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品葡萄酒的11个常见问题

发布者: katy | 发布时间: 2010-2-16 10:00| 查看数: 1065| 评论数: 0|

We realized we have answered thousands of questions from readers, but the same ones keep coming up. Here we offer answers to our 11 most-asked questions, in condensed form.

我们已经解答过读者关于葡萄酒所提出的成千上万个问题,但同样的问题还是层出不穷。在这里,我们对11个出现频率最多的问题给予简练的回答。

In each case, the answer could be far more extensive, with all sorts of to-be-sures and howevers - in fact, in every case we have written at least one entire column on the issue over the years. But if we had to answer in about 100 words or less, this is what we'd say. They are listed from the 11th-most-asked to the most asked. Don't peek.

每个问题的答案都可以更为详尽,包括各种常识和例外等等──事实上,这么多年来,针对每个问题我们都至少写过一篇专栏文章加以阐述,但如果要在100个字以内做出回答,那下面就是我们的答案。这11个常见问题按出现频率由低到高排列,一个一个来,别急着偷看最后那个。

You can find more comprehensive answers to many of these questions and others in other areas of this How-to Guide.

当然,可以在品酒指南专栏的其他文章中找到有关下列问题的更详尽的解答。

11. What's the best glass?

11、什么杯子喝葡萄酒最合适?


We prefer a large glass - around 20 to 22 ounces is good - because it feels generous in our hands and we can swirl around the small amount we pour into it. Look for clear, thin glass; a long stem; and a slight curve inward at the top. We prefer inexpensive glasses so we don't worry about breaking them. Over the years, we have found good glasses at a wide variety of stores, including Pier 1 and Costco (though we haven't seen our favorites at either place recently). Vino Grande Burgundy from Spiegelau, which is owned by Riedel, is our everyday glass.

我们喜欢大一点的葡萄酒杯,重量在20到22盎司比较适宜,因为那样手感很好,能来回旋转杯中倒入的少量葡萄酒。要找那种透明度高、杯壁薄、杯脚长、杯口微微收拢的杯子,价格不要太贵,免得打碎了心疼。这些年来,我们在很多商店都发现不少好杯子,比如Pier 1和Costco连锁超市等(但这两个地方最近都买不到我们最青睐的那些酒杯)。奥地利力多公司旗下的德国诗杯客乐出品的勃艮蒂杯是我们品酒的日常用具。

10. Where are the best values coming from these days?

10、目前性价比最高的葡萄酒产自哪里?


This has leaped onto this list in the past year, for obvious reasons. If we had to answer in one word, it would be this: Chile. Look especially for its Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc. But Argentina (especially Malbec), New Zealand (especially Sauvignon Blanc) and South Africa (also Sauvignon Blanc) are good bets, too.

去年这个问题一跃进入前11大榜单,原因当然显而易见。如果用一个词来回答的话,那个词就是:智利。智利的赤霞珠和长相思白葡萄酒特别好。不过,阿根廷、新西兰和南非的葡萄酒都是不错的选择,尤其是阿根廷的马尔白克红葡萄酒,以及新西兰和南非的长相思白葡萄酒。

9. What wines should I serve at a party (or to any large gathering)?

9、开派对(或任何大型聚会)时应该选什么葡萄酒?


For a white, Chilean or New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc is a winner. For a red, we used to recommend one of the cru Beaujolais (such as Fleurie) and we still like that advice, but Argentina's Malbec is so popular right now and so widely enjoyed that we'd recommend that instead. If you are looking for an affordable bubbly for a group, it's hard to go wrong with Cava from Spain.

如果选白葡萄酒,智利或新西兰的长相思最好。如果选红葡萄酒,我们以前推荐过薄若来列级(cru Beaujolais,薄若来的最高级法定产区),比如弗俐叶红酒,如今也没有改变观点;但阿根廷的马尔白克现在非常热门,很多人都爱喝,因此我们改为推荐这个品种。如果你想找一款物美价廉的气泡酒,那么选择西班牙的卡瓦酒应该没错。

8. How do I remove labels?

8、怎么把酒瓶上的商标揭下来?


We're thrilled to be asked this so often because it means people are drinking wines they want to remember. You could take a digital picture, of course. But if you want to remove the actual label (as we do), most labels these days work with the oven method: Heat oven to 350 degrees. Turn it off. Put the empty bottle in for a few minutes until it gets really hot. Wearing serious oven mitts, carefully remove the bottle, lift a corner of the label with a fingernail or a knife and peel right off. (Some labels still need to be boiled off, so we try that next, after the bottle has cooled. If all else fails, many wine stores sell large, sticky strips that basically peel the label off.)

这个问题经常出现,让我们感到激动,因为这意味着人们觉得现在喝的葡萄酒值得记住名字。当然,你可以拍一张数码照片;但如果想揭下酒瓶的商标(我们就这么做),如今的商标大多可以用“烘烤法”解决:加热烤箱至350华氏度(约177摄氏度),然后关掉烤箱,把空酒瓶放进去几分钟,让它变得很热,戴上烤箱手套小心取出瓶子,用指甲或小刀挑开商标的一角,直接揭下即可。(有些商标比较顽固,如果烘烤法不行,就等瓶子冷却后,用水煮一下。如果所有方法都无效,很多葡萄酒专卖店出售一些大贴纸,可以直接把商标揭下来。)

7. Should I decant?

7、葡萄酒喝的时候需要换瓶吗?


Generally, no - at least, not at first. We enjoy tasting a wine from the first sip to the last and it will get plenty of air in those big glasses while we swirl. If we taste a wine and it's so tight that it needs decanting, we can decant; if we decant first and then find that the wine lost some fruit to the air, there's no going back. (Of course, if a wine needs to be separated from sediment, that's another matter.)

一般来说不需要,至少一开始不必换瓶。我们喜欢一口口把酒喝完,那么葡萄酒在大杯中打旋的过程能接触到充足的空气,用不着换瓶醒酒。如果尝一口后觉得酒味过于涩,需要“呼吸”一下,那么就可以换瓶。假如一开始就去醒酒,结果发现葡萄酒的一些果味流失在空气之中,那就没有后悔药可吃了。(当然,如果换瓶的目的是为了过滤陈酒里的沉淀物,那是另外一回事。)

6. Do I have to store my wine in a temperature-controlled cellar?

6、必须把葡萄酒存放在恒温酒窖中吗?


If you simply want to keep a mixed case of wine around the house for a short time - and you should - find a place in the dark with a fairly constant, moderate temperature. The bottom of a closet is often fine. If you have fine wine you want to store for longer, get one of those wine refrigerators. They are more affordable, available and space-efficient than ever and they're worth it. If you want to lay down a bottle in that temperature-controlled cellar for your newborn - and this is also a question we're often asked - we'd suggest Sauternes.

如果你把不同品牌的葡萄酒放在一个盒子里,打算在家放置比较短的时间(你也应该这么做),那只要找一个避光、温度相对稳定适宜的地方就行,柜子角落往往是不错的选择。如果你有很好的葡萄酒,想保存时间长一点,那就买一款葡萄酒冰柜,价格不算贵,而且不占地方,可谓物超其值。如果你想为刚出生的宝宝在酒窖里存放一款葡萄酒,等他长大后再喝 ─这也是一个常见的问题─那我推荐法国苏特恩白葡萄酒。

6a. What is the correct cellar temperature, and do whites and reds need to be different?

6a、正确的酒窖温度是多少,白葡萄酒和红葡萄酒的保存温度有无区别?


Classic cellar temperature is about 55 degrees. We keep reds and whites at about 57 because we find that it's a good starting point for serving both. Most reds are served too warm and most whites are served too cold, especially at restaurants. We might want to chill our whites a bit more or warm our reds by leaving them on the table as we sip them, but 57 is a good starting point.

酒窖温度一般控制在55华氏度左右(约13摄氏度),我们存放红葡萄酒和白葡萄酒的温度一般在57华氏度左右(约14摄氏度),因为我们发现这对两者来说都是比较适宜的上酒温度。在大多数场合下,红葡萄酒的上酒温度太高,白葡萄酒的上酒温度过低,餐厅上酒时尤其如此。如果把57华氏度作为起始温度,白葡萄酒可能需要再冷却一点点,而红葡萄酒则需要放在桌上等一下,让它变暖一些,但总的来说,这个起始温度不错。

5. I want to find a bottle I had at a restaurant (or that I read about); how do I get it?

5、我想找一瓶在餐厅喝过(或在文章上看过)的葡萄酒,怎么才能找到?


Try wine-searcher.com, wineaccess.com and winezap.com. Chances are you will find it. Even if it is not listed for sale at a local wine shop, you might be able to have it delivered from a faraway store. If you can't do that, perhaps because of local laws, try calling a store that has it and asking the merchant to look at the label and give you the name of the distributor, whom you can call. This is one of many reasons you should have a good local wine merchant, because he or she can help find it.

你可以去wine-searcher.com、 wineaccess.com和winezap.com这几个网站试试,应该能找到。此外,即使有一款酒不在当地葡萄酒专卖店的库存清单中,说不定也能从更远的店里调货过来。如果出于当地法律等因素无法调货,你也可以试着给葡萄酒专卖店打电话,让店员帮你看看酒瓶上的商标,把分销商的电话告诉你,然后你直接跟分销商联系。葡萄酒爱好者希望本地有一家好的专卖店,原因有很多种,而这就是其中之一,因为店员能帮你找到一款难以寻觅的葡萄酒。

4. I love X wine; what do you think of it?

4、我喜欢某某葡萄酒,你们觉得如何?


We're surprised how often we are asked this. Our answer is: It doesn't matter. We think you should drink the wines you love and love the wines you drink. Don't let anyone, including us, tell you what's good and what isn't. In fact, though, this does touch on a very good and much more important question, one that you should regularly pose to that helpful wine merchant you need to find: I love X wine; what else do you have in your store that I might like at around the same price? That's how great wine journeys get started.

这个问题出现的频率之高让我们感到惊讶。对此的回答是:我们的观点并不重要,你应该喝自己喜欢的葡萄酒,并喜欢自己喝的葡萄酒,而不必让包括我们在内的任何人告诉你什么是好酒,什么不是。其实,这个问题可以引申出另一个很好的问题,而且对你来说重要得多。你应该经常向那个你最好能够有幸发现的热心店员询问:我喜欢某某葡萄酒,你们店里有没有相同价位的类似葡萄酒,说不定我也会喜欢?伟大的葡萄酒体验之旅,往往就是这么开始的。

3. Why does wine give me headaches; sulfites, right?

3、为什么我喝葡萄酒后会头疼,是因为葡萄酒中含有亚硫酸盐吗?


Wrong. Sulfites cause very severe allergic reactions in a small number of people, even death in extreme cases, which is why there's a warning on the bottle, but sulfites don't cause headaches. Wine headaches are a serious issue, but the causes are highly personal. Some people get headaches only from red wine and some get them just from, say, German wine. It has to do with histamines and all sorts of other complex science. It really is best to talk with your doctor about this.

不对。亚硫酸盐会导致一小部分人产生严重的过敏反应,极端情况下甚至会致死,因此酒瓶上都标有相应的警示文字,但亚硫酸盐不会引起头疼。喝葡萄酒感觉头疼是一个严重的问题,但原因是因人而异的。有些人只喝红葡萄酒后头疼,而有些人只喝德国葡萄酒后头疼。这跟人体内的组织胺以及其他各种复杂的生化反应有关,最好是向你的医生咨询意见。

3a. But wines in Europe don't have sulfites, right?

3a、但欧洲的葡萄酒里不含亚硫酸盐,对吗?


Wrong. All wines contain sulfites (it's a natural byproduct of the winemaking process) and almost all wines contain added sulfites, all over the world. It's just that the U.S. has required a sulfite warning for many years and Europe started doing that more recently.

不对。所有的葡萄酒里都有亚硫酸盐(这是葡萄酒制造过程中自然产生的副产品),而且在全球范围,绝大多数葡萄酒都添加亚硫酸盐作为防腐剂。只有美国在很多年前就要求酒瓶上标注关于亚硫酸盐的警示,而欧洲在近期才开始这么做。

2. I'm going to a wine region; what wineries should I visit?

2、我要去一个葡萄酒产区,应该去哪些酒庄呢?


Whether you are going to Napa, Piedmont or Châteauneuf-du-Pape, our advice is the same: Drop into the little places you've never heard of. You are more likely to meet the actual owners or winemakers and have a better time. Not only that, but these are the wines you could never buy at home, so here's your chance.

不管你去Napa、Piedmont还是Ch teauneuf du Pape,我们的建议都是一样的:去你从没听说过的小地方。这样的话,你更有可能遇到真正的酒庄主人或葡萄酒生产者,度过更加愉快的时光。此外,你还能在那里买到在家根本买不到的葡萄酒,真是一个难得的好机会。

1. When will this wine be at its peak?

酒的价值在什么时候是最高的?


First, remember that most wines are made to drink when they are released. In terms of fine, ageable wines, there are all sorts of online sources that will give you a ballpark idea of theoretical peak readiness. But every bottle is different and there are many variables, such as storage conditions and personal taste. Open a special bottle when the moment seems right to you. If you have an old bottle like those old Lafites, make a special meal, open the bottles and celebrate the memories. If you simply can't stand to do that alone, remember that Open That Bottle Night is the last Saturday of February. That's when you can join others like you, world-wide, in opening their special bottles.

首先要记住一点,葡萄酒生产出来就是为了喝的。针对那些可以长时间存放的精品葡萄酒,网上有各种资源会给你一个理论上的最佳存放时间;但每一瓶酒都是不同的,存放状态不一样,每个人的口味偏好也不一样。当你觉得某个时刻值得庆祝时,就打开一瓶特殊的葡萄酒吧。如果你有一瓶拉菲这样的陈年葡萄酒,那不妨准备一顿丰盛的美食,开瓶庆祝一下美好的回忆。如果你不愿一个人独享,那就记住每年的“开瓶夜”(Open That Bottle Night)是二月份的最后一个星期六。在这一天,你可以和全世界的葡萄酒爱好者一起,打开你们珍藏的那瓶陈年葡萄酒。

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