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如何用DAO理念建造一个新的城市?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-10-2 20:30| 查看数: 53| 评论数: 0|



How do you start a new city?

你该如何建设一个新的城市?

Turns out it's not easy.

没那么简单。

You need to survey terrain, get permission from a state, buy land, convince people to move there.

你得勘测地形,得到国家批准,购买土地,说服人们搬到这里来。

And until Elon Musk gets us to Mars, land is a finite resource.

在埃隆·马斯克把我们送上火星之前,土地都是有限的资源。

And the good spots are probably all taken.

好地段大概都是别人的了。

But what if we could start smaller, like really small?

假设我们从更小处,非常小的一点开始的话,会怎么样呢?

And just post on Twitter.

在推特上发一条推文。

That's what I did.

我就是这么做的。

Because it allowed me to find people all over the world willing to help me figure it out.

因为这样我就可以找到世界上愿意帮我搞清楚这个问题的人们。

My new internet friends and I started a group chat, pooled cryptocurrency, researched locations.

我和我的新网友们建了一个群,众筹了加密货币,研究了地点。

And three months later, we bought 40 acres of land near Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming.

三个月之后,我们购买了40英亩的土地,位于怀俄明州的黄石国家公园附近。

Now we had a piece of land, a pool of money, and a lot of decisions to make collectively.

我们现在有了一块土地、一笔钱,和许多需要大家一起做的决定。

That's why we decided to start a DAO, or a decentralized autonomous organization, called CityDAO.

这就是我成立DAO的原因,DAO指的是去中心化自治组织,我成立的DAO叫做CityDAO。

A DAO is an internet native, blockchain-governed, collectively owned organization working towards a shared mission.

DAO是一种互联网原生、区块链治理、集体拥有的组织,朝着共同的目标努力。

Most DAOs pool cryptocurrency in a treasury where members vote on how it's used.

大多数的DAO会将加密货币存在一个资金池里,并由会员决定如何使用资金。

In a traditional company, a CEO works with executives to set the direction, the budgets and hands priorities down the org chart to be implemented.

在一家传统的公司里,CEO和高层一起决定方向、预算,再把任务一层一层传递下去执行。

In a DAO, members act as peers, contributing capital, proposing and working on projects and making decisions as a group.

在DAO里,会员之间平级,大家贡献资金,提出、执行项目,集体做出决定。

Top-down management is replaced by blockchain-based rules encoded in smart contracts.

自上而下的管理模式由记录于智能合约中的区块链规则替代。

For example, funding a project if a proposal passes.

举个例子,如果提案通过了,我们就要资助一个项目。

If a traditional company succeeds, most of the wealth will accrue to a few founders,

如果一家传统公司成功了,大部分财富会归几位创始人、

some early employees and investors who are generally already higher net-worth.

几位早期员工和早就身价不菲的投资人所有。

A DAO is a sort of crypto co-op, giving a wider group of people the opportunity to own a piece,

DAO就像一种加密化“合作社”,让更多人有机会入股,

participate in management and share in the potential upside.

参与管理,在未来的获利中分一杯羹。

CityDAO grew out of my frustrations dealing with city bureaucracy and red tape while building a start-up,

我在创立一家让城市更有效利用空置停车场的初创企业时,市政府的官僚作风让我万分崩溃,

that helps cities better utilize their empty parking lots.

这就成为了我成立CityDAO的动机。

It took us over three months to get a permit just to sell parking in San Francisco.

我们花了超过三个月才获准在旧金山出售停车位。

And it was an archaic bureaucratic nightmare.

这真是一个顽固的官僚主义噩梦。

Things like putting a parking lot to higher and better use, which my urbanist self really wants to do, like, you know, build a food truck park,

像让停车场更物有所值、高效利用这样的事,我作为一名城市规划师,真的很想建一个餐车公园、

logistics hub, maybe even new housing, a farmer's market.

物流中心,甚至可以是住房、农贸市场。

These things are also really tedious, can take months, years, or even just be illegal due to zoning laws.

这种事要花很长很长的时间,可能是几个月、几年,或者由于城市规划法被划定为违规。

CityDAO was among the first DAOs brave enough to buy land.

CityDAO是最先敢于购置土地的DAO之一。

And speaking of bureaucracy, it took us over a month to do so under the current system.

要说官僚主义,在现有体制之下,我们花了几个月才买成。

We had to find an agent, coordinate tours, make offers, wait for counteroffers, put down a deposit, form an LLC, fill out paperwork.

我们要找个中介,安排实地考察,出价,等待还价,付押金,成立公司,办手续。

At CityDAO, we imagine an on-chain city where things like permitting, budgets, laws, deeds and records, they're all just transparent on a blockchain.

我们把CityDAO畅想成一个链上城市,像审批、预算、法律、契约、记录,在区块链上都是透明公开的,

And smart contracts can speed up the transactions and reduce bureaucracy.

智能合约可以加速交易,减少官僚主义的阻挠。

Let me give you an example.

我来举个例子。

Things that used to take weeks, like buying or selling land or taking a loan out against your property,

以前要花几个星期的事情,比如买卖土地,贷款买房,

that could happen in seconds through a smart contract.

如果使用智能合约的话,只需要几秒钟就能完成。

DAOs are financial flash mobs, often organizing seemingly overnight in pursuit of an idea.

DAO是金融界的快闪族,人们经常会为了一个想法瞬间集结。

They usually start out as a few people who have a big vision, but realize it will take a large collective effort to get it done.

它们通常始于一群有宏伟目标的人,但是他们发现必须要借助众人的力量才能达到目标。

So they usually start the community in a group chat server.

他们一般会通过群聊平台建立社群,

And the most common is called Discord.

最广泛使用的平台叫做Discord。

We use Discord for weekly community calls where people can share ideas and debate proposals.

我们每周会通过Discord进行社群会议,人们分享自己的想法,并讨论提案。

In the server, channels are set up around teams and projects.

在这个平台上,人们会根据团队和项目设置频道。

Instead of a formal boss, each team has an elected facilitator who holds regular meetings.

不同于正式的老板,每个团队会推选一名引导者组织日常会议。

People can contribute to the DAO full-time, part-time.

人们可以全职,也可以兼职参与DAO的活动。

But one of the most common ways is through bounties, where you hop in and out of the DAO, taking on small tasks and contributing where you can.

但是最常见的形式是赏金制,你可以随时进出DAO,领取一些小任务,能贡献多少就贡献多少。

Most DAOs raised some initial funding by selling a governance token that gives holders voting rights over DAO activities.

大多数的DAO会通过出售治理代币募集启动资金,代币给予持币人对DAO活动的投票权。

You can either buy these tokens on the open market using a cryptocurrency like Ethereum.

你可以在公开市场上购买这些代币,使用以太坊之类的加密货币,

Or you can earn them by contributing to the DAO.

或者通过为DAO做出贡献赚取代币。

For example, things like designing a logo, researching or writing some code.

举个例子,像设计标识、做调研或者写代码这样的任务。

At CityDAO, we raised over six million dollars from 5,000 people through our governance token called Citizenship.

CityDAO通过发行“Citizenship”(公民身份)治理代币从五千人手中募集了超过600万美元,

Citizens get to vote in things like where our next piece of land will be located.

公民有权参与投票,比如决定我们的下一块地买在哪里。

DAOs have been called group chats with a bank account.

DAO被称为带有银行账户的群聊。

And I know what you're thinking.

我知道你在想什么。

Scott, sharing a bank account with my significant other is already hard enough.

“斯科特,和我对象共享银行账户已经够难了。

Now you're telling me I have to share one with 5,000 people on the internet?

你现在想让我和五千个网友共享账户?”

Well, it's not that bad.

其实没那么离谱。

Blockchain helps fix this.

区块链可以解决。

So funds live in a public blockchain treasury where anyone can audit income and spending.

资金存在公开的区块链金库里,每个人都可以审核收入和支出。

And any time spending or money transfers are involved, the DAO approves it through a proposal.

每当需要涉及支出或转账,DAO就会通过提案进行审批。

Typically written by a DAO member, a proposal starts as an idea that gets debated and is put to a vote of the token holders.

提案通常由一名DAO的成员撰写,主要内容是一个有争议的想法,然后由持币人投票决定。

For example, one of the first proposals at CityDAO was, of course, which piece of land to buy.

举个例子,CityDAO最早的一个提案自然是买哪片地。

The DAO debated must-haves, nice-to-haves, and DAO contributors combed through Wyoming land listings and narrowed it down to the top three,

DAO讨论了哪些是必要的要求,哪些是可以有的要求,随后DAO的成员梳理了怀俄明州的土地目录,

outlining the pros and cons of each and presenting the final proposal to the DAO for a vote.

将范围缩小到前三名,列出每块土地的优势劣势,将最终提案交给DAO投票决定。

We voted to acquire Parcel 0 near Cody, Wyoming.

我们投票决定购买怀俄明州科迪镇附近的Parcel 0地块。

Chosen for being close to an airport, having an on-site well for water access.

决定因素包括距离机场很近,现场有一口井作为水资源。

And of course, the most important criterion of all, being near Kanye West.

当然了,最重要的因素,就是离坎耶·维斯特很近。

OK, OK, that wasn't really in the criteria.

好吧好吧,这不是一条评分标准。

But it just so happens our piece of land in Wyoming is not far from Kanye's own Cody ranch.

但是正好我们在怀俄明的这块地离坎耶在科迪的牧场不远。

The next steps at CityDAO are things like voting on what gets built on the land and who gets to use it when.

CityDAO的下一步就是投票决定在这块地上建什么,并且谁在什么时候可以用它。

Some other proposals floating around are things like buying a piece of land in the Amazon for conservation,

其他的提案包括在亚马逊雨林买一块保护地,

or building out a network of DAO-owned spaces where citizens can visit at any time, a decentralized city, perhaps.

建立一个将DAO拥有的土地互相联结的网络,CityDAO的公民可以随时访问,也许打造一个去中心化的城市。

Today we're seeing DAOs do all kinds of really interesting things together.

我们现在可以看到,DAO让我们可以一起做各种各样有趣的事。

They're building products.

人们一起创造产品,

They're investing in start-ups.

投资初创企业,

They're buying art and assets.

购买艺术品和资产,

They're funding research and raising money.

资助研究,募集资金。

Let's take a look at some examples.

我们来看几个例子。

ConstitutionDAO raised over 47 million dollars in seven days in attempt to buy an original US Constitution copy.

ConstitutionDAO在七天内募集了超过4700万美金,目的是购买一份美国宪法原件。

It usually takes longer than seven days just to set up a company and open a bank account.

就算是开个公司、开个银行账户,一般来说也不止七天。

Krause House is buying an NBA team and LinksDAO a golf course.

克劳斯·浩斯要买下一支NBA球队,LinksDAO要买一个高尔夫球场。

DAO members will likely get to participate in key things, like who's coaching the team or where the golf course gets built.

DAO的成员可能会参与关键事务,比如球队教练、高尔夫球场地点。

PleasrDAO collects art and digital assets like NFTs.

PleasrDAO收集NFT这样的艺术和数字藏品。

They recently purchased the only copy in existence of an unreleased Wu-Tang Clan album.

他们最近购买了世间仅此一份的Wu-TangClan(说唱团体)未发行的专辑,

And DAO members are now the only people in the world who can legally listen to it.

于是这个DAO的成员现在是世界上唯一能合法听这个专辑的人。

VectorDAO is a collective of designers shaking up the agency model, where DAO members get ownership in each project they work on.

VectorDAO是一群设计师试图颠覆传统的中介模式,DAO的成员拥有他们项目的所有权。

In DAOs like MetaCartel and Seed Club, members review submissions from promising start-ups and projects and decide on which ones to fund.

在像MetaCartel和Seed Club这样的DAO里,成员们审阅有潜力的初创企业和项目提交的材料,决定投资哪一个。

VitaDAO is funding research.

VitaDAO资助科研项目。

And more recently, UkraineDAO raised over six million dollars to donate towards the Ukrainian defense effort.

就在最近,UkraineDAO募集了超过600万美金,资助其国家发展。

It's still early for DAOs.

DAO还在起步阶段。

And they certainly aren't for everything.

它也有做不到的事。

They require a level of consensus building and might move slower than a company, who has a boss who can just call the shots.

它需要建立一定程度的共识,也许比有老板拍板的公司进展要慢。

After all, ConstitutionDAO was outbid at Sotheby's auction house by the CEO of Citadel.

比如,ConstitutionDAO在苏富比拍卖行的出价就低于对冲基金Citadel的首席执行官。

And some say the transparency and decentralization made it hard for the DAO to coordinate and win the auction.

有人说透明度和去中心化让DAO很难协调并赢下拍卖。

And while traditional corporate structures are battle-tested, DAOs are a new type of entity that can find themselves in uncharted regulatory waters.

对比传统的企业结构经受过大风大浪的考验,DAO是一种全新的组织形式,在“法外之地”沉浮。

To help solve some of these issues, states like Wyoming are putting laws on the books that recognize DAOs.

为了解决这些问题,怀俄明州等州把对DAO的认可记录于法律中。

And we actually used one of these laws to buy our first piece of land at CityDAO.

我们在CityDAO购买第一块地的时候就参考了这些法律之一,

That's why it's in Wyoming.

也就是为什么我们会在怀俄明州购置土地。

Once we work out the kinks, DAOs have the potential to increase economic opportunity and allow more people to share in the upsides of ownership.

一旦我们把这些堵点疏通了,DAO就有潜力增加经济上的机会,让更多人享受所有权带来的福利。

Things like real estate, sports teams, fine art.

比如房产、运动团队、艺术。

These are things that would typically be owned by a single, high net-worth individual that today DAOs are buying and democratizing.

这些东西通常都由仅仅一个富豪拥有,而如今DAO可以购买这些东西并将其普及化。

Imagine if the next social network or ride-hailing app were a DAO.

如果下一个社交网络或者打车软件就是一个DAO呢?

And each time you posted valuable content or put in late-nights driving, you got little pieces of ownership in that platform.

每当你发布了有价值的内容,或者贡献了自己的夜晚驾车,你都赚取了那个平台的一部分。

And since ownership means voting rights in DAOs,

在DAO里,所有权就代表了投票权,

you can use your new voting power to propose changes to the platform if you think that there's a fairer or better way to do things.

你可以用你的投票权给平台提建议,要求改成你觉得更公平或者更好的方式。

Agriculture enabled us to live in cities.

农业让我们可以住在城市里。

The internet let us share information globally.

互联网让我们可以跨越国境分享信息。

And today, DAOs let us work together, trust each other and coordinate in a fairer way on larger-scale problems than ever before.

如今,DAO让我们以一种更公平的方式合作、互信、协调,处理前所未有的大规模问题。

And maybe a DAO can even build the next great city.

或许,DAO甚至可以创建下一个大都市。

Thank you.

谢谢。


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