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西班牙科学家研究古老的葡萄藤挽救葡萄酒行业

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-12-9 21:56| 查看数: 43| 评论数: 0|



Genetic researchers in Spain's wine country believe grape vines that have lived for more than 35 years are better able to deal with high temperatures brought by climate change.西班牙葡萄酒之乡的基因研究人员认为,已经存活35年以上的葡萄藤能够更好地应对气候变化带来的高温。

Winemakers in the Rioja area in northern Spain make some of the best wine in the world.西班牙北部里奥哈地区的酿酒师酿造的葡萄酒是世界上最好的。

Wine has been made there for hundreds of years.那里酿造葡萄酒已有数百年的历史。

But in recent years, winemakers there have been having trouble producing good wine.但最近几年,那里的酿酒师在生产优质葡萄酒方面遇到了麻烦。

They say the wine tasted better in the past, when temperatures were usually cooler.他们说,过去气温通常较低的时候,这种酒的味道更好。

The 2022 summer was the hottest in Spain since record-keeping began in 1961.2022年的夏天是西班牙自1961年有记录以来最热的夏天。

Temperatures were 2.2 degrees Celsius higher than average.气温比平均水平高出2.2摄氏度。

Researchers like Pablo Carbonell think older grapevines may be able to grow better in higher temperatures.像巴勃罗·卡博内尔这样的研究人员认为,较老的葡萄藤或许能够在较高温度下生长得更好。

As part of his research work, Carbonell looks at rows of gray shapes on his computer screen.作为他研究工作的一部分,卡博内尔看着电脑屏幕上一排排灰色的图形。

Among them was a green rectangle.其中有一个绿色的长方形。

This, he said, represents a kind of grapevine that produces grapes that take longer to ripen, even in warmer conditions.他说,这代表了一种葡萄,即使在较温暖的条件下,葡萄也需要更长的时间才能成熟。

A longer ripeness period is what winemakers want.更长的成熟期是酿酒师想要的。

The current vines produce grapes that are ready to pick too early.目前的葡萄藤出产的葡萄采摘得太早了。

Such grapes do not make wine that has the right color and smell.这样的葡萄不能酿造出颜色和气味都合适的葡萄酒。

The wine also has too much alcohol.这酒的酒精含量也太高了。

People who work in the vineyards have long crossed old vines with new ones.在葡萄园工作的人长期以来一直将旧葡萄与新葡萄杂交。

Now they are working with special laboratories -- like the one where Carbonell works -- to find a climate-resistant vine.现在,他们正在与特殊的实验室合作--比如卡博内尔工作的那个实验室--寻找一种耐气候的葡萄藤。

The place is called the Vine and Wine Research Institute.这个地方被称为葡萄藤和葡萄酒研究所。

It is known as the ICVV in Spain.它在西班牙被称为ICVV。

The scientists there are studying the genomes of commonly used grapes in Spanish wine.那里的科学家正在研究西班牙葡萄酒中常用的葡萄的基因组。

The lab is working to keep the Spanish winemaking industry alive as temperatures rise.该实验室正致力于在气温上升的情况下保持西班牙酿酒工业的活力。

The scientists say the older grapevines have a more diverse genetic makeup.科学家们说,较老的葡萄藤具有更多样化的基因构成。

Spain is the third-largest winemaking country in the world behind France and Italy.西班牙是世界第三大葡萄酒生产国,仅次于法国和意大利。

Spanish wine production is worth close to $5 billion in the country's economy each year.西班牙葡萄酒产量每年在该国经济中的价值接近50亿美元。

The United Nations warns that climate change will cause Europe to lose crops due to heat, dry conditions and "extreme weather."联合国警告说,由于炎热、干燥和“极端天气”,气候变化将导致欧洲农作物减产。

The report will be included in the discussion at the COP 27 international climate meeting, which began this week in Egypt and runs until November 18.该报告将被纳入第27届COP国际气候会议的讨论,该会议于本周在埃及开始,将持续到11月18日。

The Rioja region has 500 wineries and makes up 21 percent of Spain's wine production, totaling over $1.5 billion each year.里奥哈地区有500家酒庄,占西班牙葡萄酒产量的21%,每年的葡萄酒总产值超过15亿美元。

Spain needs the region's wine production to continue.西班牙需要该地区的葡萄酒生产继续下去。

Inigo Torres is director of Grupo Rioja, a trade association representing 60 wineries in the region.伊尼戈·托雷斯(Inigo Torres)是代表该地区60家酒庄的行业协会里奥哈葡萄酒集团(Grupo Rioja)的负责人。

"We are very worried about climate change," he said.“我们非常担心气候变化,”他说。

He noted that this year's grape harvest started two weeks early.他指出,今年的葡萄收获提前两周开始。

The change affects the way the wine tastes.这一变化会影响葡萄酒的味道。

Torres said the warmer weather also limits how many grapes grow on each vine.托雷斯说,温暖的天气也限制了每棵葡萄上生长的葡萄数量。

As a result, total wine production has gone down by 5 to 10 percent over the last four years.这导致了葡萄酒总产量在过去四年里下降了5%到10%。

Jose Miguel Martinez Zapater is the director of ICVV.何塞·米格尔·马丁内斯·萨帕特是ICVV的负责人。

He and his scientists are working to analyze the wine.他和他的科学家们正在努力分析这种葡萄酒。

They are looking at vine cuttings that are close to 100 years old.他们正在研究树龄近100年的葡萄枝条。

He said the laboratory is doing the same kind of work scientists have done to sequence the human genome.他说,该实验室正在做的工作与科学家们对人类基因组测序所做的工作相同。

But instead of looking for mutations that cause diseases, the wine scientists are looking for traits, or qualities, that might permit the vines to survive in a warmer climate.但葡萄酒科学家们并没有寻找导致疾病的突变,而是在寻找可能让葡萄树在更温暖的气候中存活下来的特征或品质。

In addition to the genetic research, scientists are also working on different planting methods.除了基因研究,科学家们还在研究不同的种植方法。

A winery called RODA is planting vines in a curve instead of a straight line.一家名为Roda的酒庄正在以曲线而不是直线的方式种植葡萄。

The hope is that plants will soak up more water this way.希望植物能通过这种方式吸收更多的水分。

The new vineyard is made up of vines that were over 100 years old and moved from another place.新葡萄园是由100多年树龄的葡萄藤组成的,这些葡萄藤是从其他地方搬来的。

Maria Santolaya is an agricultural engineer and part of RODA's technical team.玛丽亚·桑托拉亚是一名农业工程师,也是罗达技术团队的一员。

She said she hopes next summer is not as hot.她说,她希望明年夏天不会那么热。

The hot weather, she said, "has been very problematic."她说,炎热的天气“一直很成问题”。

But, "our biggest concern," she added, "is what will happen in 20 or 30 years.但是,“我们最大的担忧,”她补充说,“是二三十年后会发生什么。”

We don't really know how things will come out."我们真的不知道事情会如何发展。

I'm Jill Robbins. And I'm Dan Friedell.吉尔·罗宾斯,丹·弗里德尔联合报道。


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