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饮食失调为何难以治疗?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-12-8 21:24| 查看数: 37| 评论数: 0|



Globally, about 10% of people will experience an eating disorder during their lifetime.

全球约有10%的人,在其一生中会经历饮食失调。

And yet, eating disorders are profoundly misunderstood.

然而,饮食失调被严重误解了。

Misconceptions about everything from symptoms to treatment,

对于从症状到治疗的一切误解,

make it difficult to navigate an eating disorder or support someone you love as they do so.

使人们难以理解饮食失调的问题,或当所爱的人这么做时,给予支持。

So let's walk through what is— and isn't— true about eating disorders.

因此,让我们来看看关于饮食失调的事实是什么和不是什么。

First, what is an eating disorder?

首先,什么是饮食失调?

Eating disorders are a range of psychiatric conditions characterized by these main patterns of behavior:

饮食失调是一系列精神疾病,主要表现为以下行为模式:

restricting food intake, bingeing, or rapidly consuming large amounts of food,

限制饮食的摄入或暴饮暴食,

and purging or eliminating calories through vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, and other harmful means.

还有透过呕吐、泻药、过度运动以及其他有害的方式来消除卡路里。

An eating disorder can involve any one or any combination of these behaviors.

饮食失调会涉及到这些行为中的任何一个或任何组合。

For example, people living with anorexia usually restrict the amount of food they eat,

例如,患有厌食症的人通常会限制他们所摄取的食物量,

while bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binges and purges.

而暴食症也是种饮食失调,其特征为反复地暴饮暴食。

Importantly, these behaviors determine whether someone has an eating disorder.

重要的是,这些行为决定了一个人是否饮食失调。

You can't tell whether someone has an eating disorder from their weight alone.

你无法单从体重来判断一个人是否饮食失调。

People who weigh what medical professionals might consider a healthy range can have eating disorders,

医疗专业人员所认为的健康体重范围内,也有人患有饮食失调,

including severe ones that damage their long-term health in invisible ways,

包含严重的,以看不见的方式损害他们长期的健康,

including osteoporosis, anemia, heart damage, and kidney damage.

包含骨质疏松症、贫血、心脏及肾脏损害。

Just as we can't tell whether someone has an eating disorder based on their weight alone,

如同我们无法单凭体重判断一个人是否饮食失调,

we can't get rid of these disorders simply by eating differently.

我们无法仅依靠不同饮食方式来摆脱这些疾病。

That's because eating disorders are, at their core, psychiatric illnesses.

这是因为饮食失调的核心原因是精神疾病。

From what we understand, they involve a disruption to someone's self-perception.

根据我们所了解的,这涉及到对某人自我认知的破坏。

Most people who experience them are severely critical of themselves and report many self-perceived flaws.

大部分经历这些的人对自我有严厉的批判,并有许多自认的缺陷。

They may use eating to try to regain some control over an internal sense of chaos.

他们可能试着透过吃来重获对于内心混乱的控制权。

We still don't know exactly what causes eating disorders.

我们仍然不知道到底是什么导致了饮食失调。

There likely isn't a single cause, but a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors that contribute.

这很可能不是单一的原因,而是遗传和环境风险因素共同作用的结果。

Sometimes, other mental illnesses— like depression or anxiety— can cause symptoms of eating disorders.

有时,其他心理疾病,像是忧郁症或焦虑症,能引起饮食失调的症状。

In addition, certain psychological factors, such as perfectionism and body image dissatisfaction,

除此之外,某些心理因素,像是完美主义及对身体意象不满意,

are risk factors for eating disorders.

都是饮食失调的风险因素。

Several social factors contribute, too, including internalized weight stigma,

一些社会因素也有影响,包含内化的体重污名,

exposure to bullying, racial and ethnic assimilation, and limited social networks.

遭受霸凌,种族及民族的同化,和受限的社会网络。

Although there is a common misconception that only women experience eating disorders, people of all genders can be affected.

虽然普遍误解只有女性会遭遇饮食失调,但所有性别的人都可能受到影响。

As these disorders intimately affect the development of one's identity and self-esteem,

由于这些疾病密切地影响着一个人特性及自尊的发展,

people are particularly vulnerable to developing them during adolescence.

人们在青春期时特别容易患上这些疾病。

Although these are among the most challenging psychiatric disorders to treat, effective therapies and interventions exist,

虽然这些精神疾病的治疗最具挑战性,但仍存在着有效的治疗方法和干预措施,

and many people who receive treatment make a full recovery.

而且许多接受治疗的人能完全恢复。

Treatment has a higher chance of success the earlier it starts after someone develops disordered eating behaviors.

当某人出现不正常的饮食行为时,越早开始治疗,有越高的成功机会。

But unfortunately, less than half of people with an eating disorder will seek and receive treatment.

不幸的是,不到一半的饮食失调者会寻求并接受治疗。

Because of the complex effects of eating disorders on both the body and the mind,

由于饮食失调对身心所造成的复杂影响,

treatment usually includes a combination of nutritional counseling and monitoring, psychotherapy, and in some cases, medications.

治疗通常结合营养咨询和监测,心理治疗,以及在某些情况下,使用药物治疗。

Evidence-based psychotherapies exist as treatments for most eating disorders,

大多数饮食失调的治疗用到循证心理治疗,

including cognitive-behavioral therapy and family-based therapy.

包含认知行为疗法及家庭治疗法。

These are talk-therapies that help people gain the skills to deal with underlying psychological problems that drive eating disorder symptoms.

这些谈话疗法帮助人们获得技巧来处理引发饮食失调症状的潜在心理问题。

Because not all patients will respond to these treatments,

由于不是所有病人都对这些治疗有反应,

researchers are also investigating treatments outside of psychotherapy, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation.

研究人员也在调查心理以外的治疗方法,例如经颅磁刺激。

Proper treatment can reduce the chances of dying from a severe eating disorder.

适当的治疗可以减少因严重饮食失调而死亡的机会。

Eating disorders can provoke a powerful sense of powerlessness, but education for individuals, families,

饮食失调会激起强烈的无力感,但对个人、家庭,

and communities helps erode the stigma and improve access to treatment.

和群体的教育有助于消除污名并改善获得治疗的机会。


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