英语家园

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

搜索

如何在不伤害地球的情况下实现供暖?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-10-7 21:30| 查看数: 40| 评论数: 0|



One of the hallmarks of living in a technologically advanced society is even the little details of life that seem mundane end up being astonishing,

生活在一个科技发达的社会的一个标志是,即使是看似平凡的生活细节,也有令人惊叹的地方。

like the fact that it takes five gallons of water to produce a walnut,

比如说,产出一颗核桃需要19升水,

or that half the plastic that's ever been made has been made in the past 15 years.

或者在所有已经生产出的塑料里有一半是在过去的15年里被制造的。

My favorite of these examples is what it takes to keep a room room temperature.

在这些例子中,我最喜欢的是保持室温的方法。

Allow me to explain.

请允许我解释一下。

Heating is generally done by combusting a fossil fuel.

供暖通常是通过燃烧一种化石燃料来做到的。

So first, we have to find the fuel.

所以首先,我们必须找到燃料。

Unfortunately, it tends to be buried more than a kilometer under the earth's surface,

不幸的是,燃料通常被埋藏在地球表面下超过一公里,

and all too often, in inconvenient places, like the Arctic Circle, nations in conflict or under the bottom of the ocean.

而且通常不便触及的地方,比如说北极圈,战乱国家或者在海底。

Then there's the fact that the substance takes 60 to 600 million years to form from dead plankton.

除此以外,这种物质需要6000到6亿年的时间才能由死去的浮游生物转变而成。

So there's that issue.

所以那是个问题。

We drill these incredibly deep holes to get it.

为了获取燃料我们钻出这些深深的孔。

Then we pipe it, truck it and ship it in tankers across the world to refineries,

之后我们用管道输送,用卡车还有运油船送到世界各地的精炼厂,

which are these incredibly expensive industrial facilities that take in crude oil and gas,

这些都是非常昂贵的工业设施,可以接收原油和天然气,

which are just a bunch of different hydrocarbon molecules, in order to sort those molecules into refined products.

两者都只是不同的氢碳化合物分子,精炼厂接收它们来将那些分子炼为精炼产品。

Refined natural gas is then delivered to homes and businesses via an invisible interstate highway system millions of miles long.

之后精炼过的天然气被送到住宅和商业场所,而这是通过一个长达几百万英里的隐形州际快速系统做到的。

It's invisible because it's underground.

之所以说这系统是隐形的是因为它在地下。

There's so much pipeline in this system that entire steel mills have been built only to produce pipeline for this system.

这系统里的管道多到数家钢厂被建造出来就只为了给这个系统生产管线。

And because there are millions of miles of gas getting pumped beneath us at high pressure at all times,

而因为有气体以几百万英里范围在我们脚下被用泵不间断地高压输送,

engineers send these intelligent robots called "smart pigs" through the pipelines to check for safety defects.

工程师将这些被叫做“聪明小猪”的智能机器人送进这些管道来检查安全上的瑕疵。

Doing this is called "pigging the pipeline."

这个过程被叫做“小猪清管”。

Yeah, that's a real thing.

没错,这是真事儿。

But even with these precautions, there are accidents.

但即便有这些预防措施,还是有事故发生。

In 2010, the San Bruno natural gas pipeline exploded in California.

在2010年,圣布鲁诺天然气管道在加利福尼亚州发生了爆炸。

Eight people died.

八人死亡。

Eyewitnesses reported the blast looked like a wall of fire 1,000 feet tall.

目击者报道说爆炸看起来像是一堵1000英尺高的火墙。

More recently, in 2018,

更近的一次,在2018年,

excess pressure in natural gas pipelines in Massachusetts resulted in explosions that killed somebody and forced 50,000 others from their homes.

位于马萨诸塞州的天然气管道里的过量压力造成了致一人死亡的多起爆炸,该事件还使其他五万人被迫从家撤离。

But, you know, despite all of this, we're actually jealous of people who live close enough to these insane pipelines to get gas into their homes,

但你知道,即便如此,我们实际上还羡慕那些住在离这些危险管道足够近的人们,因为管道能把天然气送到他们家里,

because everyone else is stuck with even worse options, like fuel oil and propane.

而其他所有人则不得不接受更糟的选项,比如燃油和丙烷。

These fuels don't have pipelines in place for delivery,

这些燃料没有管道来运送,

so instead, tens of thousands of trucks go from home to home in neighborhoods throughout the country,

所以取而代之的是数以万计的卡车挨家挨户在乡间的各个社区里,

pumping these fuels into tanks in homeowners' basements and yards.

将这些燃料泵到屋主们位于地下室和院子里的储存罐里。

And regardless of what heating fuel you use -- gas, propane or oil --

无论你使用什么取暖燃料——天然气、丙烷还是石油,

you better have a carbon monoxide detector so your heating system doesn't accidentally kill you in the night,

你最好要有一个一氧化碳检测器来保证你的供暖系统不会在夜里意外把你杀死,

because hundreds of Americans die in exactly that way each year.

因为每年数以百计的美国人恰恰就是以这种方式丧命的。

So that's the system we have today.

这就是我们现今所有的系统。

Safe to say, it has some downsides.

可以肯定地说,它有一些缺点。

Don't get me wrong -- it's a marvel of human ingenuity,

别误解了,它是人类智慧的一大成就,

but with some pretty serious drawbacks.

但也有一些相当严重的缺点。

And the rigamarole of conventional heating feels even more over the top when you consider that every home is already sitting right on top of a vast reservoir of renewable energy:

而传统制暖带来的繁琐甚至更加令人感到夸张,因为当你考虑到每座住宅其实都正好已经被建造在一片广大的可再生能源储备库上:

geothermal energy.

那就是地热能。

Let's talk about geothermal energy.

让我们来谈谈地热能。

Starting a few feet under the earth's surface, the ground is awash in thermal energy.

从地表以下几英尺开始,大地浸满了热能量。

This is why caves and wine cellars, they never get too hot or too cold.

这就是为什么山洞和酒窖永远不会变得太热或太冷。

They're just bathed in this low-grade heat.

它们就这样被这种低位热量包裹着。

Geothermal heating systems draw on this heat, using what are called "ground loops,"

地热供暖系统汲取这种热量,

which are just simple plastic pipes buried under the yard.

使用这些被称为“地环路”的埋在庭院里的简单塑料管道。

These ground loops are then connected to a heat pump that sits inside the home, typically where a furnace once was.

然后这些地环路被连接到放置在住宅里的一台热泵,通常在之前火炉的位置上。

More and more homeowners are choosing geothermal over fuel-based options.

越来越多的房主选择使用地热能而不是基于燃料的选项。

I see this shift up close every day,

我每天都能近距离地看到这种变化,

because I cofounded a company to create a new kind of ground-up utility by making it as easy and inexpensive as possible to switch from conventional heating to geothermal.

因为我与人合伙创办了一家公司,通过尽可能轻松和廉价地将传统供暖转换为地热来创造一种新型的地面设施。

We've done this by creating a service where homeowners can fill out a form on our website,

我们通过创造出一项服务做到了这一点,在这项服务中,业主们能在我们的网站上填出一张表,

we design a geothermal heating system for them, and then we install that system using purpose-built tools and equipment.

我们为他们设计一套地热制暖系统,然后我们使用特制工具和装备来安装那个系统。

Once the installation is done, that home will have moved on from fossil heating forever,

在安装完成后,那栋房子将会永远脱离化石燃料制暖,

because those ground loops, they'll last as long as the home itself.

因为那些地环路的寿命将和房屋本身一样持久。

As each home switches over, a new kind of utility is taking hold -- a distributed utility,

在每家更换的同时,一项新的公共事业正在扎根:一项被分布的公共事业,

made up of homes exchanging renewable energy with the ground.

由住宅与大地交换可再生能量构成。

This new infrastructure is simple, local and inexpensive to operate, and it represents a permanent and wholesale shift away from fossil fuels.

这个新基础设施是简单、本地化以及低操作成本的,它还代表着一次永久且大规模的自使用化石燃料向其它方式的转变。

The groundwork is being laid, so to speak,

可以说,基础正在奠定,

for the idea that maybe we don't need to destroy the world in order to keep our rooms at a comfortable temperature.

为了我们或许不需要毁掉世界来让我们的房间保持在一个舒适温度的理念。

Let's leave the Arctic Circle and the seafloor alone,

让我们避开北极圈和海底,

bypass the refineries and the pipelines and stop worrying that our families will accidentally be poisoned in the night.

避开炼油厂和输油管,并停止担心我们的家人会在夜里意外中毒。

Instead, let's use the massive amounts of energy that are already right there for the taking, right beneath every building on earth.

取而代之的,让我们使用就存在于地球上每栋建筑底下的大量现成能源。

Thank you.

谢谢。


最新评论

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表