发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-11-30 21:38| 查看数: 52| 评论数: 0|

Scientists in New Zealand are looking for a way to stop cows from burping.新西兰的科学家正在寻找一种方法来阻止奶牛打嗝。

A burp is when an animal releases gas from its digestive system through its throat.打嗝是指动物通过喉咙从消化系统释放气体。

To some, a cow burp might seem like a small thing.对一些人来说,奶牛打嗝可能看起来是一件小事。

But in New Zealand, cows outnumber people two to one.但在新西兰,奶牛的数量是人的两倍。

There are only five million people in New Zealand.新西兰只有500万人口。

The nation is home to 10 million cows and 26 million sheep.这个国家有1000万头奶牛和2600万只羊。

Cows do not easily digest the grass they eat.奶牛不容易消化它们吃的草。

Instead, they ferment it in multiple parts of their stomach.取而代之的是,它们在胃的多个部位进行发酵。

The process releases a lot of gas.这个过程释放了大量的气体。

So, every time someone eats beef or drinks milk, the process of getting that product comes at a high cost to the environment.因此,每次有人吃牛肉或喝牛奶,获得这些产品的过程都会对环境造成高昂的成本。

The cows produce methane gas.奶牛会产生甲烷气体。

While the gas does not last as long in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, it has a much stronger effect on global warming.虽然这种气体在大气中的持续时间不如二氧化碳长,但它对全球变暖的影响要强得多。

The scientists in New Zealand are working on ways to reduce the amount of gas that comes out of the cows.新西兰的科学家们正在研究减少奶牛排气量的方法。

They are considering changing the food the animals eat, putting a device on the cows that changes the methane into something safer, or even giving them a vaccine.他们正在考虑改变动物吃的食物,在奶牛身上放置一种装置,将甲烷转化为更安全的东西,甚至给它们接种疫苗。

There is also talk of feeding the cows a special red seaweed or giving them a food addition known as a probiotic,还有人在谈论给奶牛喂一种特殊的红色海藻,或者给它们添加一种名为益生菌的食物,

which would help them digest the grass.这将帮助它们消化草。

The fight against methane is serious in New Zealand.在新西兰,与甲烷的斗争是严峻的。

The country promised to reduce the gas produced by farm animals by up to 47 percent by the year 2050.该国承诺到2050年将农场动物产生的气体减少47%。

In addition, farmers want a solution.此外,农民们想要一个解决方案。

That is because New Zealand announced plans to tax farmers whose animals produce too much gas.这是因为新西兰宣布计划对牲畜产生过多气体的农民征税。

The farmers say they would lose money if the tax plan goes into effect.农民们说,如果税收计划生效,他们会赔钱。

Peter Janssen is one scientist working on a solution.彼得·詹森是一位致力于解决方案的科学家。

He works for AgResearch, a company owned by the New Zealand government.他在新西兰政府所有的农业研究公司(AgResearch)工作。

Janssen said the microscopic organisms, or microbes, that live in the cows' stomachs and produce the methane do not actually help digestion.詹森说,生活在牛胃里并产生甲烷的微生物实际上无助于消化。

The scientists believe anti-methane treatments would not hurt the cows or the quality of their meat or milk.科学家们认为,抗甲烷处理不会损害奶牛或奶牛的肉或牛奶的质量。

One idea is a vaccine that would reduce the number of microbes living in the cows.其中一个想法是研制一种疫苗,可以减少生活在奶牛体内的微生物数量。

Another is an inhibitor, which would do the same thing.另一种是抑制剂,它可以起到同样的作用。

Janssen said both ideas, however, are several years away from being ready.然而,詹森表示,这两个想法都需要几年时间才能准备就绪。

Another plan is to breed animals based on how much methane they produce.另一项计划是根据动物产生的甲烷数量来繁殖动物。

Some sheep and cows are tested in laboratories.一些羊和牛在实验室里进行测试。

The ones that produce less methane can then be used to breed more animals.产生较少甲烷的那些动物可以得到准许繁殖更多。

The plan could reduce the amount of methane by 15 percent, scientists say.科学家说,该计划可以将甲烷的数量减少15%。

One expert said New Zealand is making good progress in reducing emissions that way.一位专家表示,新西兰在以这种方式减少排放方面取得了良好的进展。

Sinead Leahy is the top science advisor at the New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Center.史内德·里费是新西兰农业温室气体研究中心的首席科学顾问。

She said the country has made "great progress" in breeding sheep that produce less gas.她说,该国在培育产生较少气体的绵羊方面取得了“巨大进展”。

Other scientists are working to change the animals' food.其他科学家正在努力改变动物的食物。

The problem with sheep and cows in New Zealand, however, is that they walk around outside and eat grass.然而,新西兰的羊和牛的问题是,它们在户外四处走动,吃草。

It is hard to control their food compared to cows in other countries that come inside to eat.与其他国家的牛在室内进食相比,很难控制它们的食量。

That means one food additive made by a company in the Netherlands is not as helpful in New Zealand.这意味着荷兰一家公司生产的一种食品添加剂在新西兰没有那么有用。

So instead, scientists are trying to change the genetic makeup of the grass and other ground covering the animals eat while outside.因此,科学家们正试图改变这些动物在户外吃的草和其他地面覆盖物的基因组成。

A genetic change might reduce the compound in the grass that is hard to digest.基因的改变可能会减少草中难以消化的化合物。

The problem with that solution, however, is that New Zealand has strict rules on genetically modified crops.然而,这一解决方案的问题在于,新西兰对转基因作物有严格的规定。

Those rules would need to be changed.这些规定需要改变。

Another possibly easier idea comes from farmer Aidan Bichan.另一个可能更简单的想法来自农民艾丹·比昌。

He runs Kaiwaiwai Dairies in the town of Featherston, outside of the capital of Wellington.他在首都惠灵顿外的费瑟斯顿镇经营着Kaiwaiwai奶牛场。

He said he is working to get more milk from each cow.他说,他正在努力从每头奶牛身上获得更多的牛奶。

The increased efficiency means he does not need as many cows, which in turn reduces the amount of methane coming from his farm.他说,他正在努力从每头奶牛获得更多的牛奶。效率的提高意味着他不需要那么多的奶牛,这反过来减少了来自他农场的甲烷量。

"At a farm level, we've got to do our bit to help save the planet," Bichan said.“在农场层面上,我们必须尽自己的一份力量来帮助拯救地球,”比昌说。

I'm Dan Friedell. And I'm Faith Pirlo.丹·弗里德尔,费思·皮尔洛联合报道。


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