English 简体中文 繁體中文 한국 사람 日本語 Deutsch







发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2023-5-24 22:12| 查看数: 33| 评论数: 0|


There are two kinds of giant pandas in the world: One kind lives in zoos and research centers — the ones most often seen by the public; the other kind lives in the wild — that is, wild pandas, which few people have ever seen.




What many people don't know is that giant pandas in the wild are actually standard beasts — they can weigh more than 100 kilograms, are very large, and have few natural predators after the age of 2. They have strong bites, second only to polar bears. Their claws are very sharp, and when climbing trees, they can plug them directly into the trunks and even dangle. Although they mainly rely on bamboo for food, they are omnivorous animals and also eat meat. And though they are not agile, they can run much faster than people, up to 40 kilometers per hour.


So, if someone is really lucky enough to see a "cute" panda in the wild, the first reaction had better be "run".


There used to be no interaction between captive and wild pandas, because under human care, captive ones develop a different temperament and lose the ability to survive in the wild. China currently has more than 670 giant pandas raised in captivity, and more than half of them are cared for by the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda.




According to fecal and DNA data, there are nearly 2,000 wild pandas living in Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu provinces, of which more than 1,300 are in Sichuan.

He Shengshan, a breeder at the Wolong Hetaoping Base, said that wild pandas have a wide range of habitats, so they are divided into 33 groups.


"This is similar to human villages or tribes. Some large groups in the wild may have hundreds of pandas, while smaller groups may have only a few dozen. After investigation, we found that among the 33 groups, 22 of them have fewer than 30 giant pandas. Pandas are already bad at migrating, and mountains, human activities, highways and railway tracks make it even more difficult for giant panda groups to communicate with each other, so those with small populations are still at risk of extinction over time."



No communication means no genetic interaction. For experts at the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda, panda breeding, especially eugenics, is a major topic. Another important challenge is how to facilitate gene exchange between captive and wild pandas to better ensure genetic diversity.


He Shengshan said there are usually two ways to achieve this. One is to introduce captive female pandas into the wild in the panda reserve when they are in heat to attract wild males to mate with them. The other is wild reintroduction — the practice of placing female pandas in semi-wild, large enclosures from the time they become pregnant to minimize human influence so that they can take care of themselves once the babies are born and then release the babies into the wild when they are about 2 years old.



Release training is a long process that starts before the baby panda is born and is mainly divided into two stages. The first stage is from the mother panda's pregnancy until the baby panda is about a year old, and the second stage is from 1 year old of the baby panda to about 2 years old.


He Shengshan said, "We use the mother animal approach to carry out training for the wild. We put pregnant female pandas in the first stage of the training circle. The area is generally 2,000 to 3,000 square meters, and the female panda will choose a safe corner here to give birth. Then, we monitor and ensure the health of the mother panda and give her some food and, while the caring of the cubs is done independently by the mother bear as much as possible."



In order to avoid the imprint behavior of pandas, the keepers put on panda suits every time they feed the mother panda. They also sterilize the soles of their shoes and spray extracts of panda feces and urine on their clothes so that the mother panda is completely free of human scents and traces. These efforts help ensure that the living environment of the baby pandas remains the same as that of the wild.



Because the gestation period of the giant panda is relatively short — generally only four or five months — the baby panda is not fully developed when born, and is pink and tender. It takes about two weeks for them to open their eyes, two months to hear, and four months to crawl, all while surviving on their mother's milk and care.


The upper limbs of giant pandas are relatively short, so it is not very convenient for them to carry cubs. When there is danger in the wild, they can only carry one cub to escape, meaning any others will be left behind. Therefore, the fertility rate of giant pandas is not high, which is one of the main reasons for the relatively low population of giant pandas.



Until age 2, wild baby pandas are vulnerable to wild boars, black bears, snakes and predatory birds. They become less vulnerable as they grow larger.


The training circle in the second stage is almost exactly the same as the wild environment, featuring tall trees and shrubs, as well as wild animals such as wild boar. The center will set up surveillance cameras and other devices to see how the mother and baby are doing.



At the Wolong Hetaoping Base in Wenchuan county, Sichuan province, 10 pandas have been released since the program began in 2010, and nine have survived. It plays an important role in the gene transfer and improvement of genetic quality of China’s panda population.


快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表