英语家园

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

搜索

减少飞机污染的3种方法

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-8-5 21:30| 查看数: 104| 评论数: 0|



I have a confession to make. I feel bad about flying. And I know I'm not the only one here. I love to travel. But I know it's hurting our environment. When I was six years old, I moved to Taiwan. My family, we boarded a regional jet in Iowa. And 30 hours later, we stepped off a 747 in Taiwan. Airplanes had taken us halfway across the globe. And I felt the wonder of a new world. Air travel, it builds bridges and it connects us.

我要承认一件事。坐飞机让我感到难受。我知道,在座的各位也有人和我一样。我喜爱旅行。但我知道,这会破坏环境。我六岁时,全家搬到了中国台湾。我和家人在爱荷华州坐上了一架支线飞机。30小时后,我们乘坐的747飞机到达中国台湾。飞机带我们跨越了半个地球。我感受到了新世界的奇妙。空中旅行,它像一条纽带,将我们联系在一起。

It takes families and people to new lives and new experiences. But it also comes with a cost. A cost to our climate. When I first started focusing on the aviation sector, I quickly learned that aviation accounts for about two percent of global CO2 emissions. And while that number may seem small, it could grow to 20 percent by 2050 if no action is taken. And for those of us that do fly regularly, it can be the biggest component of our individual carbon footprint.

它让人们过上新生活,获得新体验。但这也要付出代价。我们的气候将付出代价。第一次开始关注航空领域时,我很快了解到,航空领域约占全球二氧化碳排放的2%。这个比率似乎看起来比较小,但如果不采取行动,到2050年,它就会增长到20%。对那些经常坐飞机的人来说,它可能是我们个人碳足迹的最大组成部分。

That trip I took when I was six, if I were to make the same trip today, I would have to be vegetarian for nearly four years to make up for the carbon and other emissions from that trip. And so that's why I'm conflicted. And it's also why I'm working with the aviation sector to figure out how to decarbonize as soon as possible. The next thing I learned is this. Decarbonizing aviation, it's no easy task. Traditional jet fuel is so very good at its job. It's cheap. And it's energy-dense.

那次坐飞机时我才六岁,如果我今天进行同样的旅行,我必须吃素近四年,才能弥补那次旅行造成的碳及其他排放。这就是我内心感到矛盾的原因。这也是我为什么与航空部门合作,想办法尽快达到去碳化的原因。我了解到的另一件事是:在航空领域,去碳化并不容易。传统的航空燃料非常好用。它价格便宜,可提供巨大的能量。

And because of that engines, airplanes, airports, fuel supply chains and regulations, they are all built on flying planes from point A to point B that run on jet fuel. And those planes that run on jet fuel, they're operated for 20 to 30 years on average before they're retired. That means a plane that's ordered today will be flying until around 2050. So we can't get there on engines and airplanes alone. If we want any hope of reaching our goal of zero emissions, we need to find the mix of solutions now.

因此,发动机、飞机、机场,燃料供应链和法律法规,全都建立在全程使用航空燃料完成从A点到B点的航线这样的规划之上。那些使用航空燃料的飞机,它们平均运营20-30年,然后报废。就是说,现在订购的飞机,将飞到2050年左右。因此,仅依靠现有的发动机和飞机,我们不可能实现减排目标。如果想要实现零排放目标,我们现在需要找到混合的解决方案。

There's three broad buckets that we need to address.The first is how we design and fly planes. The second are the fuels that we use, namely biofuels, to power those planes. And the third is new and emerging technology that can entirely change the game. Let's start with how we design planes. Well, the basic design of a plane doesn't change much from one generation to the next. Improvements in aerodynamics, reductions in cabin weight and even improved engine efficiency means that each generation of aircraft is about 20 percent more fuel-efficient than the last.

我们需要解决三个方面的问题。首先是如何设计和驾驶飞机。其次是那些飞机使用的燃料,即生物燃料。第三是可以彻底改变整个航空业的新兴技术。我们先来讲如何设计飞机。几百年来,飞机的基本设计没有发生太大变化。空气动力学的进步,客舱重量减轻,甚至发动机效率的提高,结合起来,每一代飞机的燃料效率也只比上一代提高了20%左右。

Now, that's great. But turnover is slow. And so there's more we can do. We can also fly planes differently. Flying planes differently means changes to airport management, to air traffic control, even individual pilot behavior. If a plane sits on the runway for less time before takeoff, we can reduce emissions.If a plane takes a more direct route instead of flying around national borders, we reduce emissions. And if individual pilots don't gun it at takeoff, we can also reduce emissions. Now, these changes, they may sound easy. But they're not.

现在看来,那还不错。但转变的速度还是太慢。因此我们可以做更多工作。我们还能够以不同方式驾驶飞机,以不同方式驾驶飞机意味着要改变机场管理、空中交通管制,甚至飞行员的个人行为。如果在起飞之前,缩短飞机在跑道上停留的时间,就可以减少排放。如果飞机更多地采用直达航线,而不是绕着国境飞行,就可以减少排放。如果飞行员在起飞时不加大油门,也可以减少排放。目前,这些改变听起来简单,但做起来并不容易。

We all know that individual behavior change, it doesn't always stick. And changes to airports and air traffic management, that's a really long march. My team estimates that if we were to really prioritize designing and flying planes differently, we could reduce 2050 carbon dioxide emissions by 30 to 40 percent. We need to do this. But we need more. We also need biofuels.And for biofuels or bio-based, sustainable aviation fuel, you need funding and you need feedstock.

大家都知道,个体行为的改变,并不能一直坚持下去。改变机场和空中交通管制,将需要很长时间。我的团队估计,如果我们确实优先考虑以不同方式设计和驾驶飞机,我们可以在2050年将碳排放减少30-40%。我们需要做到这一点,但需要做得更多。我们还需要生物燃料。至于生产生物燃料,或基于生物的可再生航空燃料,这需要资金,需要原料。

Let's start with feedstock. Biofuels are based on biological sources, like grains and oil seeds, forestry residue, used cooking oil, even municipal solid waste.You can take trash and convert it to fuel in a way that meaningfully reduces emissions. But there's a catch.There's only so much forestry residue. And there's only so much land that can or should be converted to grow crops for fuel without impacting global food supply chains. And then there's funding. Biofuels are expensive.

先来说一说原料。生物燃料使用生物原料制造,例如谷物和油菜籽、林业剩余物、地沟油甚至是城市固体废弃物。你可以收集垃圾,把它转化为燃料,以这种方式有效减少排放。但有一个问题:林业剩余物只有那么多。土地只有那么多,如果将它们都改为种庄稼来生产燃料,就会影响全球食物供应链。然后是投资。生物燃料价格昂贵。

They're more expensive than traditional jet fuel and could raise ticket prices to consumers by 10 to 20 percent. And we need a massive initial investment to build the production facilities to meaningfully supply the sector. It's a classic chicken and egg problem.Because prices are high, there's no demand. And because there's no demand, there's no supply. And because there's no supply, prices aren't coming down and so there's no demand. And on and on and on.

它们比传统航空燃料更贵,这可能会使机票涨价10-20%。而且,我们需要大额初始投资,以便建立生产设施,充足供应航空燃料。这是典型的“先有鸡还是先有蛋”问题。因为价格很高,但却没有需求。没有需求,就没有供应。由于没有供应,就不会降价,因此不会有需求。这造成了恶性循环。

Thankfully, we are finally starting to break the cycle.The European Commission recently proposed an alternative fuels mandate of 5 percent by 2030 and 20 percent by 2035. And there's even pressure to accelerate that. A far cry from the .01 percent of biofuel usage that we were at in 2018. My team estimates that if we were to really focus on biofuels, we could further reduce 2050 CO2 emissions by 10 to 30 percent. That leaves us with a gap of 30 percent. That's not good enough. It doesn't get us to our goals.

幸好,我们终于开始打破循环了。欧盟委员会最近发布的替代燃料法令规定,替代比率在2030和2035年应达到5%和20%。甚至还有必要加快这个进程。这与2018年0.01%的生物燃料使用率存在天壤之别。我的团队估计,如果我们大力推广生物燃料,将可以在2050年将CO2排放进一步减少10-30%。这样就只剩30%的缺口。但那还不够。我们无法实现减排目标。

And it certainly doesn't absolve me of my guilt when I consider getting on a plane. The third bucket of things we need lies in breakthrough, innovation and invention.You have synthetic fuel, which, like biofuels, works with existing engine technology and airplane design. Synthetic fuels or e-kerosene actually take carbon dioxide from the air, combine it with hydrogen that's cleanly separated from water to produce fuel.The science is amazing. But it's really early days, it's small-batch and it's expensive.

当然也无法在考虑坐飞机时减轻我的罪恶感。我们需要做的第三点,是实现突破,进行创新和创造。现在有合成燃料,像生物燃料一样,它们适用于现有的发动机技术和飞机设计。实际上,合成燃料或电子煤油会吸收空气中的二氧化碳,将它与从水中提取的氢结合,用于生产燃料。科学真奇妙。但它还在早期研发阶段,批量小而且价格贵。

And then you have hybrid electric and electric aircraft: small planes that run on batteries. By 2050, these planes could fly for short distances. And then there's hydrogen. Green hydrogen. There's hydrogen fuel cells, batteries that run on hydrogen, or hydrogen-combustion engines, engines that use hydrogen as fuel.These also show promise. And we need to continue to invest in them. These new fuels pair really well with new aircraft design, like the blended wing body where there's no clear dividing line between the main body and the wings of the aircraft.

还有混合动力和电动飞机:使用电池的小型飞机。到2050年,这些飞机将可以进行短途飞行。然后是氢气。绿色氢气。有氢燃料电池,使用氢气的电池,或氢内燃机,即以氢气为燃料的发动机。这些技术带来了希望。我们需要继续投资开发。这些新燃料很适合新型飞机使用,例如翼身融合体飞机,这种飞机的机身与机翼之间没有明确的分界线。

These planes could be at least 20 percent more fuel-efficient than traditional aircraft. And they create the opportunity to rethink where fuel is stored so we can use new energy sources, like hydrogen. Now, some of these innovations, they'll work. And some may not.We may need to rely on high quality removals like carbon capture and storage. What is clear is that if we want any hope of getting to zero emissions, we will need some of these and potentially other technologies.

与传统飞机相比,这些飞机至少可以节省20%的燃料。它们创造了机会,让我们反思燃料的存储位置,以便使用新能源,如氢气。现在,在这些创新中,一些会带来效益,一些可能不会。我们可能需要依靠高效清除,如碳捕获和存储。显而易见,如果我们想做到零排放,我们需要应用这些和其他技术。

There are challenges: ensuring the safety of these technologies, investing billions and billions of dollars to build the production facilities and supply chains for biofuels and synthetic fuels. And making sure that each and every country does its part. If it sounds hard, that's because it is hard. But it's not impossible. I think we can get it done. The hard work, it's already starting. The sector is innovating and investing and collaborating. And that hard work, it needs to continue. And it needs to intensify.

我们面临各种挑战:确保这些技术的安全,投资数百亿美元,为生物燃料和合成燃料建立生产设施和供应链。与此同时,还要确保每个国家都参与进来。如果这听起来很难,是因为它确实如此。但并非不可能实现。我想,我们可以完成这个目标。各方已经开始努力工作。相关部门正进行创新、投资和协作。我们需要保持这种努力。我们需要加大工作力度。

And while that hard work happens, I'll remain conflicted. I want to travel. I want to see friends and family and colleagues. And so there's a few things I do. I ask myself. Do I really need to make that trip? I work with my company to advocate for biofuels, to try to break that chicken and egg cycle. And I try to fly on the most climate-friendly and fuel-efficient airlines.

虽然做出了巨大努力,我仍然感到矛盾。我想去旅行。我想去见朋友、家人和同事。我还想做其他一些事情。我问自己:我真的需要开启那段旅行吗?我与公司一起,呼吁使用生物燃料,努力打破恶性循环。我努力乘坐最环保、最省油的飞机。

We all know that individual choices can drive collective action. This sector, like many others, is one where the entire industry has to work together if we want to reach our goal. Thank you.

大家都知道,个人选择可以促进集体行动。和许多其他领域一样,在这个领域,如果我们想要实现目标,整个行业都必须团结协作。谢谢大家!


最新评论

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表