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奇妙的幸福科学

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2023-1-17 22:32| 查看数: 26| 评论数: 0|



People have also wanted to deconstruct.

人们也想过解析幸福。

We use this word "happy," and it's this very large umbrella of a term.

我们用“幸福”这个词,这是一个概念的一把大伞。

And then three emotions for which there are no English words: fiero, which is the pride in accomplishment of a challenge;

伞下是三种情绪,都是非英文单词,fiero是指战胜了挑战后的骄傲,

schadenfreude, which is happiness in another's misfortune, a malicious pleasure; and naches, which is a pride and joy in one's children.

chadenfreude是指建立在他人痛苦之上的幸福,不怀好意的愉悦,naches是对自己孩子抱有的骄傲与喜悦。

Absent from this list, and absent from any discussions of happiness, are happiness in another's happiness.

不管是这上面还是任何关于幸福的探讨都没有谈到对他人所抱有的幸福感。

We don't seem to have a word for that.

我们似乎找不到一个词来表达。

We are very sensitive to the negative, but it is in part offset by the fact that we have a positivity.

我们对负面情绪非常敏感,但我们的积极态度在一定程度上抵消了负面情绪。

We're also born pleasure-seekers.

我们天生就会寻求愉悦感。

Babies love the taste of sweet and hate the taste of bitter.

婴儿喜欢甜的味道,讨厌苦的味道。

They love to touch smooth surfaces rather than rough ones.

他们喜欢触摸光滑的表面,而不是粗糙的表面。

They like to look at beautiful faces rather than plain faces.

他们喜欢看漂亮的面孔,而不是平庸的面孔。

They like to listen to consonant melodies instead of dissonant melodies.

他们喜欢听和谐的旋律,而不是不和谐的旋律。

Babies really are born with a lot of innate pleasures.

婴儿有许多与生俱来的内在快乐。

There was once a statement made by a psychologist that said that 80 percent of the pursuit of happiness is really just about the genes,

一位心理学家曾说对幸福80%的追求都由基因决定,

and it's as difficult to become happier as it is to become taller.

变得幸福跟长高一样难。

That's nonsense.

那是胡说八道。

There is a decent contribution to happiness from the genes -- about 50 percent -- but there is still that 50 percent that is unaccounted for.

基因对幸福是有一定的影响,大概占50%,但另外50%就与基因无关了。

Let's just go into the brain for a moment, and see where does happiness arise from in evolution.

我们来看看大脑内部看看幸福感是从进化的哪一阶段出现的。

We have basically at least two systems here, and they both are very ancient.

这里至少有两个系统,都非常古老。

One is the reward system, and that's fed by the chemical dopamine.

一个是犒赏系统,分泌出多巴胺。

And it starts in the ventral tegmental area.

从腹侧被盖区域开始。

It goes to the nucleus accumbens, all the way up to the prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, where decisions are made, high level.

进入伏隔核,一直到达前额叶皮质眶额叶皮质,这里是做决定的高级别地方。

This was originally seen as a system that was the pleasure system of the brain.

这原本被看做是大脑的快感系统。

In the 1950s, Olds and Milner put electrodes into the brain of a rat.

在二十世纪50年代,奥德斯和米尔纳将电极植入一只老鼠的大脑。

And the rat would just keep pressing that bar thousands and thousands and thousands of times.

结果这只老鼠不停地按那根铁杆,成千上万次。

It wouldn't eat.

它不肯吃东西。

It wouldn't sleep.

它不肯睡觉。

It wouldn't have sex.

它也不去交配。

It wouldn't do anything but press this bar.

它什么也不做,一直在按那个铁杆。

So they assumed this must be, you know, the brain's orgasmatron.

他们以为这肯定是大脑的兴奋诱导器。

It turned out that it wasn't, that it really is a system of motivation, a system of wanting.

结果发现事实并非如此,这其实是一个激励系统,一个渴求系统。

It gives objects what's called incentive salience.

它产生一种兴奋作用。

It makes something look so attractive that you just have to go after it.

它让事物看起来非常诱人,使你不得不去追求它。

That's something different from the system that is the pleasure system, which simply says, "I like this."

这跟快感系统有区别,快感系统是:“我喜欢。”

The pleasure system, as you see, which is the internal opiates, there is a hormone oxytocin, is widely spread throughout the brain.

正如你所看到的,快感系统是体内的兴奋剂,有一种荷尔蒙催产素,广泛分布于整个大脑。

Dopamine system, the wanting system, is much more centralized.

多巴胺系统,也就是渴求系统,则更为集中。

The other thing about positive emotions is that they have a universal signal.

积极情绪的另一个特点是它具有一个普遍的信号。

And we see here the smile.

我们看这微笑。

And the universal signal is not just raising the corner of the lips to the zygomatic major.

这个信号并不只是嘴角上扬至颧骨。

It's also crinkling the outer corner of the eye, the orbicularis oculi.

它还会皱缩眼睛的外角,即眼轮匝肌。

So you see, even 10-month-old babies, when they see their mother, will show this particular kind of smile.

所以你看,即使是10个月大的婴儿,当他们看到他们的母亲时,也会露出这样的微笑。

Extroverts use it more than introverts.

性格外向的人比内向的人笑得更开。

People who are relieved of depression show it more after than before.

人们在压抑的情绪释放之后比在此之前笑得更开怀。

So if you want to unmask a true look of happiness, you will look for this expression.

如果你想判断一个人是否真的开心,看这个表情就知道了。

Our pleasures are really ancient.

人的快感有着很长的历史。

And we learn, of course, many, many pleasures, but many of them are base.

许多快感是习得的,但也有许多是最基本的。

And one of them, of course, is biophilia -- that we have a response to the natural world that's very profound.

其中一个就是我们对自然界做出反应的自卫本能,这非常重要。

Very interesting studies done on people recovering from surgery,

一些研究非常有意思,关于人们接受外科手术后的恢复情况,

who found that people who faced a brick wall versus people who looked out on trees and nature,

他们发现,面对砖墙的人与眺望树木和大自然的人相比,

the people who looked out on the brick wall were in the hospital longer, needed more medication, and had more medical complications.

面对砖墙的人住院时间更长,需要更多的药物,并且有更多的医疗并发症。

There is something very restorative about nature, and it's part of how we are tuned.

大自然拥有非常强大的恢复力量,它对我们的恢复发挥一定的作用。

Humans, particularly so, we're very imitative creatures.

人类尤为如此,我们是善于模仿的造物。

And we imitate from almost the second we are born.

从我们出生的那一刻起,我们就开始模仿。

Here is a three-week-old baby.

这是一个三周大的婴儿。

And if you stick your tongue out at this baby, the baby will do the same.

如果你向他伸出舌头,他会学你。

We are social beings from the beginning.

我们自出世就是社会性的人。

And even studies of cooperation show that cooperation between individuals lights up reward centers of the brain.

关于合作的研究也显示人与人之间的合作点亮大脑的犒赏中心。

One problem that psychology has had is instead of looking at this intersubjectivity -- or the importance of the social brain to humans who come into the world helpless and need each other tremendously -- is that they focus instead on the self and self-esteem,

心理学的一个问题在于没有关注这一主体间性或社会性头脑对于初生于世孤立无援需要彼此的人类的重要性,而关注的是自身自尊心,

and not self-other.

而不是人与人之间的关系。

It's sort of "me," not "we."

强调“我”,而不是“我们”

And I think this has been a really tremendous problem that goes against our biology and nature, and hasn't made us any happier at all.

我认为这是个很严重的问题,违背了我们的生理和本质,并没有让我们变得更幸福。

Because when you think about it, people are happiest when in flow, when they're absorbed in something out in the world,

人们最开心的时候是当他们处于心流之中,醉心于外界的某项活动中,

when they're with other people, when they're active, engaged in sports, focusing on a loved one, learning, having sex, whatever.

当他们和其他人在一起时,当他们活动时,运动时,专注于所爱的人,学习,性生活等等。

They're not sitting in front of the mirror trying to figure themselves out, or thinking about themselves.

他们并不是坐在镜子前分析自己或者琢磨自己。

These are not the periods when you feel happiest.

这可不是你最快乐的时候。

The other thing is, that a piece of evidence is, is if you look at computerized text analysis of people who commit suicide, what you find there,

还有一点,有证据显示在自杀者的计算机文本分析中,你会发现,

and it's quite interesting, is use of the first person singular -- "I," "me," "my," not "we" and "us"

非常有意思的是,里面有许多第一人称单数的用法“我”,“我的”,而不是“我们”,

-- and the letters are less hopeless than they are really alone.

这些信中更多地表达的是孤独,而不是绝望。

And being alone is very unnatural to the human.

孤独对人类来说是非常不自然的。

There is a profound need to belong.

有归属是一种关键的需要。

But there are ways in which our evolutionary history can really trip us up.

然而进化史有许多容易误导人的地方。

Because, for example, the genes don't care whether we're happy, they care that we replicate, that we pass our genes on.

例如,基因并不关心我们快乐与否,只关心我们复制,把基因传给后代。

So for example we have three systems that underlie reproduction, because it's so important.

我们有三个系统作为繁殖的基础,因为它是如此重要。

There's lust, which is just wanting to have sex.

一个是性欲,也就是对性的渴望。

And that's really mediated by the sex hormones.

而这实际上是由性激素调节的。

Romantic attraction, that gets into the desire system.

浪漫的吸引,这是属于欲望系统。

And that's dopamine-fed.

分泌多巴胺。

And that's, "I must have this one person."

也就是“我必须得到这个人。”

There's attachment, which is oxytocin, and the opiates, which says, "This is a long-term bond."

还有依恋,也就是催产素,也就是“这是一段长期的关系。”

See the problem is that, as humans, these three can separate.

问题是,对于人类而言,这三者可以分开。

So a person can be in a long term attachment, become romantically infatuated with someone else, and want to have sex with a third person.

也就是说一个人可以处于一段长期关系中,同时喜欢上另一个人,并想要与第三个人发生性关系。

The other way in which our genes can sometimes lead us astray is in social status.

基因还可以通过社会地位对我们产生误导。

We are very acutely aware of our social status and always seek to further and increase it.

我们对社会地位高度关注,总在寻求提高社会地位。

Now in the animal world, there is only one way to increase status, and that's dominance.

在动物世界里只有一种方法能够提高地位,那就是胜者为王。

I seize command by physical prowess, and I keep it by beating my chest, and you make submissive gestures.

身强力壮就能掌握权力,通过捶胸来巩固权力,而你做出服从的姿态。

Now, the human has a whole other way to rise to the top, and that is a prestige route, which is freely conferred.

而人类往上爬的方式则截然不同,是名声可以自由授予。

Someone has expertise and knowledge, and knows how to do things, and we give that person status.

一个人有专长和知识,有才干,我们就给这个人地位。

And that's clearly the way for us to create many more niches of status so that people don't have to be lower on the status hierarchy as they are in the animal world.

这样我们就创造了更多社会角色,人们也就不会像动物世界那样在社会等级中处于下层了。

The data isn't terribly supportive of money buying happiness.

数据显示金钱并不能购买幸福。

But it's not irrelevant.

但是金钱与幸福还是有关系的。

So if you look at questions like this, life satisfaction, you see life satisfaction going up with each rung of income.

因此,如果你看一下这样的问题,生活满意度,你会发现生活满意度随着收入的每一级增长而上升。

You see mental distress going up with lower income.

你会看到收入越低,精神痛苦就越大。

So clearly there is some effect.

因此,很明显,这会产生一些影响。

But the effect is relatively small.

但影响相对较小。

And one of the problems with money is materialism.

关于金钱的另一个问题是拜金主义。

What happens when people pursue money too avidly, is they forget about the real basic pleasures of life.

当人们过于狂热地追求金钱时,结果就是他们忘记了生活中真正的基本乐趣。

So we have here, this couple.

这里有一对夫妇,

"Do you think the less-fortunate are having better sex?"

“那些相对穷的人是不是更享受性生活呢?”

And then this kid over here is saying, "Leave me alone with my toys."

这个孩子在说:“别碰我的玩具。”

So one of the things is that it really takes over.

所以问题之一就是拜金主义有些过头了。

That whole dopamine-wanting system takes over and derails from any of the pleasure system.

这整个多巴胺——渴求系统占了主导,并背离了整个快感系统。

Maslow had this idea back in the 1950s that as people rise above their biological needs,

马斯洛在二十世纪五十年代提出当人们超越了生理需要,

as the world becomes safer and we don't have to worry about basic needs being met -- our biological system, whatever motivates us,

当世界变得更安全,我们就无需担心这些基本需要得不到满足,激励我们的生理系统已经得到了满足,

is being satisfied -- we can rise above them, to think beyond ourselves toward self-actualization or transcendence, and rise above the materialist.

我们可以超越这些需要,超越自身思考,自我实现自我超越,超越唯物者。

So to just quickly conclude with some brief data that suggests this might be so.

简短地概括一下这些数据解释,他说的可能是对的。

One is people who underwent what is called a quantum change: they felt their life and their whole values had changed.

一是正在经历一个叫做量子飞跃过程的人感觉他们的生活和价值观都改变了。

And sure enough, if you look at the kinds of values that come in, you see wealth, adventure, achievement, pleasure, fun, be respected,

当然你可以看到财富、冒险、成就、快感,娱乐等价值观在变化前都受到尊重,

before the change, and much more post-materialist values after.

而变化后则更为后唯物主义了。

Women had a whole different set of value shifts.

女性的价值观变化截然不同。

But very similarly, the only one that survived there was happiness.

但相似的是只有幸福是两者皆有的。

They went from attractiveness and happiness and wealth and self-control to generosity and forgiveness.

从魅力、幸福、财富,自律到慷慨与宽恕。

I end with a few quotes.

我引用几句名言来结尾。

"There is only one question: How to love this world?"

“问题只有一个:如何热爱世界?”

And Rilke, "If your daily life seems poor, do not blame it; blame yourself.

里尔克:“如果你的日常生活很贫寒,别抱怨;怪你自己。

Tell yourself that you are not poet enough to call forth its riches."

告诉自己,你不够诗情画意,招不来生活的丰富多彩。”

"First, say to yourself what you would be.

“首先,告诉自己你想成为什么样子。

Then do what you have to do."

然后做你该做的事情。”

Thank you.

谢谢。


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