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机械的未来:可以像动物那样移动

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-11-28 22:03| 查看数: 57| 评论数: 0|



Modern engineering focuses on rotating motors

现代工程的所有机器

to power almost any machine.

为几乎任何机器提供动力。

It has taken about 200 years

我们花了 200 年才把电机

for motors to become what they are today.

发展成今天这个样子。

And they're still loud and unnatural in their ways.

它们依旧“我行我素”地 制造噪音、格格不入。

The constant noise of machines

机械不断发出的噪音

causes problems for living beings everywhere,

让各处的生物头疼不已,

both in the ocean and also on land.

无论是在海洋中还是在陆地上。

Humans who are constantly exposed to noise can become stressed, depressed

经常暴露在噪音中的人会变得有压力、抑郁

and even develop tinnitus.

甚至会发展成耳鸣。

In contrast,

然而,

there are no rotating motors in nature.

自然界中并没有旋转电机。

Nature often smoothly, glides, swims or wiggles,

自然界的生物通常流畅地 滑动、游动、摆动,

without the rattling of rigid parts

没有硬质部件的响声,

or the loud rubbing of surfaces.

也没有表面之间的摩擦噪音。

I believe we can and should rehaul our approach to how we make machines.

我相信我们可以, 也应该改变我们制造机械的方式。

Instead of using rigid or unnatural materials,

不再使用刚性或非自然的材料,

what if we made biomimetic machines?

而是制造仿生机器,会怎么样?

Machines made of soft or living materials

由柔性或生物活性材料制成的机器,

that are adaptive and safe to use in a variety of everyday tasks?

适用于各种日常活动中的安全使用。

Can you imagine boats or submarines that propel themselves

你可以想象船只或者潜水艇通过

by moving their tails from side to side,

像鱼一样摆动尾巴

just like fish do?

推进吗?

So to imitate these natural movements,

要做到这种自然的动作,

we have to replace rotating motors

我们不应该使用旋转电机和

and fast, spinning propellers

快速旋转的螺旋桨,

with artificial muscles.

而应该使用人造肌肉。

And I can tell you this, this can be done.

我可以告诉你的是, 我们真的可以做到这一点。

Our team of researchers at MIT and ETH Zurich

我们来自麻省理工学院和 苏黎世联邦理工学院的研究团队

has started to develop less disruptive robots

已经开始研发一款 较容易融入现况的机器人,

by introducing a new, biomimetic way of moving through water.

引入了一种全新的 在水中游动的仿生方式。

We created a biomimetic robotic fish.

我们设计了一款仿生机器鱼。

Her name is Sophie.

她叫索菲。

She's the first demonstration of a fully untethered, soft robot

她是首个完全无需外界电力的 柔性机器人示例,

that can explore the ocean without the need for propellers.

可以在没有螺旋桨的情况下 探索海洋。

Sophie pumps water back and forth within a highly deformable tail.

苏菲用她高度柔韧的尾巴前后划水。

Her tail movement imitates the natural swimming motion of real fish.

她尾部的动作模仿了 真实鱼类自然游动的动作。

Sophie's natural design allows her to closely monitor aquatic life.

苏菲贴近自然的外形让她可以 近距离监控海洋生态。

Now, there's a catch.

现在,这里有一个问题。

Sophie is energy-hungry and loud.

苏菲需要消耗大量能量, 还会制造噪音。

Yes, we successfully managed to build a robot that swims like a fish,

没错,我们做出了一个 可以像鱼那样游泳的机器人,

but...

但是.。

Sophie requires a motor and a pump to properly work.

苏菲的正常运作还是需要 一台电机和一台泵。

Now we are replacing that motor and pump,

我们不想再用这震耳欲聋、

which is noisy and not desired in such a way,

令人讨厌的电机和泵了。

we're replacing it with silent, artificial muscles.

而是用安静的人造肌肉代替。

These muscles are called HASELs.

这些肌肉名为 HASEL。

They directly and efficiently convert electrical energy

它们直接高效地将电能

into muscle contractions.

转化为肌肉收缩。

Take a look at this large muscle we made to lift and lower a leg.

来看一下我们做的这一大块肌肉, 可以把腿提起、放下。

A stack of flexible sheets contracts and relaxes

一叠弹性薄片收缩、舒张,

just like a thigh muscle does.

就像大腿肌肉一样。

Let me tell you how this works.

我来告诉你们它是如何运作的。

So we take laminated sheets

我们用夹层薄片

to create pouches.

做出这样的小格子。

We have several of these pouches within a single muscle.

一块肌肉上有很多小格子。

We now take a conductive ink

然后把导电油墨

and spray-coat that ink onto these pouches,

喷涂在小格子上,

and then we inject them with oil.

再注入油。

After having done this,

做完这几步以后,

we have a conductive ink that acts like a flexible electrode

导电油墨就会变成活动的电极,

that squeezes these liquid-filled pouches

挤压这些充满液体的小格子

when a voltage is applied.

当施加电压时。

Now, just like muscles with real fish,

和真实鱼类的肌肉一样,

we take this kind of filmed muscles

我们把这种薄膜肌肉

and pair them up as antagonistic pairs

与相反电极配对,

and put them into our soft robotic fish design.

放入我们的柔性机器鱼设计。

We 3D-print the hull

我们用3D打印出

and the spine of this fish,

机器鱼的身体和脊柱

using soft and rigid materials.

使用柔软和坚硬的材料。

The fish now swims silently

这样机器鱼就可以安静地游动,

by electrically charging the muscles inside of the fish

由电力驱动体内的肌肉,

in an alternating fashion from one side to the other.

与之前的做法截然相反。

To improve our designs,

为了改进我们的设计,

we do not rely on tedious trial and error fabrication.

我们不会依赖于 枯燥的测试和反复制造故障。

Instead, our software rapidly simulates

相反,我们的软件

and optimizes a design for performance

就快速模拟、优化了性能的设计。

before we have to build it.

在我们将其投入生产前

Our approach creates a continuous design space

我们的方法为既有的机器鱼设计和

that interpolates between existing fish designs to create new designs.

新设计创作之间预留了一块衔接连贯的设计空间。

Our optimization then explores this continuous design space

我们的优化过程会探索 这块连贯的设计空间,

to come up with new and faster creatures we have not seen before.

更快地创造出前所未有的新生物。

Robots one day might even be made of living muscle cells.

有朝一日我们可以用 活肌细胞制造机器人。

Wouldn't it be great if such a living robot would then heal itself,

如果这个“活机器人”可以自愈,

just like human muscles do?

就像人类的肌肉那样,不是很好吗?

I can tell you this.

我可以告诉你。

Starting from muscle cells,

我们从肌细胞开始,

we can already print, grow and stimulate muscles.

已经具备了打印、培养、 刺激肌肉的能力。

We are now beginning to make these muscles larger,

我们现在想把这些肌肉做得更大、

longer-lasting and controllable.

更持久、更可控。

It's a fascinating challenge to engineer a standalone muscle

设计制造出一块独立的肌肉, 而这块肌肉并没有

without a supporting organism

为它提供免疫系统的支持有机组织,

that provides this muscle with an immune system.

这会是一个很吸引人的挑战。

These living muscles efficiently convert chemical energy that comes from nutrients

这些活肌把来自营养素的化学能量

into muscle contractions.

高效地转化为肌肉收缩。

Living muscles can eventually become sustainable

这样,活肌最终就会形成可持续、

and biodegradable machines

可生物降解的机械,

that decrease emissions and pollution

减少碳排放和污染,

all while actually truly mimicking nature.

仅仅是通过真正地 模仿自然界这一过程。

So all of this,

我刚刚介绍的所有内容,

what I've told you, is possible

借助研究人员和工程师

with the knowledge that researchers and engineers have today.

如今拥有的知识都是可能的。

I believe we have to rethink every machine ever invented

我相信我们该从一个全面的角度

from a holistic perspective.

重新考虑每一台 过去被研发出来的机器。

We have to rethink what the machine should do

我们需要重新考虑 机器该做些什么,

and what it should not do.

不该做些什么。

I think we want machines that safely integrate with us,

我觉得我们希望机器 可以安全地融入我们,

improve our quality of life.

提高我们的生活质量。

All the while, we respect nature,

我们必须一直尊重自然,

and don't pollute our world with loud noises.

不要用噪音污染我们的世界。

So let's reimagine machines to take on forms

让我们重新想象

we have never thought of before

未曾设想过的机器形态,

and discover places we have never been to before.

探索尚未踏足之地。

Thank you.(Applause)

谢谢。(掌声)


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