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中华人民共和国外国国家豁免法

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2023-9-11 02:00| 查看数: 53| 评论数: 0|

中华人民共和国外国国家豁免法

The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Foreign State Immunity

(2023年9月1日第十四届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第五次会议通过)

(Adopted at the Fifth Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Fourteenth National People’s Congress on September 1, 2023)

第一条 为了健全外国国家豁免制度,明确中华人民共和国的法院对涉及外国国家及其财产民事案件的管辖,保护当事人合法权益,维护国家主权平等,促进对外友好交往,根据宪法,制定本法。

Article 1 

This Law is enacted pursuant to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China to improve China’s foreign state immunity system and define the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China over civil cases involving a foreign State and its property with a view to protecting the lawful rights and interests of the parties concerned, safeguarding the sovereign equality of States, and promoting friendly exchanges with other countries.

第二条 本法所称的外国国家包括:

Article 2

In this Law, a foreign State means:

(一)外国主权国家;

1. a foreign sovereign State;

(二)外国主权国家的国家机关或者组成部分;

2. a State organ or a constituent part of a foreign sovereign State; or

(三)外国主权国家授权行使主权权力且基于该项授权从事活动的组织或者个人。

3. an organization or an individual, authorized by a foreign sovereign State, that exercises sovereign authority and conducts activities in accordance with such authorization.

第三条 外国国家及其财产在中华人民共和国的法院享有管辖豁免,本法另有规定的除外。

Article 3

Unless otherwise provided by this Law, a foreign State and its property enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China.

第四条 外国国家通过下列方式之一明示就特定事项或者案件接受中华人民共和国的法院管辖的,对于就该事项或者案件提起的诉讼,该外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免:

Article 4

A foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China in proceedings instituted with regard to a particular matter or case if it has expressly submitted to the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China with regard to the matter or case:

(一)国际条约;

1. in an international treaty;

(二)书面协议;

2. in a written agreement;

(三)向处理案件的中华人民共和国的法院提交书面文件;

3. in a written document filed with the court of the People’s Republic of China handling the case;

(四)通过外交渠道等方式向中华人民共和国提交书面文件;

4. in a written document submitted to the People’s Republic of China through diplomatic or other channels; or

(五)其他明示接受中华人民共和国的法院管辖的方式。

5. in other manner of express submission to the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China.

第五条 外国国家有下列情形之一的,视为就特定事项或者案件接受中华人民共和国的法院管辖:

Article 5

A foreign State shall be considered as having submitted to the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China with regard to a particular matter or case if it has:

(一)作为原告向中华人民共和国的法院提起诉讼;

1. instituted proceedings in a court of the People’s Republic of China as a plaintiff;

(二)作为被告参加中华人民共和国的法院受理的诉讼,并就案件实体问题答辩或者提出反诉;

2. participated in proceedings before a court of the People’s Republic of China as a defendant, and made a defense on the merits of the case or a counterclaim;

(三)作为第三人参加中华人民共和国的法院受理的诉讼;

3. participated in proceedings before a court of the People’s Republic of China as a third party; or

(四)在中华人民共和国的法院作为原告提起诉讼或者作为第三人提出诉讼请求时,由于与该起诉或者该诉讼请求相同的法律关系或者事实被提起反诉。

4. been counterclaimed on the basis of the same legal relationship or facts during proceedings it instituted as a plaintiff or in the claims it made as a third party before a court of the People’s Republic of China.

外国国家有前款第二项规定的情形,但能够证明其作出上述答辩之前不可能知道有可主张豁免的事实的,可以在知道或者应当知道该事实后的合理时间内主张管辖豁免。

Notwithstanding the provision of sub-paragraph 2 of the preceding paragraph, where a foreign State can prove that it could not have acquired knowledge of facts on which a claim to immunity can be based until after it made the defense, it can claim immunity within a reasonable period after it knew or ought to have known about those facts.

第六条 外国国家有下列情形之一的,不视为接受中华人民共和国的法院管辖:

Article 6

A foreign State shall not be considered as having submitted to the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China if:

(一)仅为主张豁免而应诉答辩;

1. it makes a defense for the sole purpose of claiming immunity;

(二)外国国家的代表在中华人民共和国的法院出庭作证;

2. its representative appears before a court of the People’s Republic of China as a witness; or

(三)同意在特定事项或者案件中适用中华人民共和国的法律。

3. it consents to the application of the law of the People’s Republic of China to a particular matter or case.

第七条 外国国家与包括中华人民共和国在内的其他国家的组织或者个人进行的商业活动,在中华人民共和国领域内发生,或者虽然发生在中华人民共和国领域外但在中华人民共和国领域内产生直接影响的,对于该商业活动引起的诉讼,该外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免。

Article 7

A foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China in any proceedings arising out of a commercial activity between the foreign State and an organization or an individual of another State including the People’s Republic of China, which takes place in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, or takes place outside the territory of the People’s Republic of China but causes a direct effect in the territory of the People’s Republic of China.

本法所称商业活动是指非行使主权权力的关于货物或者服务的交易、投资、借贷以及其他商业性质的行为。中华人民共和国的法院在认定一项行为是否属于商业活动时,应当综合考虑该行为的性质和目的。

In this Law, a commercial activity means any act of transaction of goods or services, investment, lending, or any other act of a commercial nature, which is not an exercise of sovereign authority. The courts of the People’s Republic of China, in determining whether an act is a commercial activity, shall consider all factors relating to the nature and purpose of the act.

第八条 外国国家为获得个人提供的劳动或者劳务而签订的合同全部或者部分在中华人民共和国领域内履行的,对于因该合同引起的诉讼,该外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免,但有下列情形之一的除外:

Article 8

A foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China in any proceedings arising out of a contract concluded by the foreign State for labor or services provided by an individual where the contract is performed, in whole or in part, in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, except where:

(一)获得个人提供的劳动或者劳务是为了履行该外国国家行使主权权力的特定职能;

1. the procurement of labor or services provided by the individual is for the purpose of performing specific functions in the exercise of sovereign authority of the foreign State;

(二)提供劳动或者劳务的个人是外交代表、领事官员、享有豁免的国际组织驻华代表机构工作人员或者其他享有相关豁免的人员;

2. the individual providing labor or services is a diplomatic agent, a consular officer, a staff of a representative office of an international organization in China enjoying immunity, or any other personnel enjoying the relevant immunity;

(三)提供劳动或者劳务的个人在提起诉讼时具有该外国国家的国籍,并且在中华人民共和国领域内没有经常居所;

3. the individual providing labor or services, at the time when the proceedings are instituted, is a national of the foreign State and has no habitual residence in the territory of the People’s Republic of China; or

(四)该外国国家与中华人民共和国另有协议。

4. the foreign State has agreed otherwise with the People’s Republic of China.

第九条 对于外国国家在中华人民共和国领域内的相关行为造成人身伤害、死亡或者造成动产、不动产损失引起的赔偿诉讼,该外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免。

Article 9

A foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China in any proceedings for compensation arising out of personal injury or death or damage to or loss of movable or immovable property caused by the relevant conduct of the foreign State in the territory of the People’s Republic of China.

第十条 对于下列财产事项的诉讼,外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免:

Article 10

A foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China in any proceedings concerning property matters in respect of:

(一)该外国国家对位于中华人民共和国领域内的不动产的任何权益或者义务;

1. any rights, interests or obligations of the foreign State in immovable property located in the territory of the People’s Republic of China;

(二)该外国国家对动产、不动产的赠与、遗赠、继承或者因无人继承而产生的任何权益或者义务;

2. any rights, interests or obligations of the foreign State in movable or immovable property arising by way of gift, testamentary gift, succession or vacant succession; or

(三)在管理信托财产、破产财产或者进行法人、非法人组织清算时涉及该外国国家的权益或者义务。

3. rights, interests or obligations of the foreign State in the management of trust property or bankruptcy estate, or in the liquidation process of a legal person or an unincorporated organization.

第十一条 对于下列知识产权事项的诉讼,外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免:

Article 11

A foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China in any proceedings concerning intellectual property matters in respect of:

(一)确定该外国国家受中华人民共和国法律保护的知识产权归属及相关权益;

1. the determination of ownership and related rights and interests in an intellectual property of the foreign State that is protected by the law of the People’s Republic of China; or

(二)该外国国家在中华人民共和国领域内侵害受中华人民共和国法律保护的知识产权及相关权益。

2. the infringement by the foreign State, in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, of an intellectual property and related rights and interests protected by the law of the People’s Republic of China.

第十二条 外国国家与包括中华人民共和国在内的其他国家的组织或者个人之间的商业活动产生的争议,根据书面协议被提交仲裁的,或者外国国家通过国际投资条约等书面形式同意将其与包括中华人民共和国在内的其他国家的组织或者个人产生的投资争端提交仲裁的,对于需要法院审查的下列事项,该外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免:

Article 12

If a foreign State

has entered into an agreement in writing according to which a dispute arising out of a commercial activity between the foreign State and an organization or an individual of another State, including the People’s Republic of China, is submitted to arbitration; or

has agreed in an international investment treaty or otherwise in writing to submit an investment dispute between the foreign State and an organization or an individual of another State, including the People’s Republic of China, to arbitration,

the foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China in the following matters which are subject to review by the courts:

(一)仲裁协议的效力;

1. the validity of the arbitration agreement;

(二)仲裁裁决的承认和执行;

2. the recognition and enforcement of the arbitration award;

(三)仲裁裁决的撤销;

3. setting aside of the arbitration award; or

(四)法律规定的其他由中华人民共和国的法院对仲裁进行审查的事项。

4. other matters related to arbitration which are subject to review by the courts of the People’s Republic of China as provided by the law.

第十三条 外国国家的财产在中华人民共和国的法院享有司法强制措施豁免。

Article 13

The property of a foreign State enjoys immunity from compulsory judicial measures in the courts of the People’s Republic of China.

外国国家接受中华人民共和国的法院管辖,不视为放弃司法强制措施豁免。

Submission by a foreign State to the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China shall not be considered as its waiver of immunity from compulsory judicial measures.

第十四条 有下列情形之一的,外国国家的财产在中华人民共和国的法院不享有司法强制措施豁免:

Article 14

The property of a foreign State shall not enjoy immunity from compulsory judicial measures in the courts of the People’s Republic of China if:

(一)外国国家以国际条约、书面协议或者向中华人民共和国的法院提交书面文件等方式明示放弃司法强制措施豁免;

1. the foreign State has expressly waived immunity from compulsory judicial measures by an international treaty, a written agreement, a written document filed with a court of the People’s Republic of China, or other means;

(二)外国国家已经拨出或者专门指定财产用于司法强制措施执行;

2. the foreign State has allocated or earmarked the property for the enforcement of compulsory judicial measures; or

(三)为执行中华人民共和国的法院的生效判决、裁定,对外国国家位于中华人民共和国领域内、用于商业活动且与诉讼有联系的财产采取司法强制措施。

3. the compulsory judicial measures are taken to enforce a valid judgment or ruling rendered by a court of the People’s Republic of China, and the property of the foreign State is located in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, used for a commercial activity, and connected to the proceedings.

第十五条 下列外国国家的财产不视为本法第十四条第三项规定的用于商业活动的财产:

Article 15

The following property of a foreign State shall not be considered as property used for a commercial activity provided for in sub-paragraph 3 of Article 14 of this Law:

(一)外交代表机构、领事机构、特别使团、驻国际组织代表团或者派往国际会议的代表团用于、意图用于公务的财产,包括银行账户款项;

1. property, including bank account, of diplomatic missions, consular posts, special missions, missions to international organizations, and delegations to international conferences, which is used for the performance of official functions or intended for such use;

(二)属于军事性质的财产,或者用于、意图用于军事的财产;

2. property of a military character, or property which is used for military purpose or intended for such use;

(三)外国和区域经济一体化组织的中央银行或者履行中央银行职能的金融管理机构的财产,包括现金、票据、银行存款、有价证券、外汇储备、黄金储备以及该中央银行或者该履行中央银行职能的金融管理机构的不动产和其他财产;

3. property of the central bank or a financial regulatory administration exercising central bank functions of a foreign State or of a regional economic integration organization, including cash, notes, bank deposits, securities, foreign exchange reserves, gold reserves, and the immovable property and other property of the central bank or a financial regulatory administration exercising central bank functions;

(四)构成该国文化遗产或者档案的一部分,且非供出售或者意图出售的财产;

4. property which forms part of the cultural heritage or archives of a foreign State, and which is not placed or intended to be placed for sale;

(五)用于展览的具有科学、文化、历史价值的物品,且非供出售或者意图出售的财产;

5. object of scientific, cultural or historical value used for exhibition, which is not placed or intended to be placed for sale as property; and

(六)中华人民共和国的法院认为不视为用于商业活动的其他财产。

6. other property which a court of the People’s Republic of China considers as not being used for a commercial activity.

第十六条 对于外国国家及其财产民事案件的审判和执行程序,本法没有规定的,适用中华人民共和国的民事诉讼法律以及其他相关法律的规定。

Article 16

Where there is no applicable provision in this Law, the civil procedure law and other relevant laws of the People’s Republic of China shall apply to the adjudication and enforcement proceedings of civil cases involving a foreign State and its property.

第十七条 中华人民共和国的法院向外国国家送达传票或者其他诉讼文书,应当按照下列方式进行:

Article 17

The courts of the People’s Republic of China shall effect service of writs of summons or such other litigation documents on a foreign State in accordance with:

(一)该外国国家与中华人民共和国缔结或者共同参加的国际条约规定的方式;

1. the means specified in international treaties to which the foreign State and the People’s Republic of China are contracting or acceding parties; or

(二)该外国国家接受且中华人民共和国法律不禁止的其他方式。

2. other means accepted by the foreign State and not precluded by the law of the People’s Republic of China.

通过前款方式无法完成送达的,可以通过外交照会方式送交该外国国家外交部门,外交照会发出之日视为完成送达。

Where the service cannot be effected by means specified in the preceding paragraph, service may be effected by transmitting a diplomatic note to the diplomatic authorities of the foreign State, and the service shall be deemed to have been effected on the date of the issuance of the diplomatic note.

按照本条第一款、第二款规定的方式进行送达的诉讼文书,应当依照该外国国家与中华人民共和国缔结或者共同参加的国际条约的规定附上有关语言的译本,没有相关国际条约的,附上该外国国家官方语言的译本。

The litigation documents served by means specified in the first and second paragraphs of this Article shall be accompanied by copies of their translation into the language stipulated in the international treaties to which the foreign State and the People’s Republic of China are contracting or acceding parties, or, in the absence of such treaties, into the official language of the foreign State.

向外国国家送达起诉状副本时,应当一并通知该外国国家在收到起诉状副本后三个月内提出答辩状。

When serving a copy of the statement of claim on a foreign State, the foreign State shall, at the same time, be notified to file a defense within three months from the date of receipt of the copy of the statement of claim.

外国国家在对其提起的诉讼中就实体问题答辩后,不得再就诉讼文书的送达方式提出异议。

A foreign State that filed a defense on the merits of the case in proceedings instituted against it shall not thereafter challenge the means by which the service of the litigation documents had been effected.

第十八条 经送达完成,外国国家未在中华人民共和国的法院指定期限内出庭的,法院应当主动查明该外国国家是否享有管辖豁免。对于外国国家在中华人民共和国的法院不享有管辖豁免的案件,法院可以缺席判决,但应当在诉讼文书送达之日的六个月以后。

Article 18

If a foreign State on which the service of litigation documents is effected fails to appear before a court of the People’s Republic of China within the time limit specified by the court, the court shall, on its own motion, find out whether the foreign State enjoys jurisdictional immunity. The court of the People’s Republic of China may render a default judgment on a case involving a foreign State which does not enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the People’s Republic of China six months after the date on which the service of the litigation documents is effected.

中华人民共和国的法院对外国国家作出的缺席判决,应当按照本法第十七条的规定送达。

A default judgment rendered by a court of the People’s Republic of China against a foreign State shall be served in accordance with Article 17 of this Law.

外国国家对中华人民共和国的法院缺席判决提起上诉的期限为六个月,从判决书送达之日起计算。

The time limit for a foreign State to appeal a default judgment rendered by a court of the People’s Republic of China is six months from the date on which the service of the judgment is effected.

第十九条 中华人民共和国外交部就以下有关国家行为的事实问题出具的证明文件,中华人民共和国的法院应当采信:

Article 19

The courts of the People’s Republic of China shall accept the certifying documents issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China on the following questions of fact concerning acts of State:

(一)案件中的相关国家是否构成本法第二条第一项中的外国主权国家;

1. whether the State involved in a case constitutes a foreign sovereign State as defined in sub-paragraph 1 of Article 2 of this Law;

(二)本法第十七条规定的外交照会是否送达以及何时送达;

2. whether and when the service of the diplomatic note specified in Article 17 of this Law is effected; and

(三)其他有关国家行为的事实问题。

3. other questions of fact concerning acts of State.

对于前款以外其他涉及外交事务等重大国家利益的问题,中华人民共和国外交部可以向中华人民共和国的法院出具意见。

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China may provide an opinion to the courts of the People’s Republic of China on issues concerning major national interests such as foreign affairs other than those mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

第二十条 本法规定不影响外国的外交代表机构、领事机构、特别使团、驻国际组织代表团、派往国际会议的代表团及上述机构的相关人员根据中华人民共和国的法律、中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约享有的特权与豁免。

Article 20

The provisions of this Law shall not affect the privileges and immunities enjoyed by diplomatic missions, consular posts, special missions, missions to international organizations, delegations to international conferences of a foreign State and members of the foregoing missions or delegations in accordance with the law of the People’s Republic of China and the international treaties to which the People’s Republic of China is a contracting or acceding party.

本法规定不影响外国国家元首、政府首脑、外交部长及其他具有同等身份的官员根据中华人民共和国的法律、中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约以及国际习惯享有的特权与豁免。

The provisions of this Law shall not affect the privileges and immunities enjoyed by heads of State, heads of government, foreign ministers and other officials of equivalent status of a foreign State in accordance with the law of the People’s Republic of China, the international treaties to which the People’s Republic of China is a contracting or acceding party, and international custom.

第二十一条  外国给予中华人民共和国国家及其财产的豁免待遇低于本法规定的,中华人民共和国实行对等原则。

Article 21

If the immunity accorded by a State to the People’s Republic of China and its property is less favorable than those provided by this Law, the People’s Republic of China applies the principle of reciprocity.

第二十二条 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用该国际条约的规定,但中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。

Article 22

Where an international treaty to which the People’s Republic of China is a contracting or acceding party provides otherwise, the provisions of the international treaty shall apply, with the exception of provisions on which the People’s Republic of China has declared reservations.

第二十三条 本法自2024年1月1日起施行。

Article 23

This Law shall come into force on January 1, 2024.


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