发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2024-6-18 03:31| 查看数: 77| 评论数: 0|

It was one of the strangest trials in Dutch history.


The defendant in this 1947 case was an art forger who had counterfeited millions of dollars worth of paintings.

在这宗 1947 年的案件中,被告是一名艺术伪造者,他伪造过价值数百万美元的赝品。

But he wasn't arguing his innocence— in fact, his life depended on proving that he had committed the fraud.

但他在案件中却没有在为自己的清白辩护——事实上,他必须证明自己 犯了伪造罪,才能保住性命。

Like many art forgers, Han van Meegeren was an artist whose original works had failed to bring him renown.

与其他许多同行一样,汉 · 范米格伦是一位艺术家,可是他的原创作品并未能让他名声大振。

Embittered towards the art world, Van Meegeren set out to make fools of his detractors.


He learned all he could about the Old Masters— their biographies, their techniques, and their materials.

他深度剖析那些早期大师们的作品——他研习了他们的传记、 技巧和画作材料。

The artist he chose for his deception was 17th century Baroque painter Johannes Vermeer— an ambitious decision given Vermeer was famed for his carefully executed and technically brilliant domestic scenes.

他的骗局从选择伪造一位 17 世纪的巴洛克画家开始,约翰内斯 · 维米尔 ——这是一个野心勃勃的决定,因为维米尔以技艺精湛的室内画像而闻名。

Working in secret for six years, the forger perfected his art, copying numerous works as practice.


He mixed his own paints after researching the raw materials and pigments available in Vermeer's time.


He bought 17th century canvases, created his own brushes, and aged the works by applying synthetic resin and baking them to dry and crack the paint.

他购买了 17 世纪的画布,制作了自己的画笔,添加合成树脂, 并烘烤让颜料干燥开裂,以制造出年代久远的效果。

A forensic test could have detected the synthetic resin.


But at the time, such tests were neither advanced nor widespread,


and even today verification of a painting's uthenticity relies on the assessment of art specialists.


So it's a matter of their subjective judgment— as well as their reputation.


And this is where van Meegeren truly outwitted the art world.


From his research, he knew historians believed Vermeer had an early period of religious painting influenced by the Italian painter Caravaggio.


The leading authority on Vermeer, Abraham Bredius, was a huge proponent of this theory, though none of these works had surfaced.

尽管未曾有人发现过这些作品, 研究维米尔的权威人士亚伯拉罕 · 布雷迪乌斯是这个理论的绝对支持者。

So Van Meegeren decided to make one.


He called it "The Supper at Emmaus."


Bredius declared van Meegeren's fake the masterpiece of Vermeer's oeuvre.


Van Meegeren's forgery was not totally up to Vermeer's technical standards, but these inconsistencies could be made to fit the narrative:


this was an early work, produced before the artist had come into his own.


With the stamp of approval from the art world, the fake was sold in 1937 for the equivalent of over $4 million in today's money.

由于得到了艺术界的认可,这件赝品在 1937 年以相当于现在 400 万美元的价格卖出。

The success prompted van Meegeren to forge and sell more works through various art dealers.


As unbelievable as it may sound, the art world continued to believe in their authenticity.

尽管听上去难以置信,但艺术界一直都相信 这些艺术品的真实性。

When the Nazis occupied Holland during the Second World War, Hermann Goring, one of Hitler's top generals,

当纳粹在二战占领荷兰时,希特勒的高级将领之一, 赫尔曼 · 戈林

sought to add a Vermeer to his collection of artwork looted from all over Europe.


Van Meegeren obliged, selling him an alleged early Vermeer painting titled "Christ with the Adulteress."


As the tide of the war turned, so did van Meegeren's luck.


Following the Allied victory,


he was arrested for delivering a priceless piece of Dutch heritage to the Nazis— an act of treasonous collaboration punishable by death.


To prove the painting wasn't a national treasure, he explained step-by-step how he had forged it.


But he faced an unexpected obstacle— the very expert who had enabled his scam.

但他却遇到了一个意想不到的困难—— 那位使他骗局成功的专家

Moved to protect his reputation, Bredius defended the painting's authenticity.

布雷迪乌斯,为了捍卫自己名誉, 坚称这幅画是真品。

With few options left, van Meegeren set to work on a "new" Vermeer.


When he presented the fake to the court, they finally believed him.


He was acquitted for collaborating with the Nazis— and sentenced to a year imprisonment for fraud.


Though there's evidence that van Meegeren did, in fact, collaborate with the Nazis,


he managed to convince the public that he had tricked Goring on purpose, transforming his image into that of a folk hero who had swindled the Nazis.


Thanks to this newfound notoriety, his works became valuable in their own right— so much so that they were later forged in turn by his own son.


The same canvases went from revered classics to despised forgeries to works of art respected for the skill and notoriety of the forger.



快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表