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拜占庭帝国的地下城市

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2024-6-15 03:26| 查看数: 59| 评论数: 0|



The breathtaking geological formations of Cappadocia present one of the most astonishing landscapes on Earth.

卡帕多西亚令人惊叹的地质结构产生了地球上最为惊艳的自然景观。

Also known as fairy chimneys, these sturdy stone cones were created by massive volcanic eruptions,

它也被称为“精灵烟囱” 。这坚固的石锥是由 大规模火山喷发创造的,

which poured countless tons of ash across what would eventually become part of central Turkiye.

火山喷发倾泻了无数吨的火山灰,形成了日后的土耳其半岛中的一部分。

Over millions of years, that volcanic fallout hardened into a porous rock known as ignimbrite,

数百万年之后,火山沉淀硬化成为了一种名为凝灰岩的多孔岩石,

which was sculpted by centuries of wind and rain into the colorful spires we see today.

其由无数个世纪的风雨侵蚀变,成了我们今天所见的五彩尖锥。

But this impressive terrain hides an equally remarkable feat of pre-modern engineering:

不过,这种壮丽的地貌也掩盖了一项史前工程学的壮举:

a network of extensive underground cities stretching deep below the surface.

广阔的地下城市网络,深埋于地表下。

Archaeological work on these mysterious ruins only started in the 1960s, so researchers still have many unanswered questions.

这些神秘遗迹的考古工作直到1960年代才开始,所以研究人员仍有许多未解答的问题。

But they have been able to determine some of the basics.

但是他们已经能够确认一些基础情况。

Cappadocia's underground settlements date back to the Middle Ages when the region was part of the eastern territories of the Byzantine Empire.

卡帕多西亚的地下定居点可以追溯到中世纪;当时该地区还是拜占庭帝国东部领土的一部分。

Throughout the 7th and 8th centuries, this border region was frequently under siege from Arab invaders,

横跨整个7、8世纪,这个边境地区经常遇到阿拉伯入侵者的围攻,

which may have led locals to seek refuge underground.

这导致当地人在地底下寻求避难。

Initially, archaeologists assumed these subterranean cities and sanctuaries were created by Greek-speaking Orthodox Christian monks due to the numerous Byzantine churches and copious religious imagery.

起初,考古学家以为这些 地下城市和避难所是由讲希腊语的东正教僧侣建造的,由于其众多的拜占庭教堂,和宗教艺术元素。

But further investigation revealed intricately designed layouts and elements of domestic architecture that could only have been produced by master masons.

不过进一步的研究展示了精心设计的布局和形象元素,这些设计只能由泥瓦匠大师制作。

Typically, these craftsmen would have built such structures with brick and stone,

通常,这些工匠会用砖头和石头建起这样的结构,

but under the surface they carved their designs directly into the rock.

但在地下,他们把图案直接雕刻到了岩石上。

All these complexes were connected by stairs and tunnels which could be sealed off with large boulders for protection.

所有的这些建筑群皆通过楼梯与隧道相连,它们能用巨石封住,作为防御。

Residents dug deep enough to reach the water table, ensuring their access to water during lengthy sieges.

居民向下挖至水源,使他们在长期攻城阶段获得水分。

And vertical ventilation shafts connect these cities to the sky, circulating cool, fresh air to the residences inside.

垂直通风竖井将这些城市与外界连接起来,使凉爽的空气在内部住宅中循环。

In addition to living spaces, these dwellings had wine presses, cooking areas, and stables for livestock.

在生活空间外,这些住宅还备有榨酒厂、 烹饪区和牲畜马厩。

Some chambers even offered old-fashioned lavatories,

有些房间甚至提供了老式的洗手间;

where waste could be washed into deep pits or covered with lime.

排泄物可弃入深坑或用石灰覆掩盖。

Normally, this approach would still have left some stench, but the region's absorbent volcanic rock helped maintain a dry and odor-free environment.

通常,这种方法会留下恶臭味,但是该地区的吸收性火山岩使得该空间干燥无异味。

The rock's composition also helped ensure stable temperatures throughout the year, making these spaces ideal for long-term living and food storage.

岩石的构造还使得全年温度不变,使这些空间成为长期生活和储存食物的理想之地。

By the 11th century, the Byzantine Empire secured its eastern frontier, bringing peace and stability back to the region.

在11世纪,拜占庭帝国建立了东部防线,使该地区恢复和平与稳定。

But rather than abandoning their underground settlements, locals expanded them into the landscapes above.

不过,与其放弃他们的地下住所,当地人将其延伸入上方的建筑中。

Building directly into the region's rocky cliffsides,

在该地的裸露悬崖边,

stoneworkers skillfully carved dwellings with open courtyards and adorned their entrances with elegant facades.

石匠们精巧地凿出了带着开放式庭院的住宅,并用优雅的浮雕修饰了门口。

Numerous churches were also carved from the rock,

许多教堂也是从岩石中雕刻而成的,

all designed in the standard architectural styles of the Byzantine Empire during the 9th to the 11th centuries.

依着拜占庭帝国在9至11世纪的标准建筑风格设计而成。

This included simple structures with altars and apses

这包括带祭坛和后殿的简单设计,

as well as intricate designs featuring columns and domes.

以及柱子和圆顶为核心的复杂设计。

And on the inside, many showcased vibrant wall paintings depicting detailed Christian iconography.

在室内,许多展示着生动的壁画,描绘着基督教场景。

These paintings are still visible today, making Cappadocia one of the most significant repositories of Byzantine art in the world.

这些画作至今仍是可见的,使卡帕多西亚成为世界上最为重要的拜占庭艺术宝库之一。

But while these paintings and stony structures endured, their inhabitants were forced to move on.

但是,尽管这些画作和石质建筑得以延续,他们的居民在不断变化。

It's believed that the Byzantines started vacating the region when the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks took hold of it in the late 11th century.

人们普遍认为,当塞尔柱克人和奥斯曼土耳其人在11世纪末进驻该地区时,拜占庭人逐渐地撤离了。

Over the following centuries, local farmers and villagers used these spaces for storage and squatting,

在后来的几个世纪中,当地农民和村民把这些空间用于储物和庇护;

and there's evidence of some inhabitants as recent as the early 20th century.

有迹象表明, 在20世纪初这儿还留住着居民。

However, in the past few decades, these cities have been recognized as international heritage sites requiring care and preservation.

但是,在过去的几十年中,这些城市已被认定为文化遗产,需要维护和保护。

This designation has earned them government protection and attracted both curious researchers and tourists eager to explore their labyrinthine passageways.

这一称号使其获得政府的保护,并吸引来好奇的研究人员与渴望探索内部迷宫的游客。

Derinkuyu, which stretches up to 85 meters below the ground, and Kaymakli are the two best known and most visited.

代林庫尤和凯马克利,两处名气最高的遗址,延伸到地下多达85米。

But Goreme, Ihlara, and many other valleys are where you can see the finest preserved churches,

而在哥乐美、伊拉拉和许多其他山谷中,你能见证保存完好的教堂,

all with spectacular Byzantine architecture and wall paintings.

包含了壮观的的拜占庭式建筑结构与壁画。

And as researchers continue to excavate these sites, they'll undoubtedly uncover even more secrets from this buried history.

当研究人员继续勘探这些遗址,他们无疑将从这些隐秘之城中发掘更多历史秘密。


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