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胡夫金字塔是如何建造的?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-12-3 21:42| 查看数: 45| 评论数: 0|



As soon as Pharaoh Khufu ascended the throne circa 2575 BCE, work on his eternal resting place began.

大约公元前 2575 年, 胡夫刚登上法老王位后, 建造他的永恒长眠之地的 工程便开始了。

The structure's architect, Hemiunu, determined he would need 20 years to finish the royal tomb.

设计这个建筑的建筑师 海米乌奴(Hemiunu) 预计这座皇陵 需要 20 年才能建成。

But what he could not predict was that this monument would remain the world's tallest manmade structure for over 3,800 years.

但是他未曾想到 这处历史遗迹 在接下来的 3800 年内 都位列世界上最高的人造建筑。

To construct the Great Pyramid, Hemiunu would need to dig a 6-and-a-half-kilometer canal, quarry enormous amounts of limestone and granite,

要建造这座大金字塔, 海米乌奴要挖掘一条 长达 6.5 公里的运河, 开采大量的石灰岩和花岗岩,

and use kilometers of rope to pull stones into place.

用几千米的绳索 把岩石拖到工地。

Today, there are still vigorous debates about the exact methods the Egyptians employed.

时至今日,人们依旧 对埃及人到底采用了何种方法 争论不休。

But we do know that first Hemiunu needed a construction site.

但是我们可以确定的是 首先海米乌奴需要一个建筑工地。

The Egyptians spoke of death as going west like the setting sun,

埃及人将死亡比作夕阳西下,

and the Nile's west bank had a plateau of bedrock that could support the pyramid better than shifting sand.

而且尼罗河西岸高原的基岩比流沙更适合 作为支撑金字塔的地基。

In a brilliant timesaving move, masons carved the plateau itself to look like the stones used for the rest of the pyramid.

为了更巧妙地节省时间,石匠们直接把高原的基岩凿成了金字塔其他部位的石块形状。

With this level foundation in place, construction could begin.

打好了这层地基, 施工就可以开始了。

The project called for a staggering 25,000 workers, but fortunately, Hemiunu had an established labor supply.

这个工程招募的 工人数量高达 25000 人,但是好在海米乌奴有稳定的劳动力来源。

Egyptians were required to perform manual labor for the government throughout the year, and citizens from across the country came to contribute.

埃及人全年都被要求为政府提供体力劳动,于是人们从全国各地来参与这个项目。

Workers performed a wide range of tasks, from crafting tools and clothes to administrative work to back-breaking manual labor.

工人们做的工作五花八门, 制作工具和衣物、行政管理工作、粗活累活。

But contrary to popular belief, these workers were not enslaved people.

但是和主流观点不同,这些工人并不是奴隶。

In fact, these citizens were housed and fed with rations better than the average Egyptian could afford.

这些民众有住房、有口粮, 比普通埃及人的生活水平更高。

To complete the project in 20 years, one block of stone would need to be quarried, transported, and pushed into place every 3 minutes,

要在20年里完成这个项目, 每3分钟就得开采、运输、 放置到位一块岩石,

365 days a year.

全年无休。

Workers averaged 10-hour days, hauling limestone from two different quarries.

工人们每天平均工作10小时,从两个采石场运输石灰岩。

One was close to the site, but its fossil-lined yellow stone was deemed suitable only for the pyramid's interior.

一个采石场离工地较近, 但是这种含有化石的黄色石灰岩 只适合用于金字塔的内饰。

Stones for the outside were hauled from roughly 13 kilometers away, using 9-meter long sleds made from giant cedar trunks.

外表面的岩石从大约13公里外的采石场运来, 通过由松木制成、长达9米的特质雪橇运输。

When mined from the ground, limestone is soft and splits easily into straight lines.

刚从地下开采来的 石灰岩柔软且容易沿直线裂开。

But after air exposure it hardens, requiring wooden mallets and copper chisels to shape.

但是一旦接触到空气,石灰岩就会硬化, 需要木槌和铜楔切割。

The pyramid used over 2 million stones, each weighing up to 80 tons.

金字塔耗费超过200万块石块,每块重达80吨。

And there was no room for error in how they were shaped.

它们的切割方式不容出错。

Even the smallest inaccuracy at the bottom of the pyramid could result in a catastrophic failure at the top.

金字塔底部的丝毫微小误差 都会导致灭“顶”之灾。

Researchers know where the materials used to build the pyramids came from and how they were transported,

研究人员已经知道了金字塔建材的来源、 运输的方式,

but the actual construction process remains mysterious.

但实际的建设过程仍然是个谜。

Most experts agree that limestone ramps were used to move the stones into place,

大多数专家认为他们利用了石灰岩坡道把石块运输到位,

but there are many theories on the number of ramps and their locations.

但是人们对坡道的数量和位置众说纷纭。

And the pyramid's exterior is just half the story.

金字塔的外部建造还只是工程的一半。

Since death could come for the pharaoh at any time, Hemiunu always needed an accessible burial chamber at the ready,

由于法老随时都可能会死, 海米乌奴还得准备一个随时可以送入的墓室,

so three separate burial chambers were built during construction.

因此,他在建设过程中设计了三个不同的墓室。

The last of these, known as the King's Chamber, is a spacious granite room with a soaring ceiling, located at the heart of the pyramid.

最后一个墓室,即国王墓室, 是一个有挑高天花板的宽敞花岗岩墓室, 位于金字塔正中。

it lay on top of an 8.5-meter high passageway called the Grand Gallery,

国王墓室下方为一条层高8.5米的通道, 称为“大走廊”(GrandGallery),

which may have been used as an ancient freight elevator to move granite up the pyramid's interior.

用途可能为古时的货运升降装置, 从金字塔内部向上运送花岗岩。

Granite was used for all the pyramid's support beams.

金字塔所有的承重梁都由花岗岩制成。

Much stronger than limestone, but extremely difficult to shape, workers used dolerite rocks as hammers to slowly quarry the stone.

花岗岩的强度比石灰岩大,但是极难切割, 工人把粗玄岩当作锤子缓慢开采岩石。

To ensure the granite beams would be ready when he needed them,

为了确保花岗岩梁在海米乌奴需要的时候已经制作完毕,

Hemiunu dispatched 500 workers in the project's first year so that the material would be ready 12 years later.

项目第一年,他派遣了500名工人制作, 这样12年以后就会制作完毕。

Five stories of granite sit atop the King's Chamber, preventing the pyramid from collapsing in on itself.

国王墓室顶部有五层花岗岩, 防止金字塔向内坍塌。

Once complete, the entire structure was encased with white limestone, polished with sand and stone until it gleamed.

建成之后,整个建筑由白色石灰岩覆盖, 再用沙子和岩石抛光,直至表面发亮。

Finally, a capstone was placed on top.

最后,塔尖安装了一块顶石。

Covered with electrum and glimmering like gold, this peak shined like a second sun over all of Egypt.

顶石镀以琥珀金,闪耀像金子一样的光芒, 塔顶的光芒就像第二个太阳一样普照埃及大地。

This video was made possible with support from Marriott Hotels.

本视频的制作由万豪酒店集团支持。

With over 590 hotels and resorts across the globe, Marriott Hotels celebrates the curiosity that propels us to travel.

万豪集团旗下超590家酒店和度假村遍布全球, 唤起内在的好奇心,踏上奇妙旅程。

Check out some of the exciting ways TED-Ed and Marriott are working together and book your next journey at Marriott Hotels.

来探索TED-Ed和万豪合作的有趣内容, 预定你在万豪酒店的下一次旅程。


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