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细菌有助于减少温室气体

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2024-6-18 03:29| 查看数: 41| 评论数: 0|



Very small organisms that live in the world's farm fields release nitrous oxide gas.生活在世界农田中的非常小的生物会释放一氧化二氮气体。

Some scientists link the gas to climate change.一些科学家将这种气体与气候变化联系起来。

They are looking for a way to deal with the issue.他们正在寻找解决这个问题的方法。

Now, some researchers think they have found bacteria that can help reduce the amount of nitrous oxide released.现在,一些研究人员认为他们已经发现了可以帮助减少一氧化二氮释放量的细菌。

In a recent publication of Nature, scientists said tests in the laboratory and in the field showed that one kind of bacteria reduced nitrous oxide without hurting other microbes in the soil.在最近的《自然》杂志上,科学家表示,实验室和现场的测试表明,一种细菌可以减少一氧化二氮,而不会伤害土壤中的其他微生物。

The bacteria also survived well in soil and would not be very costly to produce.这种细菌在土壤中也能很好地存活,而且生产成本也不会很高。

Lars Bakken is with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences.拉尔斯·巴肯就职于挪威生命科学大学。

He was one of the writers of the study.他是该研究的作者之一。

Bakken said, "It opens up...a number of new possibilities in bioengineering of the farmed soil."巴肯说:“这为耕作土壤的生物工程开辟了许多新的可能性。”

The Associated Press reports that nitrous oxide can warm the atmosphere 265 times more than an equal amount of carbon dioxide.美联社报道称,一氧化二氮对大气的加热是等量二氧化碳的265倍。

Nitrous oxide can remain in the atmosphere for more than a hundred years.一氧化二氮可以在大气中保留一百多年。

Farmers' use of nitrogen fertilizer drives up the amount of nitrous oxide produced in soil.农民使用氮肥会增加土壤中一氧化二氮的含量。

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency said that, in 2022, nitrous oxide made up six percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activities.美国环境保护局表示,2022年,一氧化二氮占美国人类活动温室气体排放总量的6%。

That is a big problem in agriculture, said Lori Hoagland of Purdue University in the state of Indiana.印第安纳州普渡大学的洛里·霍格兰说,这是农业中的一个大问题。

Hoagland was not involved in the recent study.霍格兰没有参与最近的研究。

She described the plan to reduce nitrous oxide as "really interesting."她形容减少一氧化二氮的计划“真的很有趣”。

Bakken and other researchers used organic waste to grow their bacteria.巴肯和其他研究人员使用有机废物来培养细菌。

Building on past work, the researchers looked for a microorganism that would last long enough to reduce nitrous oxide emissions在过去工作的基础上,研究人员寻找一种微生物,这种微生物能够持续足够长的时间来减少一氧化二氮的排放,

without staying in the soil so long that it hurt other life forms that are important for crop health.而不会在土壤中停留太久,从而伤害对作物健康很重要的其他生命形式。

In field tests, the researchers used robots to measure nitrous oxide emissions during the day and during the night.在现场测试中,研究人员使用机器人测量白天和夜间的一氧化二氮排放量。

They compared conditions in soil with and without the bacteria.他们比较了有和没有细菌的土壤条件。

Researchers found the bacteria reduced the nitrous oxide emissions of the first fertilizer treatment by 94 percent.研究人员发现,这种细菌将第一次肥料处理的一氧化二氮排放量减少了94%。

Two weeks later, the bacteria reduced the emissions of a second fertilizer treatment by about half.两周后,细菌将第二次肥料处理的排放量减少了约一半。

After about three months, there was no difference in the makeup of microbial life forms.大约三个月后,微生物生命形式的构成没有任何变化。

This suggested to the researchers that their bacteria would not change or hurt the soil.这向研究人员表明,他们的细菌不会改变或伤害土壤。

The bacteria that researchers used is found naturally in anaerobic digesters, machines that are already being used to turn organic waste products like cow manure into biofuels.研究人员使用的细菌是在厌氧消化器中自然发现的,机器已经被用于将牛粪等有机废物转化为生物燃料。

The researchers said the bacteria are not genetically modified.研究人员表示,这些细菌并未经过基因改造。

That might ease acceptance of their use, said Paul Carini of the University of Arizona.亚利桑那大学的保罗·卡里尼说,这可能会更容易接受它们的使用。

Carini was also not involved in the research.卡里尼也没有参与这项研究。

Bakken said the bacteria could be included in some fertilizers on farms in three to four years if people think it is worth the cost.巴肯说,如果人们认为值得的话,这些细菌可以在三到四年内被添加到农场的一些肥料中。

Carini thinks using the bacteria is worth it.卡里尼认为使用这种细菌是值得的。

"Any time you're using a waste product from one industry to benefit another industry, that's pretty cost effective," he said.他说:“任何时候你使用一个行业的废物来造福另一个行业,这都是非常划算的。”

However, Bakken pointed out that farmers are not paid for reducing nitrous oxide emissions.然而,巴肯指出,农民并没有因为减少一氧化二氮排放而得到报酬。

He thinks there must be additional incentives for emissions reductions.他认为必须有额外的减排激励措施。

"The task for the authorities is to install policy instruments that makes it profitable in one way or another," he said.他说:“当局的任务是安装政策工具,使其以某种方式盈利。”

Hoagland, the Purdue professor, said more research in field conditions would likely be needed before the bacteria could be used worldwide.普渡大学教授霍格兰表示,在这种细菌在全球范围内使用之前,可能需要对实地条件进行更多研究。

That is because soil is different in places around the world.这是因为世界各地的土壤不同。

"If they can get this to work across soils... it would just have a tremendous impact, for sure," she said.“如果他们能让它在土壤中发挥作用,这肯定会产生巨大的影响,”她说。

I'm John Russell.约翰·拉塞尔为您播报。


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