。

The person concerned should like this matter settled immediately.

当事人希望此事立刻得到解决。

(2)过去分词(短语)在使役动词get或have之后作宾语补足语,表示的动作往往是由别人完成的。如:

I had my car repaired

我把我的车修好了。(别人修的)

I had my hair cut

我理发了。(别人给我理的)

We must get the television set repaired

我们必须把电视机修好。(被别人修)

He had his window broken to pieces.

他的窗户给打破了。(被他人打破)
梦儿 发表于 2010-8-20 13:46:24
《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十四:介词

介词的种类、短语及搭配

介词(The Preposition)又叫做前置词,通常置于名词之前。它是一种虚词,不需要重读,在句中不单独作任何句子成分,只表示其后的名词或相当于名词的词语与其他句子成分的关系。中国学生在使用英语进行书面或口头表达时,往往会出现遗漏介词或误用介词的错误,因此各类考试语法的结构部分均有这方面的测试内容。

1. 介词的种类

英语中最常用的介词,按照不同的分类标准可分为以下几类:

(1). 简单介词、复合介词和短语介词

①.简单介词是指单一介词。如:

at , in ,of ,by , about , for, from , except , since, near, with 等。

②. 复合介词是指由两个简单介词组成的介词。如:

Inside, outside , onto, into , throughout, without , as to as for , unpon, except for 等。

③. 短语介词是指由短语构成的介词。如:

In front of , by means o f, on behalf of, in spite of , by way of , in favor of , in regard to 等。

(2). 按词义分类

{1} 表地点(包括动向)的介词。如:

About ,above, across, after, along , among, around , at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between , beyond ,by, down, from, in, into , near, off, on, over, through, throught, to, towards,, under, up, unpon, with, within , without 等。

{2} 表时间的介词。如:

About, after, around , as , at, before , behind , between , by, during, for, from, in, into, of, on, over, past, since, through, throughout, till(until) , to, towards , within 等。

{3} 表除去的介词。如:

beside , but, except等。

{4} 表比较的介词。如:

As, like, above, over等。

{5} 表反对的介词。如:

againt ,with 等。

{6} 表原因、目的的介词。如:

for, with, from 等。

{7} 表结果的介词。如:

to, with , without 等。

{8} 表手段、方式的介词。如:

by, in ,with 等。

{9} 表所属的介词。如:

of , with 等。

{10} 表条件的介词。如:

on, without , considering 等。

{11} 表让步的介词。如:

despite, in spite notwithstanding等。

{12} 表关于的介词。如:

About, concerning, regarding ,with regard to, as for , as to

{13} 表对于的介词。如:

to, for over , at , with 等。

{14} 表根据的介词。如:

on, according to 等。

{15} 表其他的介词。如:

for(赞成),without(没有)等。

2. 介词短语

(1).介词短语的构成 介词之后出现的名词、代词或其他相当于名词的结构、短语或从句叫介词宾语。介词短语是指介词和介词宾语构成的短语。介词短语的构成主要有下面的形式:

{1} 介词+名词。如:

The headmaster lives near the school

校长住在学校附近。

{2} 介词+名词性从句。如:

I am curious as to what she will say.

我很想知道她想说什么。

{3} 介词+代词。如:

What do you know about him ?

关于他,你都知道些什么?

{4} 介词+动名词短语或其复合结构。如:

He is interested in swimming.

他对游泳感兴趣。

The painter is keen on collecting coins

那位画家喜欢收集硬币。

There are no risk of you being late

你不会迟到的。

{5} 介词+连接词或连接副词引导的从句或不定式。如:

Your success will largely depend upon how you do it.

你成功与否将主要取决于你怎样做。

The teacher gave us a talk on how to study English .

老师给我们做了一个如何学英语的讲座。

{6} 介词+数词。如:

Six from twelve is six

12减6等于6。

{7} 介词+形容词。如:

We know her of old

我们老早就认识了她。

{8} 介词+副词。如:

They worked all day and had a hurried luch in between .

他们工作了一整天,中间匆匆吃了一顿饭。

(2). 介词短语的作用

介词短语在句中可作多种句子成分:

{1} 作主语。如:

From the library to the teaching building is a 5 minutes’ walk.

从图书馆到教学楼要走五分钟。

{2} 作表语。如:

Are you for the plan?

你赞成这个计划吗?

I was at my grandma’s yesterday.

我昨天在我奶奶家。

{3} 作宾语。如:

He gave me until tomorrow.

他给我的期限是到明天。

The dog came out from behind the tree..

狗从树后出来。(behind the tree 作介词from 的宾语)

{4} 作定语。如:

She is a woman of strong character.

她是位性格坚强的女人。

The expert will give us a lecture on how to improve soil.

这个专家将给我们作一个如何改良土壤的讲座。

{5} 作补语。如:

He woke up and found himself in hospital

他醒来发现自己在医院里。(in hospital作宾补)

As a doctor ,he is always patient with the patients

作为一个医生,他一贯对患者很耐心。(As a doctor 作主补)

{6} 作状语。如:

I wil be free on Tuesday morning.

星期二上午我有空。(时间状语)

We’ll meet at the station .

我们将在火车站碰面。(地点状语)

She covered her face with her hands and cried

她用双手捂着脸哭。(方式状语)

He left home and worked in a big city for the sake o f money .

他为了赚钱,离家到一个大城市工作。(目的状语)

The tree died from want of water .

这棵树因缺水而死。(原因状语)

In spite of all his effort ,he failed

尽管他很努力,但还是失败了。(让步状语)

No living thing can live without water.

生物离开水都无法生存。(条件状语)

With the words, he came into the room他说着话就进来了。(伴随状语)

To a great extent, it is not fair .

在很大程度上,这是不公平的。(程度状语)

In general her works have been good, but this one is dreaful.

总的来说,她的作品很不错,不过这篇很糟。?( in general 作评注性状语)

It doesn’t seem ugly to me , on the contrary, I think it’s very beautiful.

我觉得它不丑,恰恰相反,我觉得它很美。(on the cntrary作连接性状语)

3. 介词与其他词类的固定搭配

介词常常和形容词、名词、动词等构成固定搭配,即某些词的后面常要求特定的介词以表示固定的意义。

(1).形容词与介词的固定搭配

形容词与介词的固定搭配

{1} 形容词+about

Angry with对……生气  anxous about担心 calm about对……很平静

care bout小心careless about粗心   certain about对……有把握

curious about对……好奇  sure about确信  doubtful about对……怀疑

enthusiastic about对……热情的;热心的hopeful about对……抱希望

frank about对……坦白的;坦率的  incredulous about对……不相信

{2} 形容词+at

clever at擅长于……  expert at对……熟练的  good at擅长于……

indignant at对……愤慨的  quick at做……敏捷  slow at 对……反应慢

surprised at对……吃惊

{3} 形容词+for

anxious for渴望的eligible for有资格的  famous for因……而著名

fit for对某人适宜hungry for对……渴望  late for迟到

possible for可能qualified for有资格的  ready for准备好

responsible for对……负责necessary for为……所必需

{4} 形容词+from

absent from缺席  free from使……摆脱  prohibited from禁止某事物

safe from安全  detached from分开某物  different from与……不同

{5} 形容词+in

absorbed in专心于disappointed in对……失望  experienced in有经验

expert in 在……熟练  fortunate in有幸interested in对……感兴趣

rich in富于;盛产successful in在……成功

{6} 形容词+ of

afraid of害怕  ashamed of羞耻  aware of知道  certain of确信

fond of喜爱guilty of有罪的proud of骄傲  short of缺乏

sick of厌烦  tired of厌倦  worthy of值得

{7} 形容词+to

contrary to与……相反  determined to有决心的  equal to等于

familiar to为……所熟悉  favourabel to对……有利  harmful to有害的

inclined to准备做某事  indifferent to对……不在乎  similar to相似;相同

{8} 形容词+with

angry with对……感到恼火  annoyed at对……烦恼  busy with忙于

crowded with拥挤  familiar with精通;熟悉  friendly with与……友好

nervouse with对……感到紧张  patient with对……有耐心  popularwith受欢迎

satified with对……满意

{9} 形容词+on

dependent on依靠  intend on坚决;专心 keen on热衷于某事物 severe on严格的

(2). 名词与介词的固定搭配

{1} 介词+名词。如:

at the cinema在电影院 at university上大学

  from……point of view从某人的角度  for the sake of为了

in poerty 在穷困中  in earnest有决心的

on sale在出售 on the average平均的 on the contrary相反地

on the radio 通过收音机  to some extent某种程度

to one’ssurprise让某人吃惊  to one’sdelight让某人高兴

{2} 名词+介词。如:

dependence on依靠 independence on不依靠

discussion about/on关于……的讨论hundres on数以百计的

thousands of成千上万的 influence on对……的影响

explanationof/for对……的解释  half of……的一半

the idea of……的主意 lack of缺乏

proof of……的证据  reason of……的原因

Responsibility for对……的责任  success in/at在……成功

(3). 动词与介词的固定搭配

{1} 动词+介词 agree with同意;赞同 arrive at到达 arrive in到达

fall behind 落后 come from来自 sonsist of由……组成

get to到达 hear from收到……来信 hear of听说

laugh at嘲笑 listen to听 look after照看;照料

look at看 look for寻找 look like看起来

{2} 动词+副词+介词 catch up with赶上; 超过

do well in在……方面做得好 get on with与某人相处

go on with继续 take care of关心 take part in参加
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