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你的大脑如何对故事做出反应,以及为什么讲故事对领导者至关重要?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-11-23 22:02| 查看数: 33| 评论数: 0|



Maria walked into the elevator at work.

玛丽亚走进了公司的电梯。

She went to press the button when her phone fell out of her hand.

她去按按钮时,手机从手上滑落。

It bounced on the floor and, went straight down that little opening between the elevator and the floor.

手机掉到地上弹了一下,然后——径直掉入了电梯和楼层之间的狭窄缝隙。

And she realized it wasn't just her phone.

她发现掉的不仅仅是她的手机,

It was her phone wallet that had her driver's license, her credit card, her whole life.

还有她的手机卡夹,里面有她的驾照、信用卡,她的整个人生。

She went to the front desk to talk to Ray, the security guard.

她跑去前台找保安,雷。

Ray was really happy to see her.

雷很高兴见到她。

Maria is one of the few people that actually stops and says hello to him each day.

玛丽亚是少数每天都停下与他打招呼的人之一。

In fact, she's one of these people that knows your birthday and your favorite food, and your last vacation.

实际上,她是那种会记住你生日,知道你喜欢吃什么,上个假期去了哪里的人。

Not because she's weird, she just genuinely likes people and likes them to feel seen.

她不是怪人,她就是真的很喜欢别人,喜欢让他们感觉被看见了。

She tells Ray what happened.

她告诉雷发生了什么事。

And he said it's going to cost at least 500 dollars to get her phone back.

雷说至少要花费500美元才可以拿回她的手机。

And he goes to get a quote while she goes back to her desk.

当玛丽亚回到她的座位时,雷则去要报价。

Twenty minutes later, he calls her and he says: Maria, I was looking at the inspection certificate in the elevator.

二十分钟后,雷打电话给玛丽亚,“玛丽亚,我刚看到电梯里的检修证书,

It's actually due for its annual inspection next month.

下个月就该做年检了。

I'm going to go ahead and call that in today.

我今天就联系他们来检修,

And we'll be able to get your phone back.

这样你就能拿到自己的手机了,

And it won't cost you anything.

也不花什么钱。”

The same day this happened, I read an article about the CEO of Charles Schwab, Walter Bettinger.

发生这件事的同一天,我读到了一篇关于嘉信理财首席执行官沃尔特·拜廷格的文章。

He's describing his straight-A career at university going in to his last exam expecting to ace it, when the professor gives one question:

他说他的全优大学生涯即将迎来最后一场考试,他对此满怀信心。教授问了一个问题:

What is the name of the person that cleans this room?

“打扫这间教室的人叫什么名字?”

And he failed the exam.

他考试没过。

He had seen her.

他见过打扫的人。

But he had never met her before.

但从不曾好好认识她。

Her name was Dottie.

她的名字是多蒂。

And he made a vow that day to always know the Dotties in his life.

他在那天发誓一定要认识他人生中的众多多蒂。

Because both Walter and Maria understand this power of helping people feel seen, especially as a leader.

因为沃尔特和玛丽亚都了解让别人被看见的力量,尤其是作为领导者。

I used that story back when I worked at General Electric.

我在通用电气公司时就用过这个故事,

I was responsible for shaping culture in a business of 90,000 employees in 150 countries.

我负责为这个有9万雇员的企业构建文化,其业务遍及全球150个国家。

And I found that stories were such a great way to connect with people and have them think: What would I do in this situation?

我发觉讲故事是非常棒的方法,与人联结,让他们思考,“我在这种情况下会怎么办?

Would I have known Dottie or who are the Dotties I need to know in my life?

我会认识多蒂吗?或者在我的人生里,谁是我该认识的多蒂呢?”

I found that no matter people's gender or their generation or their geography in the world, the stories resonated and worked.

我发现对任何人,不论其性别或世代,或身在世界何处,故事都能产生共鸣并发挥作用。

But in my work with leaders, I've also found they tend to be allergic to telling stories.

但在我的工作中,我发现领导人通常会对说故事过敏。

They're not sure where to find them.

他们不确定要到哪里找故事,

Or they're not sure how to tell them.

或者不知道怎么讲故事,

Or they think they have to present data and that there's just not room to tell a story.

又或者他们认为该展示数据,这样就没有讲故事的时间了。

And that's where I want to focus today.

而这就是我今天要谈的重点。

Because storytelling and data is actually not this either-or.

因为讲故事和展示数据其实并不矛盾,

It's an and, they actually create this power ballad that connects you to information differently.

它们可以共存,甚至创造出一种充满力量的歌谣,用与众不同的方式将人与信息联结起来。

To understand how, we have to first understand what happens neurologically when you're listening to a story and data.

若要了解这如何发生,我们先要了解当你听故事和数据时的神经运作方式。

So as you're in a lecture or you're in a meeting, two small parts of your brain are activated, Wernicke and Broca's area.

当你在听课或参加会议时,大脑中的两个小部分会被激活,韦尼克区和布罗卡区。

This is where you're processing information.

它们负责处理信息,

And it's also why you tend to forget 50 percent of it right after you hear it.

也就是你听到信息后通常很快就会忘掉50%的原因。

When you listen to a story, your entire brain starts to light up.

当你听故事时,整个大脑都被激活。

Each of your lobes will light up as your senses and your emotions are engaged.

所有脑叶都会活跃起来,因为你的感官和情绪都参与了。

As I talk about a phone falling and hitting the ground with a thud your occipital.

当我说到手机砰的一声掉在地上,

And your temporal lobes are lighting up, as though you are actually seeing that falling phone and hearing it hit with a thud.

你的枕叶和颞叶都变得活跃,就好像你真的看到手机掉下,听到了砰的一声。

There's this term, neural coupling, which says, as the listener, your brain will light up exactly as mine as the storyteller.

这术语称为“神经耦合”,意思是说,身为听者,大脑的激活状况,就和我这个说故事的人完全一样。

It mirrors this activity as though you are actually experiencing these things.

它会像镜子一样反映出这个活动,就好像你正经历这些事情。

Storytelling gives you this artificial reality.

讲故事能带给你这种虚拟现实。

If I talked to you about, like, walking through the snow and with each step, the snow is crunching under my shoes.

如果我告诉你,走过雪地随着每一步,雪在我的鞋底嘎吱作响。

And big, wet flakes are falling on my cheeks.

大片潮湿的雪花落在我的脸颊上,

Your brains are now lighting up as though you are walking through the snow and experiencing these things.

你的大脑活跃了起来,就好像你正走过这片雪地,正经历这些事。

It's why you can sit in an action movie and not be moving.

这就是为什么你能坐在那里看动作片,身体没有动。

But your heart is racing as though you're the star on-screen.

但你的心跳加速,就好像你是银幕上的明星。

Because this neural coupling has your brain lighting up as though you are having that activity.

因为神经耦合激活了你的大脑,就好像你正经历着那项活动。

As you listen to stories, you automatically gain empathy for the storyteller.

当你听故事的时候,你会自动地对讲故事的人产生同理心。

The more empathy you experience, the more oxytocin is released in your brain.

你感受到的同理心越多,大脑中分泌的催产素就越多。

Oxytocin is the feel-good chemical.

催产素是让你感觉很好的化学物质。

And the more oxytocin you have, the more trustworthy you actually view the speaker.

你的催产素越多,就越会觉得讲述者值得信任。

This is why storytelling is such a critical skill for a leader because the very act of telling a story makes people trust you more.

这也是为什么讲故事是领导者的一项关键技能,因为讲故事这件事本身就能让人们更加信任你。

As you begin to listen to data, some different things happen.

当你开始听资料数据时,发生的状况就不一样了。

There are some misconceptions to understand.

有些错误观念需要澄清。

And the first is that data doesn't change our behavior, emotions do.

首先,资料数据不会改变我们的行为,情绪才会。

If data changed our behavior, we would all sleep eight hours and exercise and floss daily and drink eight glasses of water.

如果资料信息可以改变我们的行为,我们都会每天睡八小时,锻炼身体,用好牙线,喝足八杯水。

But that's not how we actually decide.

但我们事实上不是这样做决定的。

Neuroscientists have studied decision-making.

神经科学家研究了决策。

And it starts in our amygdala.

决策始于杏仁核。

This is our emotional epicenter where we have the ability to experience emotions.

这是我们的情绪中心,让我们可以感受到情绪,

And it's here at a subconscious level where we begin to decide.

我们的决策是从潜意识层开始的。

We make choices to pursue pleasure or to avoid risk, all before we become aware of it.

我们选择去追求快乐,或是规避风险,在我们意识到之前就已经进行选择了。

At the point we become aware, where it comes to the conscious level, we start to apply rationalization and logic,

当我们意识到时,也就是到了意识层面,我们开始运用理性和逻辑,

which is why we think we're making these rationally-based decisions, not realizing that they were already decided in our subconscious.

这就是为什么我们认为自己是基于理性进行决策,而没有发现我们其实早在潜意识中就已经做好了决定。

Antonio Damasio is a neuroscientist that started to study patients that had damage to their amygdala.

神经科学家安东尼奥·达马西奥开始研究杏仁核受损的病人。

Fully functioning in every way, except they could not experience emotions.

各方面的功能都完全正常,除了他们感受不到情绪。

And as a result, they could not make decisions.

结果,他们无法做决策。

Something as simple as do I go this way or this way they were incapable of doing.

简单到如“我要走这条路还是那条路”,他们都无法做决定。

Because they could not experience emotions.

因为他们无法感受情绪。

These were people that were wildly successful before they had the damage to their amygdala.

这些人在他们杏仁核受损之前,都是非常成功的人。

And now they couldn't complete any of their projects and their careers took big hits.

而现在,他们无法完成任何项目,他们的事业受到重创,

All because they couldn't experience emotions where we decide.

全都是因为他们面对决策时,无法感受到情绪。

Another data misconception.

另一个关于资料数据的错误观点。

Data never speaks for itself.

数据从不会不言自明。

Our brains love to anticipate.

我们的大脑喜欢做预期。

And as we anticipate, we fill in the gaps on what we're seeing or hearing with our own knowledge and experience and our own bias.

当我们做预期时,我们用自己的知识和经验,以及偏见,来把所见所闻中的空白填补起来。

Which means my understanding of data is going to differ from yours.

也就是说我对资讯的理解和你的不一样。

And it's going to differ from yours.

也和你的不一样。

Because we're all going to have our own interpretation if there isn't a way to guide us through.

因为如果没有得到引导的话,我们就会产生各自的诠释。

Now I'm not suggesting that data is bad and story is good.

我并不是说资料数据不好,讲故事才好。

They both play a key role.

它们都扮演着十分重要的角色。

And to understand how, you have to see what makes a great story.

要了解怎样做到这点,你需要了解构成一个好故事的要素是什么。

It's going to answer three questions.

好故事要能回答三个问题。

The first is: What is the context?

第一个问题:情境是什么?

Meaning, what's the setting?

意思是,背景是什么?

Who is involved?

谁涉及其中?

Why should I even care?

和我有什么关系?

What is the conflict?

冲突是什么?

Where is that moment where everything changes?

一切都发生改变的节点是什么时候?

And what is the outcome?

结果是什么?

Where is it different?

有什么不同?

What is the takeaway?

要听者得到的信息是什么?

A good story also has three attributes.

好故事也有三个特征。

The first being it is going to build and release tension.

第一,它会制造紧张感,再释放。

So because our brains love to anticipate, a great story builds tension by making you wonder: Where is she going with this?

因为我们的大脑喜欢做预期,一个好故事通过让你好奇来制造紧张氛围:“她接下来会怎么做?”

What's happening next, right?

“接下来会发生什么?”,对吧?

A good story keeps you, keeps your attention going.

好故事让你保持注意力。

And it releases it by sharing something unexpected and it does this over and over throughout the story.

它通过分享意想不到的事物来释放这种紧张氛围,在整个故事中会一次又一次地重复这么做。

A great story also builds an idea.

好故事也会建立新想法。

It helps you see something that you can no longer unsee, leaving you changed.

它会帮助你看见那些你将无法再忽视的事情,就此让你发生改变。

Because stories actually do leave you changed.

因为故事真的会让你发生改变。

And a great story communicates value.

好故事也会传达价值观。

Stanford has done research on one of the best ways to shape organizational culture.

斯坦福做过研究,探讨建立组织文化最好的方式之一,

And it is storytelling.

就是讲故事。

Because it's going to demonstrate what you value and encourage or what you don't value and what you discourage.

因为它能展示出你重视什么,鼓励什么,或者你不重视什么,不鼓励什么。

As you start to write your power ballad, most people want to start with the data.

当你开始写你充满力量的歌曲时,大多数人会从资料数据入手。

They want to dig in, because we often have piles of data.

他们想埋头深挖,因为我们通常有一堆材料。

But there's a common mistake we make when we do that.

但当我们这么做时,会犯一个常见的错误。

I was working with a CEO.

我曾和一位首席执行官合作。

She came to me to prepare for her annual company-wide meeting.

她来找我准备她的年度公司会议。

And she had 45 slides of data for a 45-minute presentation.

她有45张幻灯片的材料,要进行45分钟的演讲。

A recipe for a boring, unmemorable talk.

这个方式绝对可以做出一场无聊、毫无记忆点的演讲。

And this is what most people do.

而大部分人都是这样做的。

They come armed with all of this data.

他们带来一大摞资料,

And they try to sort their way through without a big picture.

想办法整理出一个思路,却没有全局远景。

And then they lose their way.

接着,就迷失了。

We actually put the data aside.

我们把资料丢到一边。

And I asked her: What's the problem you're trying to solve?

然后我问她,“你要解决的问题是什么?

What do you want people to think and feel different?

你希望大家的想法和感受有什么期待?

And what do you want people to do different at the end of this?

在结束的时候,你希望大家的做法有什么改变?”

That is where you start with data and storytelling.

你查找资料和讲故事都应该从这里开始。

You come up with this framework to guide the way through both the story and the data.

先提出一个框架,来引导资料和故事的方向。

In her case, she wants her company to be able to break into new markets, to remain competitive.

在她的例子中,她希望自己的公司能够进军新市场,以保持竞争力。

She ended up telling a story about her daughter, who's a gymnast who's competing for a scholarship.

最后,她讲了她女儿的故事,她是一名体操运动员,在争取奖学金。

And she had to learn new routines with increasing difficulty to be competitive.

她得学习越来越难的新动作,来保持她的竞争力。

This is one of your choices.

你可以选择。

Do you tell a story about the data itself or do you tell a parallel story, where you pull out points from the story to reinforce the data?

你可以讲只关于资料的故事,或者讲个类似的故事,从故事中提炼出重点来强调你的资料。

As you begin this ballad, this melody and harmony of data and storytelling come together in a way that will stay with you long after.

当你开始谱写这首曲子,资料和讲故事的旋律以及和谐之感会结合在一起。在很久之后还会让你难以忘怀。

Briana was a college adviser.

布里安娜是位升学顾问。

And she was asked to present to her university leadership,

她应邀向其所属大学做报告,

when she realized that a large population of their students with autism were not graduating.

因为她发现该学校的自闭症学生大部分没有毕业。

She came to me because her leaders kept saying:

她来找我,因为她的上司不断说,

Present the data, focus on the data.

“呈现资料,把焦点放在资料上。”

But she felt like university officials already had the data.

但她觉得大学高层的人已经有资料了。

She was trying to figure out how to help them connect with it.

她在想要怎么帮他们看明白这些资料。

So we worked together to help her tell the story about Michelle.

所以我们一起想办法,让她讲述了米歇尔的故事。

Michelle was a straight-A student in high school who had these dreams of going to university.

米歇尔在高中时各项成绩都是优,梦想着要上大学。

Michelle was also a student with autism who was terrified about how she would be able to navigate the changes of university.

她也是患有自闭症的学生,非常担心自己要如何应对大学带来的变化。

Her worst fears came true on her first phone call with her adviser,

在她和升学顾问初次通话时,她最担心的事情发生了。

when he asked her questions like:

因为他问了这样的问题:

Where do you see yourself in five years?

“你期待你五年后成为怎样的人?”

And, what are your career aspirations?

“你对职业发展有什么抱负?”

Questions that are hard for anybody.

这些问题对任何人来说都不容易。

But for a person with autism to have to respond to verbally?

但对自闭症患者来说,要口头回答这些问题?

Paralyzing.

他们只会不知所措。

She got off the phone, was ready to drop out,

她挂了电话,准备退学,

until her parents sat down with her and helped her write an email to her adviser.

直到她的父母和她一起坐下来,帮她给她的升学顾问写了一封信。

She told him that she was a student with autism,

她告诉他,自己患有自闭症,

which was really hard for her to share.

她很难说出这些话,

Because she felt like there was a stigma associated just by sharing that.

因为她觉得,光是说出来,就非常的羞耻。

She told him that she preferred to communicate in writing,

她告诉他她更喜欢写信沟通,

if he could send her questions in advance,

如果他能先把问题寄给她,

she would be able to send replies back to him before they got on the phone to have a different conversation.

她就能把答案回复给他,然后他们再通话,进行不同的谈话。

He followed her lead.

他照她的意思做了,

And within a few weeks, they found all of these things they have in common,

几周之内,他们发现他们有许多共同点,

like a love for Japanese anime.

比如他们都爱日本动画。

After three semesters,

三个学期之后,

Michelle is a straight-A student thriving in the university.

米歇尔成为大学里各项成绩顶尖的出色学生。

At this point, Briana starts to share some of the data that less than 20 percent of the students with autism are graduating.

此时,布里安娜开始分享一些资料数据,指出自闭症学生中只有不到20%能够毕业。

And it's not because they can't handle the coursework.

而这不是因为他们无法应付课业。

It's because they can't figure out how to navigate the university,

而是他们不知道如何应对大学生活。

the very thing an adviser is supposed to be able to help you do.

而这不正是升学顾问应该协助的事情吗?

That over the course of a lifetime the earning potential of someone with a college degree over a high school degree is a million dollars.

以一辈子的时间来计算,有大学学位可能获得的收入比高中学位高了一百万美金。

Which is a big amount.

这金额很大。

But for a person with autism that wants to be able to live independent from their family,

但对一个想要脱离家庭独立生活的自闭症患者而言,

it's life changing.

这将改变他们的人生。

She closed with: We say our whole passion and purpose is to help people be their best, to help them be successful.

她最终的收尾是,“我们说我们的热忱和目的是帮助人们成为最好的自己,是帮助他们成功。

But we're hardly giving our best service by applying this one-size-fits-all approach and just letting people fall through the cracks.

但我们没有提供最好的服务,用的仍然是‘一刀切’的方法,这只会让大家被忽视。

We can and we should do better.

我们能,也应该做得更好。

There are more Michelles out there.

还有很多像米歇尔这样的人。

And I know because Michelle is my daughter.

我知道,因为米歇尔是我的女儿。”

And in that moment, the jaws in the room went.

在那一刻,在场所有人的下巴都——

And someone even wiped away tears.

甚至有人在擦眼泪。

Because she had done it.

因为她做到了。

She had connected them to information differently.

她用不同的方式让他们和资讯产生连结。

She helped them see something they couldn't unsee.

她让他们看见了无法再忽视的事情。

Could she have done that with data alone?

只靠数据能做到这样吗?

Maybe, but the things is, they already had the data.

也许可以,但重点是,他们本来就有数据了。

They didn't have a reason not to overlook the data this time.

这一次,没有理由再只关注数据了。

That is the power of storytelling and data.

这就是讲故事和数据的力量。

That together, they come together in this way to help build ideas,

把两者用这样的方式整合在一起,能帮助建立想法,

to help you see things you can't unsee.

帮助你看见你无法再忽视的事情。

To help communicate what's valued and to help tap into that emotional way that we all decide.

帮助传达什么才是最重要的,帮助挖掘我们靠情绪决策的方式。

As you all move forward,

当你向前推进,

shaping the passion and purpose of others as leaders, don't just use data.

以领导者的身份为他人塑造热情和目的时,不要只靠数据,

Use stories.

要用故事。

And don't wait for the perfect story.

别等着完美的故事出现。

Take your story and make it perfect.

用你的故事,把它变完美。

Thank you.

谢谢!


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