英语家园

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

搜索

为全球气候正义而制定的新型社会契约

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-11-29 22:32| 查看数: 48| 评论数: 0|



One third of my country, Pakistan, is under water.

我的国家巴基斯坦有三分之一的土地被水淹没。

An exceptional monsoon coupled with flash flooding

超强季风伴随着

due to the accelerated melting of the Himalayan glaciers

喜马拉雅冰川加速融化 所带来的山洪爆发

has led to devastating flooding.

导致了毁灭性的洪水灾害。

Floods so destructive, so all-consuming,

洪水如此具有破坏性,如此吞噬一切,

that the adjective most frequently used to describe them is "biblical."

现在最常用来形容这场洪水的 形容词是“圣经级别的” (biblical)。

The area of land that is underwater is larger than Britain.

泡在水里的土地面积比 英国的国土面积还要大。

Over 33 million people are affected, stripped of homes and livelihoods.

已有超过 3300 万人受到影响, 失去了家园与生计。

Hundreds have been killed,

数百人丧生,

and those that survived are now dying of malaria,

那些幸存下来的人现在正死于疟疾,

dengue fever, diarrhea.

登革热,腹泻。

The crops that we planted have been washed away,

我们种的庄稼都被冲走了,

and our fields will be waterlogged for many months to come,

未来数月,土地会充满积水,

imperiling the critical wheat-planting season.

严重威胁着 至关重要的小麦种植季节。

Pakistan is in shock,

巴基斯坦备受冲击,

and all it can look ahead to is food insecurity, famine,

接下来估计还会有以下问题:粮食危机、饥荒、

climate migration and conflict.

气候迁徙以及冲突。

Pakistan needs tens of billions in emergency relief funds,

巴基斯坦需要 数百亿的紧急救济资金, ,

and it needs them right now.

现在就需要。

But I'm not here to talk about today's crisis.

但我不是来这里谈论今天的危机的。

I'm here to talk about the way forward.

我是来讨论今后的道路的。

As the scale of devastation becomes apparent,

这次大洪水的破坏规模显而易见,

the sense of climate injustice is mounting.

气候不公的感觉越来越强烈。

Pakistan emits less than one percent of global greenhouse gases,

巴基斯坦在全球碳排放份额中仅仅占据不到 1%,

and yet it is consistently among the countries

却始终是受到气候变化影响

most vulnerable to disasters caused by climate change.

最为显著的脆弱国家之一。

That vulnerability has been horrifyingly laid bare

这种脆弱已经骇人听闻地暴露无疑。

over the last few months.

在过去几个月里。

Calls are growing for the global North to compensate the global South

要求发达国家对发展中国家进行补偿的呼声越来越大,

for the fact that high-emitting activities in developed economies

发达经济体的高碳排放活动

are leading to catastrophic climate change-linked events

正在导致灾难性气候变化相关事件

in less developed countries.

发生在相对不发达的国家。

Since the Industrial Revolution,

自工业革命以来,

today's wealthy nations have benefited economically

今天的富裕国家在经济上受益

from high-emitting activities.

从高碳排放活动中

The G20 are still responsible

二十国集团(G20)的排放量

for 80 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

依旧占全球温室气体排放量的80%。

The logic is simple:

这个逻辑很简单:

industrialized nations that have profited from fossil-fuel-driven development

受益于化石燃料发展的工业化国家

should be the ones to pay the bill

应该为

when climate disasters strike poor countries such as mine.

巴基斯坦这样的贫穷国家所遭受的气候灾害买单

This idea is not new,

这种想法既不新鲜,

nor is it particularly controversial.

也没有颇具争议。

In 2009,

2009年,

developed countries promised to mobilize billions in climate finance

发达国家承诺筹措上千亿气候融资

to support emerging economies.

支持新兴经济体。

That funding has not materialized.

这笔资金尚未得到兑现。

And so the demands for reparations have.

同样落空的还有气候赔偿。

But let's be clear.

不过我们要说清楚。

Developing countries are not asking for charity.

发展中国家并不是在要求慈善捐款。

Having polluted only marginally,

发展中国家只制造了微不足道的污染,

they are climate creditors, and that credit is now due.

但它们才是牺牲了自己气候权益的债主,而还债的期限到了。

As I said, the logic is simple.

正如我所说,逻辑很简单。

But the politics are complicated.

但政治是复杂的。

Developing countries have not consistently demanded reparations

发展中国家并未一致对外地对气候问题所造成的损失要求赔偿。

for climate change-linked loss and damage.

对气候问题所造成的损失要求赔偿。

Many countries in the Global South, led by India and China,

以印度和中国为主的很多发展中国家

subscribe to the "catch up" argument:

选择的立场是“追赶”:

the notion that developing countries

意思是发展中国家

should now be allowed their share of pollutants and greenhouse gases

现在应被允许他们自己的污染物与温室气体排放份额,

in order to build infrastructure

来进行基础设施建设

and spur economic growth.

和促进经济发展。

This reasoning envisions the West curtailing emissions

这个推论设想的是西方国家会减少碳排放,

and bearing the financial cost of the economic slowdown,

并承受经济放缓所带来的损失,

while developing countries continue to emit,

而发展中国家会继续排放,

build and grow.

建设,增长。

It's a way of saying, "Hey, it's our turn."

这是“嘿,轮到我们了。”的说法。

This "catch up" argument is compelling,

这种“追赶”理论很有说服力,

but it does not speak the language of reparations.

但是它所说的不是赔偿。

Climate justice is based on the notion of not being punished

气候正义是基于不为

for someone else's bad behavior.

其他人的不良行为买单。

It does not sanction more bad behavior.

它不应该批准更多的恶劣行为。

You cannot both demand reparations and the right to emit.

你不能既提出赔偿的诉求又要求排放的权利。

But many developing countries have yet to engage in climate diplomacy,

但是很多发展中国家还没有参与到这场气候外交当中,

a process of reconciling the demand for reparations with existing security

这是一个用现有的安全

and foreign policies.

外交政策来协调赔偿诉求的过程。

And so you'll see cases where some government departments

你将会看到有些政府部门在

are demanding climate justice,

要求气候正义,

while others are seeking foreign funding for coal and gas projects

而另外一些在寻求外国资金来发展煤炭燃气项目

or pursuing defense deals with high-emitting nations.

或者努力促进与高碳排放国家的防御协议。

It is difficult to have it both ways.

两全其美是很难的。

And that's why demanding reparations

这就是为什么要求赔偿

also means bringing forward a clean, green vision --

也意味着提出一个清洁、绿色的愿景--

one which includes leapfrogging

从经济发展的

the high emitting stage of economic development

高排放阶段跨越到

into a more sustainable future.

一个更加可持续的未来。

For countries like mine,

对于像巴基斯坦这样的国家,

that means no more poorly planned expressways

这意味着不再有规划混乱的高速公路,

or elite real estate developments dotted with swimming pools

带泳池的奢华房地产开发项目,

or golf courses in drought-hit areas.

或是在受旱灾影响的地区开设高尔夫课程。

Because sadly, it is true

因为不幸的是,

that the scale of devastation in Pakistan,

巴基斯坦所遭受的大规模破坏

and in climate calamities elsewhere,

以及其他地方的气候灾害,

is not just the result of climate change

并不只是由气候变化造成的,

but also a consequence of poor governance,

其它原因包括治理不善、

of inadequate planning,

规划不当、

the lack of infrastructure, corruption and the lack of accountability.

缺乏基础设施、腐败以及缺乏责任追究制度。

This is something the Global South must acknowledge.

这是发展中国家必须要承认的事。

But this is absolutely not to place the onus back

但是这绝不是要将责任推向

on climate vulnerable developing countries.

受气候变化影响严重的脆弱的发展中国家。

No.

不是的。

Instead, it is to say that the time has come

相反地,它是在说发达国家与发展中国家

for the global North and South to agree on the terms of a just transition.

就公平转型条款达成一致的时候到了。

Are we ready for a new social contract within countries and between countries?

我们准备好在国家内部以及国家之间实行新型社会契约了吗?

One way forward

一条出路

is to adopt a more expansive definition of reparations.

是对气候赔偿进行更广泛的定义。

This should take the form of funding for emergency relief, loss and damage,

赔偿形式应该包括紧急救济资金,损失损坏赔款,

but it should also include technical assistance,

还应该包括技术援助,

adaptation planning

适应规划

and the skills development needed to tackle the climate challenge.

以及对抗气候挑战所需的技能开发。

Developed countries should provide funding,

发达国家应该提供资金,

but they should also provide access to the green technologies

还应该提供绿色科技的技术支持,

that can help countries such as Pakistan catch up,

帮助像巴基斯坦这样的国家在不进行高碳排放的情况下,技术也可以赶上。

but without the high emissions.

在不进行高碳排放的情况下,

Pakistan is drowning,

巴基斯坦正在被淹没,

and its people are desperate.

而且它的人民已经绝望了。

Their present is your future.

他们的现在就是你们的未来。

We need a new era of climate diplomacy,

我们需要一个气候外交的新时代,

and we need a new recognition that we are in this together.

我们需要一种新的认识,即我们是同舟共济的。

We can adapt, mitigate, build resilience,

我们能够适应,迁移,增强防御和复原能力,

but only if we do it together.

但前提是我们所有人都要一起加入。

The logic of climate justice is simple.

气候正义的逻辑很简单。

Let's make the politics simpler to.

让我们让政治变得更简单。

Thank you.

谢谢。

(Applause and cheers)

(掌声和欢呼声)

Bruno Giussani: Huma, thank you.

布鲁诺·朱萨尼(BrunoGiussani):休马(Huma),谢谢你。介绍你时,

So when introduced you, I said

所以当我介绍你的时候,我说

that the floods have not received enough attention in the global media.

洪水在全球媒体中没有得到足够的关注。

But how are the Pakistani media talking and reporting about them?

但巴基斯坦媒体是如何谈论和报道他们的呢?

Huma Yusuf: Thank you for that question.

休马·尤瑟夫(HumaYusuf):谢谢提问。

You know, we're just a month into the declaration of a national emergency,

距离我们宣布全国进入紧急状态仅仅过去了一个月,

and the floods are already slipping out of the news headlines in Pakistan.

洪水的话题已经开始不再是巴基斯坦的新闻头条。

I think we're really suffering from the fact

我们面临的困难是

that the 24-hour news cycle does not know how to tell this story,

24小时的新闻周期不知道如何讲述这个故事,

a story so big,

如此宏大的故事,

a story that requires you to connect the dots

一个需要你把点点滴滴连在一起的故事

to every other story you will ever tell,

它需要你将现有的内容与之后要讲的故事都串联起来,

whether we're talking about food,

无论是谈论食物、

the economy, insecurity, domestic militancy.

经济、保障问题,还是国家的激进战斗情绪。

There is no story that can be told without also telling this story.

不先讲好洪水的新闻,其他故事都没法进行下去。

But unfortunately, I don't think we have that media literacy,

然而不幸的是,我觉得我们并不具备足够的媒体素养,

and the floods are already receding out of our own headlines.

洪水的头条新闻已经开始逐渐消失在我们自己的视野里。

So what can we expect from the international press?

那我们还能在国际媒体那里期待些什么呢?

BG: Well, is aid already coming, at least?

布鲁诺:至少援助已经在路上了?

HY: Aid is coming, but not enough and not fast enough.

休马:援助正在路上,但是不够多也不够快。

And, you know, Pakistan has said that they need about 30 billion dollars

你知道,巴基斯坦已经表示,他们需要大约300亿美元

to help with the rehabilitation and reconstruction phase.

以帮助恢复和重建。

And we're at a stage where, for example,

目前的情况,比如说,

I think the UN tomorrow launches a new appeal

我认为联合国明天会发布一个新的募捐呼吁,

that's for 600 million dollars.

金额是6亿美金。

So I don't think that there will ever be enough aid.

所以我觉得不会有足够的援助。

We do need some of these reparations.

我们需要气候赔偿。

We need a better plan

我们需要一个更好的计划,

for how we're going to fund these kinds of climate disasters.

在面对此类气候灾难时,可以更好地筹措应对资金。

But unfortunately, even before the money has started flowing,

令人遗憾的是,资金还没到账呢,

those questions have started.

有些问题也开始了。

You know, where's the money that's already come through gone?

那些已经到账的资金到底都去了哪里?

Who is tracking it?

谁在追踪记录这些款项?

What is it being spent on?

这笔钱花在了什么地方?

And I fear that those kinds of questions deter more funding,

我担忧此类问题会阻碍我们获取更多

when actually it's the absolute need of the hour.

已是眼下当务之急的援助资金。

BG: Now, I want just to put an image in the mind of people here.

布鲁诺:现在,我想为在座的各位讲述一个画面。

One of our conversations,

我们谈话提到的,

you told me a story about people in flooded areas

你给我讲了一个故事,洪涝地区的人们

going around in small boats and hitting structures under water.

坐着小船漂着,船会撞到水下的各种建筑物。

Tell us about that.

给我们讲讲这个吧。

HY: Yes, you saw the pictures that I started with.

休马:是的,我一开始也看到了这些照片。

And I've been seeing those, and I haven't visited myself

我最近一直看到这些照片。我还没去到

the most badly affected areas.

受影响最严重的地区。

And it was only when I received a video from a friend of mine

我的一位朋友将视频发给我,

who was out there reporting in the field,

她去到洪涝地区进行报道。

which showed her on a boat going through what I thought was a lake,

视频里她坐着小船,我原本以为她是漂在湖里, ,

and then they start bumping up against things --

然后他们开始撞到东西,船只颠簸,

and you realize that it's the top of electricity pylons,

我才意识到撞到的是输电塔顶部,

and it's the top of school buildings

是学校大楼的顶部,

and it's the top of petrol stations

是加油站的顶部,

with the little, you know, advertising symbol --

还有广告牌——

that I really understood that my country is submerged.

我深深地理解了,我的祖国被淹没了。

It is truly underwater.

真真切切地淹没在水里了。

And I don't know how you come back from that.

我不知道怎样才能从这一切中恢复过来。

BG: Thank you for sharing this story and thank you for your talk.

BG:感谢你分享这个故事,也感谢你的演讲。

HY: Thank you for having me.(Applause)

HY:谢谢你们邀请我。(掌声)


最新评论

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表