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全球劳工平等化

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-11-19 21:11| 查看数: 30| 评论数: 0|



In the 1990s, there were a whole series of scandals concerning the production of brand name goods in the U.S. --

二十世纪九十年代,发生了一系列涉及美国品牌商品的丑闻——

child labor, forced labor, serious health and safety abuses.

童工、强制劳动、健康侵害和安全滥用。

And eventually President Clinton, in 1996, convened a meeting at the White House, invited industry, human rights NGOs, trade unions, the Department of Labor,

最终,克林顿总统于1996年在白宫召开了一次会议,邀请了工业界、人权非政府组织、工会、劳工部的代表,

got them all in a room and said, "Look, I don't want globalization to be a race to the bottom.

把他们聚集到一起,说:“听着,我不想让全球化成为底层恶性竞争。

I don't know how to prevent that, but I'm at least going to use my good offices to get you folks together to come up with a response."

我不知道如何防止这种情况发生,但至少我打算在我的办公室把各位召集起来解决问题。”

So they formed a White House task force, and they spent about three years arguing about who takes how much responsibility in the global supply chain.

因此,他们成立了一个白宫特别工作组,花费三年时间争论谁应该在全球供应链中负多少责任。

Companies didn't feel it was their responsibility.

公司并不觉得这是他们的责任。

They don't own those facilities.

他们不拥有工厂。

They don't employ those workers.

他们不雇用那些工人。

They're not legally liable.

他们在法律上不承担责任。

Everybody else at the table said, "Folks, that doesn't cut it.

在座的其他人都说:“伙计们,这可不行。

You have a custodial duty, a duty of care, to make sure that that product gets from wherever to the store in a way that allows us to consume it,

你应负起保管、监督的责任,保证产品从仓库到商店货架的过程中不能危害消费者的安全,

without fear of our safety, or without having to sacrifice our conscience to consume that product."

不能昧着良心来买卖商品。”

So they agreed, "Okay, what we'll do is we agree on a common set of standards, code of conduct.

他们同意了,“好吧,我们所做的是在商品标准和管理上达成一致。

We'll apply that throughout our global supply chain regardless of ownership or control.

我们将把这一点应用到全球供应链中,无论所有权或控制权在谁手上。

We'll make it part of the contract."

我们会把它作为合同的一部分。”

And that was a stroke of absolute genius, because what they did was they harnessed the power of the contract, private power, to deliver public goods.

这绝对是个天才之举,因为他们所做的是利用合同的力量,私人力量,提供公共产品。

And let's face it,

我们得明白,

the contract from a major multinational brand to a supplier in India or China has much more persuasive value than the local labor law,

大型跨国品牌与印度或中国供应商签订的合同,比起当地法律,

the local environmental regulations, the local human rights standards.

当地的环境法规,当地的人权标准,更具有说服力。

Those factories will probably never see an inspector.

那些工厂将可能再也看不到巡视员。

If the inspector did come along, it would be amazing if they were able to resist the bribe.

如果巡视员真的来了,且他们能抵制住贿赂,那就太不可思议了。

Even if they did their jobs, and they cited those facilities for their violations, the fine would be derisory.

即使他们恪尽职守,并指出这些设备的违规之处,罚款也少得可怜。

But you lose that contract for a major brand name, that's the difference between staying in business or going bankrupt.

但你失去了一个大品牌的合同,这就是继续经营和破产的区别。

That makes a difference.

这会带来很大的不同。

So what we've been able to do is we've been able to harness the power and the influence of the only truly transnational institution in the global supply chain,

所以我们所能做的就是,利用全球供应链中唯一真正跨国机构的力量和影响力,

that of the multinational company, and get them to do the right thing, get them to use that power for good, to deliver the key public goods.

让跨国公司做正确的事情,把权力用在好的方面,供给核心的公共产品。

Now of course, this doesn't come naturally to multinational companies.

当然,这对跨国公司而言并不是自然而然的。

They weren't set up to do this.

他们的目的可不是做这个。

They're set up to make money.

他们关注的是挣钱。

But they are extremely efficient organizations.

但他们是非常有效率的组织。

They have resources, and if we can add the will, the commitment, they know how to deliver that product.

他们有资源,如果能有意愿和承诺,他们就知道如何交付产品。

Now, getting there is not easy.

现在,要做到这一点并不容易。

Those supply chains I put up on the screen earlier, they're not there.

我此前在屏幕上展示的那些供应链,目前并未应用于跨国公司。

You need a safe space.

你需要一个安全的空间。

You need a place where people can come together, sit down without fear of judgment, without recrimination, to actually face the problem,

你需要一个地方,人们可以聚在一起,坐下来,不用担心评判,不用相互指责,真正面对问题,

agree on the problem and come up with solutions.

就问题达成一致,并提出解决方案。

We can do it.

我们可以做到的。

The technical solutions are there.

技术解决方案是有的。

The problem is the lack of trust, the lack of confidence, the lack of partnership between NGOs, campaign groups,

问题是缺乏信任,缺乏信心,缺乏非政府组织、活动组织、

civil society organizations and multinational companies.

民间社会组织和跨国公司的合作。

If we can put those two together in a safe space, get them to work together, we can deliver public goods right now, or in extremely short supply.

如果在一个安全的地方,让他们齐聚一堂,让他们合作,我们立刻就可以供给公共产品,或极其短缺的公共产品。

This is a radical proposition,

这是一个激进的主张,

and it's crazy to think that if you're a 15-year-old Bangladeshi girl leaving your rural village to go and work in a factory in Dhaka --

想想就很疯狂:如果你是一个15岁的孟加拉女孩,远离自己的村庄,在达卡(孟加拉首都)的一家工厂工作——

22, 23, 24 dollars a month -- your best chance of enjoying rights at work is if that factory is producing for a brand name company which has got a code of conduct and made that code of conduct part of the contract.

22、23、24美元一个月——如果那家工厂在一家品牌公司的旗下生产,而这家公司拥有行为准则并将该其作为合同一部分,那么你就在工作中拥有享受员工权利的最佳机会。

It's crazy.

这太疯狂了。

Multinationals are protecting human rights.

跨国公司正在保护人权。

I know there's going to be disbelief.

我知道会有人不相信。

You'll say, "How can we trust them?"

你可能会说,“我们怎么能相信他们?”

Well, we don't.

是的,我们不相信。

It's the old arms control phrase: "Trust, but verify."

老话说得好:“信任,但要核实。”

So we audit.

所以我们进行审核。

We take their supply chain, we take all the factory names, we do a random sample,

我们审核供应链,核实工厂名字,随机采样,

we send inspectors on an unannounced basis to inspect those facilities, and then we publish the results.

我们不事先通知,派遣检查员检查这些设施,然后公布检查结果。

Transparency is absolutely critical to this.

透明度对此至关重要。

You can call yourself responsible, but responsibility without accountability often doesn't work.

你可以声称自己负责,但是没有问责制的责任是往往行不通的。

So what we're doing is, we're not only enlisting the multinationals,

因此我们所做的,不仅仅是招募跨国公司,

we're giving them the tools to deliver this public good -- respect for human rights -- and we're checking.

我们提供工具,使他们能够供给公共产品——尊重人权——然后我们进行核查。

You don't need to believe me.

你不需要信任我。

You shouldn't believe me.

你也不应该信任我。

Go to the website.

访问网站,

Look at the audit results.

查看审查结果。

Ask yourself, is this company behaving in a socially responsible way?

扪心自问,这家公司是否负有社会责任?

Can I buy that product without compromising my ethics?

我能在不违背道德的前提下购买那个产品吗?

That's the way the system works.

这就是这个系统工作的模式。

I hate the idea that governments are not protecting human rights around the world.

我不喜欢世界各地的政府不保护人权的想法。

I hate the idea that governments have dropped this ball and I can't get used to the idea that somehow we can't get them to do their jobs.

我讨厌政府把事情搞砸,我不能容忍不督促他们做好自己的工作。

I've been at this for 30 years, and in that time I've seen the ability, the commitment, the will of government to do this decline,

我为此努力了30年,在这段时间里,我看到政府应对此事的能力、决心和意愿都在减退,

and I don't see them making a comeback right now.

直到现在我也没有看到回升的势头。

So we started out thinking this was a stopgap measure.

因此,我们一开始认为这是一个权宜之计。

We're now thinking that, in fact, this is probably the start of a new way of regulating and addressing international challenges.

事实上,现在我们认为这可能只是一个调节和解决国际争端的新方法的开端。

Call it network governance.

我们称之为网络管理。

Call it what you will.

你想怎么称呼都行。

The private actors, companies and NGOs, are going to have to get together to face the major challenges we are going to face.

私营部门、公司和非政府组织,正应当联合起来,共同应对我们要面临的主要挑战。

Just look at pandemics -- swine flu, bird flu, H1N1.

看看现在的流行病——猪流感,禽流感,H1N1。

Look at the health systems in so many countries.

看看这么多国家的卫生系统吧。

Do they have the resources to face up to a serious pandemic?

他们是否有资源来面对严重的流行病?

No.

没有。

Could the private sector and NGOs get together and marshal a response?

私营部门和非政府组织能否联合起来,并进行整顿?

Absolutely.

当然。

What they lack is that safe space to come together, agree and move to action.

他们缺乏的是在安全空间走到一起、达成一致并采取行动。

That's what we're trying to provide.

这就是我们正在努力提供的。

I know as well that this often seems like an overwhelming level of responsibility for people to assume.

我也知道,这似乎是人们的一种难以承担的责任。

"You want me to deliver human rights throughout my global supply chain.

“你想让我在全球供应链中实现人权。

There are thousands of suppliers in there."

其中包含成百上千的供应商。

It seems too daunting, too dangerous, for any company to take on.

对于任何公司来说,这似乎都太可怕、太危险了。

But there are companies.

但是仍然有一些公司实现了。

We have 4,000 companies who are members.

我们拥有4000个成员公司。

Some of them are very, very large companies.

其中一些是非常非常大的公司。

The sporting goods industry, in particular, stepped up to the plate and have done it.

特别是体育用品行业,已经开始行动起来,做到了这一点。

The example, the role model, is there.

这个例子,这个榜样,就在那里。

And whenever we discuss one of these problems that we have to address -- child labor in cottonseed farms in India -- this year we will monitor 50,000 cottonseed farms in India.

当我们讨论必须面对的问题之一——印度棉籽农场中的童工——今年我们追踪了印度的5万家棉籽农场。

It seems overwhelming.

这数字似乎大得惊人。

The numbers just make you want to zone out.

这些数字听得叫人头昏脑胀。

But we break it down to some basic realities.

但我们把它分解成一些基本的现实。

And human rights comes down to a very simple proposition: can I give this person their dignity back?

人权是非常简单的主张:我能否归还他们的尊严?

Poor people, people whose human rights have been violated -- the crux of that is the loss of dignity, the lack of dignity.

穷人,被侵害人权的人们——他们的症结是失去尊严,缺乏尊严。

It starts with just giving people back their dignity.

首先要恢复人们的尊严。

I was sitting in a slum outside Gurgaon just next to Delhi, one of the flashiest, brightest new cities popping up in India right now,

我坐在古尔冈郊外的一个贫民窟里,就在德里(印度城市)旁边,德里是印度目前涌现的最耀眼、最明亮的新城市之一,

and I was talking to workers who worked in garment sweatshops down the road, and I asked them what message they would like me to take to the brands.

我和一些为地下制衣血汗工厂工作的工人聊天,我问他们希望我向品牌商传达什么讯息。

They didn't say money.

他们没有提钱。

They said, "The people who employ us treat us like we are less than human, like we don't exist.

他们说:“那些雇主对我们进行了非人的虐待,似乎我们劳工根本不存在。

Please ask them to treat us like human beings."

请让他们把我们当人看。”

That's my simple understanding of human rights.

这就是我对人权的简单理解。

That's my simple proposition to you, my simple plea to every decision-maker in this room, everybody out there.

这就是我对各位的简单建议,我对在座的每一位决策者,以及每一个人的简单请求。

We can all make a decision to come together and pick up the balls and run with the balls that governments have dropped.

我们所有人都可以做出一个决定,团结起来,捡起责任,收拾各国政府丢下的摊子。

If we don't do it, we're abandoning hope, we're abandoning our essential humanity, and I know that's not a place we want to be,

如果我们不这样做,我们就放弃了希望,放弃了基本的人性,我知道那不是我们想要的,

and we don't have to be there.

我们没必要到那个地步。

So I appeal to you.

因此我呼吁大家。

Join us, come into that safe space, and let's start to make this happen.

加入我们,来到安全的地方,让我们为此开始努力。

Thank you very much.

非常感谢。


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