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南方多地降至10℃,这个温度算冷吗?这项实验告诉你

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-12-1 21:59| 查看数: 51| 评论数: 2|

10摄氏度是什么概念?算得上“寒冷”吗?

“在没有家庭供暖的情况下,10摄氏度是人们生存的平均温度。”南威尔士大学生理学和生物化学教授达米安·贝利说。

"Ten degrees is the average temperature that people will be living in, if they can't afford to heat their homes," said Prof Damian Bailey, from the University of South Wales.

BBC四台健康与科学通讯记者(Inside Health presenter, BBC Radio 4)詹姆斯·加拉格尔(James Gallagher)应贝利教授之邀参加了一项实验,探索寒冷的房屋对身体的影响,以及为什么这种看似温和的温度会变得致命。

He's invited me (James Gallagher) to his laboratory to explore the impact of cold homes on our bodies and why such seemingly mild temperatures can become deadly.



詹姆斯·加拉格尔(James Gallagher)。图源:BBC

起初,詹姆斯对这个实验持怀疑态度,他觉得10摄氏度的温度不算什么,甚至都没达到冰点,离他眼中“致命的寒冷”还差得远。提到致命的寒冷,他脑海中浮现的是胡须上挂着冰柱的极地探险家,和那些勇攀珠穆朗玛峰的登山者,以及那些因冻伤和低体温症而变黑的手指。

Mention deadly cold and I think of polar explorers with icicles dangling from their beards and mountaineers tackling the heights of Qomolangma (Mount Everest); of fingers turning black with frostbite and the chilling clutch of hypothermia.

So I was sceptical when I was asked to take part in a cold experiment that took place at just 10 degrees Celsius. Yes, 10°C.

To me that's mild, nowhere near freezing and certainly no Arctic blast.

但他很快就发现自己错了。10摄氏度的低温会对心脏、肺和大脑产生严重的“杀伤力”。

低温实验

詹姆斯以第一人称视角描述了自己参加的这次印象深刻的“低温实验”。

I'm hit with a blast of warm 21°C air. The plan is to start at 21°C, drop the temperature down to 10°C and chart how my body responds to the chill.

实验开始,我最先经历的是一股21摄氏度的暖风。实验计划从21摄氏度开始,逐渐将温度降至10摄氏度,在此过程中实验人员将绘制我身体对寒冷的反应图表。

First, I am wired up to countless state-of-the-art gizmos for the most in-depth analysis my body has ever faced. My chest, arms and legs are dotted with monitors to track my body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure.

我身上连接了许多先进的设备,对我的身体进行深入分析。我的胸部、胳膊和腿上都连接着监测器,用于跟踪监控我的体温、心率和血压。

"You will look like something out of Star Wars," says Prof Bailey as another sensor and trailing cable is attached to my body.

“等会儿你会看起来像星球大战中的人物,”贝利教授在我的皮肤上安放另一个传感器和数据传输线时,开玩笑地说道。



科学家需要传感器直接接触皮肤来进行实验,因此詹姆斯没有选择御寒装备。图源:BBC

A headset is fitted to monitor the blood flow in my brain just as the first beads of sweat breakout on my brow; an ultrasound inspects the carotid arteries in my neck (hearing the rhythmic whoosh of blood going to my brain is oddly reassuring) and I breathe into a huge tube that analyses the air I exhale.

在我的额头开始冒出汗珠时,他们又为我戴上了耳机来监测大脑中的血流;超声波负责探查我脖子上的颈动脉(听到血液有节奏地汩汩流向我的大脑,这给我一种奇妙地安全感);然后我被连接到一个巨大的呼吸管,它会分析我呼出的空气。

The measurements are done. The scientists know how my body performs in a pleasant 21°C. So the fans kick in and a cool breeze gradually lowers the temperature in the chamber.

测量完成,科学家们获知了我的身体处于舒适的21摄氏度时的各项指标。随后,风扇启动,吹出的凉风逐渐降低了室内的温度。

"Your brain is tasting your blood as we speak and it's tasting the temperature and the brain is now sending signals to the rest of your body," Prof Bailey tells me.

“在我们说话时,你的大脑正在感受你的血液和体温,大脑现在正在向你身体的其他部位发送信号,”贝利教授告诉我。

The goal is to keep my core - that's my major organs including my heart and liver - at around 37°C.

(大脑调控的)目标是将我的核心部位 —— 也就是我的主要器官,包括我的心脏和肝脏 —— 保持在37摄氏度左右。

I was still unaware of the profound changes happening inside my body, but there were already clues on the outside. By the time the room has dropped to 18°C I was no longer sweating and the hairs on my arms were starting to stand up to help insulate my body.

我还没有察觉到体内正在发生的深刻变化,但体表已有了反应。当室温降到18摄氏度时,我不再出汗,手臂上的汗毛开始竖起来,帮助身体隔绝寒冷。

"Science tells us that 18 degrees is the tipping point... the body is now working to defend that core temperature," Prof Bailey shouts over the droning fans.

“科学告诉我们,18摄氏度是临界点……身体现在正努力保持核心部位的温度,”贝利教授在嗡嗡作响的风扇中大声喊道。

Next my fingers turn white and they feel cold. The blood vessels in my hands are being closed off - known as vasoconstriction - in order to keep my warm blood for my critical organs.

接下来我的手指发白,手指感受到了寒冷。手上的血管正在变窄(学名是血管收缩),以便为我的重要器官保留温暖的血液。

My first shiver kicks in at 11.5°C as my muscles begin to shake to generate heat.

在温度降至11.5摄氏度时,我第一次开始发抖,因为此时肌肉开始通过颤抖来产生热量。

At 10°C the fans shut down. I'm feeling uncomfortable, but not freezing as we repeated all the bodily measurements again at the lower temperature and it soon became clear I was wrong to doubt that 10°C would affect me.

室温到达10摄氏度时风扇关闭。我感觉不舒服,但并没有冻僵,我们在这个温度下重复测量了所有身体指标。(数据对比后)很快我就明白,我不应该怀疑10摄氏度对我身体的“杀伤力”。

10摄氏度会对身体产生怎样的影响?



身体在10摄氏度时与21摄氏度相比,大脑供血量降低了20%;呼吸、心跳频率增加;血压升高;认知速度降低;身体加快消化供能;四肢和头部体表温度平均降低2摄氏度;核心部位体温保持不变。图源:BBC

詹姆斯表示,“最令我震惊的是大脑供血量的变化,以及我适应这种变化需要更长的时间。我的身体努力保持核心部位的体温,器官加速运转,加重了身体负荷。”

What shocks me is the change in blood flow to the brain and how much longer it takes me to complete a shape-sorting game.

But my body is achieving its main goal of keeping my core body temperature stable - it's just having to do more work.

贝利教授解释道:“你向大脑输送的血液更少,因此进入大脑的氧气和葡萄糖 [糖分]更少,因此会对你的脑力活动产生负面影响。”

"You're delivering less blood to the brain, so there's less oxygen and less glucose [sugar] getting into the brain and the downside of that is it's having a negative impact on your mental gymnastics," Prof Bailey says.



“低温实验”的组织者,南威尔士大学的达米安·贝利教授。图源:BBC

随着心跳加快,身体会更强烈地泵送(pump)温暖的血液,血压(blood pressure)也会飙升。而血压升高也会增加中风(stroke)和心脏病(heart attack)的风险。这就是心脏病和中风在冬天更为常见的原因。

低温环境下,血液也会变得更粘稠,用贝利教授的话说,“血液会变得有点像糖浆”,这种更粘稠的血液也增加了血栓、堵塞的风险。幸运的是,处于青壮年的詹姆斯“血管系统尚佳”,但这对于老年人和心脏健康状况不佳的人来说会构成很大危害。

The blood itself is also changing "so it becomes a bit like treacle", says Prof Bailey, and this thicker gloopier blood also adds to the risk of a dangerous blockage.

Fortunately, I started off with "fabulous vasculature", Prof Bailey tells me, but these internal changes are a risk to those who already have poor heart health and the elderly.

寒冷也是病毒最爱的“培养皿”

天气寒冷时,人们更倾向待在密闭的室内,减少通风,这使病毒更容易聚集,发生传染。另外,低气温时,病毒也更容易在人体外存活,因为冷空气中水分较少,使病毒难以被水分“锁住”。

It is easier for viruses to spread because we're more likely to meet up indoors with the windows shut and no fresh air to blow viruses away.

Cold also makes it easier for viruses to survive outside the body and cold air contains less virus-trapping moisture.



图源:ReactionGifs

耶鲁大学免疫生物学家岩崎明子( Akiko Iwasaki )教授还发现,干燥的空气可以让病毒传播更远的距离。她进行了实验,表明吸入冷空气会影响鼻腔内免疫系统的工作方式。

Dry air allows viruses to travel further distances, says Prof Akiko Iwasaki, an immunobiologist from Yale University. She has also performed experiments showing breathing in cold air affects how the immune system works in the nose.

岩崎教授指出:“在较低的温度下,免疫反应变得不那么活跃,有利于病毒在鼻腔内更好的繁殖。”

Prof Iwasaki tells me: "At these cooler temperatures, your immune response becomes less active and this can allow virus to grow better within your nose."

能源短缺的情况下,如何尽可能抵御寒冷?

贝利教授提到,理想的条件下,我们需要将室温加热到至少18摄氏度。但在欧洲能源短缺的背景下,充足的暖气供应成了奢望。



图源:Gfycat

对此,他提出了几条御寒建议:

❶ 选择御寒性良好的衣物,例如羊毛制成的衣服

Focus on clothes that provide good insulation such as those made of wool.

❷ 手套和保暖袜子比帽子更重要(但羊毛帽也有帮助)

Gloves and warm socks are more important than a hat (but a woolly hat will help too).

❸ 换一些碳水含量更高的饮食

Switch foods to a higher carbohydrate diet.

❹ 不要静止不动坐在椅子上看电视,多多走动,促进身体产生更多的身体热量

Generate more body heat by moving around and not just sitting in a chair and watching TV.


最新评论

66178889 发表于 2022-12-2 10:28:24
冷啊!~~~~~~~~~
cdzhaoliang 发表于 2022-12-2 18:16:20
贝利教授提到,理想的条件下,我们需要将室温加热到至少18摄氏度。

在南方,能做到室温18摄氏度的人很少吧。
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