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有慢性病的老人可以接种疫苗吗?权威解答来了

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-12-5 21:09| 查看数: 52| 评论数: 0|

面对病毒,老年人仍然是较为脆弱的群体,而接种疫苗是帮助老年人预防新冠肺炎重症和死亡的重要手段。那么老人接种新冠疫苗是否安全?特别是对于那些患有慢性疾病的老年人,他们可以接种新冠疫苗吗?对这些疑惑,上海疾控专家一一解答。



问:老年人平时接触的人不算多,是否没必要接种?

Q: Is it really necessary for the elderly who seldom engage in social activities to get vaccinated?

答:老年人可能通过家里的小辈、周围接触的人感染到病毒。近期,国内的疫情中就出现了不少老年病例。此外,老年人感染后,发生重症和死亡的风险远高于年轻人和儿童。全球范围共同的特征是,没有接种疫苗的老年人和有慢性基础性疾病的人群,重症和死亡比例较高。

A:It is possible for seniors at home to contract the virus via younger family members and other people who come around them. Recent domestic outbreaks have reported a number of senior patients. In addition, the elderly are at much higher risk of severe symptoms and death compared to young adults and children. Globally, rates of serious cases and deaths among unvaccinated seniors and those with chronic illnesses are relatively high.



图源:VCG



问:为什么老年人仍需接种新冠疫苗加强针?

Q:Why do elderly need COVID-19 boosters?

答:疫苗接种之后,免疫力和保护效果会随着时间推移下降、削弱。因此,目前国内外都在推荐进行新冠病毒疫苗的加强免疫。研究表明,完成新冠疫苗的基础免疫,即使感染,发展成重症的风险也至少降低80%,如果还接种了加强针,风险将降低90%以上。因此,符合条件的老人应尽快完成加强针的接种。

A:Vaccine-induced immunity wanes overtime, so it is recommended globally to receive booster shots. Research shows that completing primary vaccination can reduce the risk of serious symptoms by at least 80 percent, and getting a booster shot can further decrease the risk by at least 90 percent.



图源:新华社



问:老年人的新冠疫苗加强针怎么接种?

Q: How long do seniors have to wait to get a booster shot after receiving the initial vaccinations?

答:现阶段完成全程接种满3个月的60岁及以上人群可实施加强免疫。

A: People age 60 and above can get a booster shot three months after the initial immunization course.



问:哪种新冠疫苗比较适合老年人?

Q: Which COVID-19 vaccine is recommended for the elderly?

答:目前在我国境内获批使用的新冠疫苗的品种包括灭活疫苗、腺病毒载体疫苗和重组蛋白疫苗。这些疫苗都已经通过前期的临床试验和大规模的使用证实了有效性和安全性。只要符合接种条件、没有禁忌,都可以根据当地疫苗的供应情况选择,均可以起到有效降低重症、死亡风险的作用。

A: So far, the mainland has approved inactivated vaccines, adenovirus vector vaccines and recombinant protein vaccines for the COVID-19 disease. All have proved safe and effective via clinical trials and widespread use. Seniors without contraindications and eligible for vaccination can choose any of them based on local supplies.



问:患有慢性疾病的老年人可以接种新冠疫苗吗?患有肿瘤、术后等大病人员能否接种新冠病毒疫苗?

Q:Can elderly people with chronic diseases and other vulnerable groups get COVID-19 vaccines?

答:老年人和慢性病人群都是感染新冠病毒后的重症、死亡高风险人群。健康状况稳定,药物控制良好的慢性病人群建议接种新冠疫苗。处于稳定期的患者,接种疫苗前后,仍应按医嘱用药。肿瘤、术后患者建议参考临床医师建议,结合患者健康状况和相关指标,如病情稳定可接种疫苗。如病情尚不稳定,建议暂缓接种。

A: Those who are in stable health condition and have their chronic diseases under control should get vaccinated. They should continue to take medications as prescribed. Other vulnerable groups such as cancer patients and those recently having underwent major surgeries should consult doctors before vaccination. If their disease prognosis is unstable, it is recommended to delay vaccination.



问:老年人什么情况下不建议接种新冠疫苗?

Q: Who is not recommended for COVID-19 vaccines?

答:国务院应对新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情联防联控机制综合组发布的《关于印发加强老年人新冠病毒疫苗接种工作方案的通知》(国卫明电〔2022〕484号)中进一步明确接种禁忌判定标准,包括:

A: Four COVID-19 contraindications and precautions have been listed by the State Council’s Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism:

①既往接种疫苗时发生过严重过敏反应,如过敏性休克、喉头水肿;

Patients with a history of a severe allergic reaction (such as anaphylactic shock or laryngeal edema) to a previous dose or to a component of the COVID-19 vaccine;

②急性感染性疾病处于发热阶段暂缓接种;

Patients who have acute infectious illnesses with fever;

③严重的慢性疾病处于急性发作期暂缓接种,如正在进行化疗的肿瘤患者、出现高血压危象的患者、冠心病患者心梗发作、自身免疫性神经系统疾病处于进展期、癫痫患者处于发作期;

Patients enduring an acute phase of severe chronic diseases, such as cancer patients on chemotherapy, patients exhibiting dangerous signs of high blood pressure, coronary heart disease patients who have suffered from stroke, patients with progressive autoimmune neurological disease, and epilepsy patients at risk of seizure;

④因严重慢性疾病生命已进入终末阶段。

Patients who are terminally ill due to severe chronic diseases.


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