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如何让练习更高效?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-6-19 21:30| 查看数: 59| 评论数: 0|



Mastering any physical skill, be it performing a pirouette, playing an instrument, or throwing a baseball, takes practice. Practice is the repetition of an action with the goal of improvement, and it helps us perform with more ease, speed, and confidence.

掌握任何关于身体的技巧,比如用脚尖旋转、演奏一门乐器、或者投掷棒球,都需要练习。练习就是为了达成目标而不断地重复,它能让我们表现得更从容、敏捷,并且有自信。

So what does practice do in our brains to make us better at things? Our brains have two kinds of neural tissue: grey matter and white matter. The grey matter processes information in the brain, directing signals and sensory stimuli to nerve cells, while white matter is mostly made up of fatty tissue and nerve fibers.

那练习究竟是怎样作用于我们的大脑,让我们做的更好呢?我们的大脑有两种神经组织:灰质,和白质。灰质处理大脑中的信息,将信号和感觉刺激引导到神经细胞,而白质主要由脂肪组织和神经纤维组成。

In order for our bodies to move, information needs to travel from the brain's grey matter, down the spinal cord, through a chain of nerve fibers called axons to our muscles. So how does practice or repetition affect the inner workings of our brains?

为了能使我们的身体进行活动,信息会从大脑中的灰质,沿着脊髓,穿过轴突,也就是一系列的神经纤维,最后到达肌肉组织。那么重复的练习能对我们的大脑造成怎样的影响呢?

The axons that exist in the white matter are wrapped with a fatty substance called myelin. And it's this myelin covering, or sheath, that seems to change with practice. Myelin is similar to insulation on electrical cables.

轴突存在于大脑的白质中,被一种叫做髓磷脂的脂质物质所包裹着,而髓磷脂的包裹程度会随着我们进行练习而变化。髓磷脂就像是电缆外包裹的绝缘体。

It prevents energy loss from electrical signals that the brain uses, moving them more efficiently along neural pathways. Some recent studies in mice suggest that the repetition of a physical motion increases the layers of myelin sheath that insulates the axons.

它阻止了在大脑使用过程中电子信号能量的流失,使他们能够在神经系统中更有效的传输。近期有对小白鼠的研究显示,重复地进行某项身体活动,能够使髓磷脂保护套的层数变多,将轴索都分隔开。

And the more layers, the greater the insulation around the axon chains, forming a sort of superhighway for information connecting your brain to your muscles. So while many athletes and performers attribute their successes to muscle memory, muscles themselves don't really have memory.

层数越多,轴索外的绝缘性能也就越强。这样就形成了连接你大脑和肌肉的一系列“高速公路。”所以,尽管许多运动员和表演者把它们的成功归结于肌肉记忆,但是肌肉本身其实是没有记忆的。

Rather, it may be the myelination of neural pathways that gives these athletes and performers their edge with faster and more efficient neural pathways. There are many theories that attempt to quantify the number of hours, days, and even years of practice that it takes to master a skill.

是神经通路的髓鞘化,让这些运动员和表演者能够使得他们是神经通路运转得更快,更有效。有许多理论试图定量用几小时、几天、甚至几年的练习将一门技术掌握。

While we don't yet have a magic number, we do know that mastery isn't simply about the amount of hours of practice. It's also the quality and effectiveness of that practice.

但我们还没有得到一个确切的数字,我们知道,对一项技巧的掌握不仅仅取决于练习的时长,它还取决于练习的质量和效率。

Effective practice is consistent, intensely focused, and targets content or weaknesses that lie at the edge of one's current abilities. So if effective practice is the key, how can we get the most out of our practice time? Try these tips.

有效的练习是连续的,高度集中注意力的,并且关注个人现阶段所达到的程度,以及还存在的不足。如果有效的练习是成功的关键,那如何才能最大化地利用我们的练习时间?试试这些方法吧。

Focus on the task at hand. Minimize potential distractions by turning off the computer or TV and putting your cell phone on airplane mode. In one study, researchers observed 260 students studying.

专注于手头的任务。将周围存在干扰的可能性最小化,比如,关掉电视或电脑,把手机调成飞行模式。在一项研究中,观察员观察了260学生的学习状况。

On average, those students were able to stay on task for only six minutes at a time. Laptops, smartphones, and particularly Facebook were the root of most distractions. Start out slowly or in slow-motion.

总的来说,学生一次只能在学习上集中6分钟的注意力。电脑,手机,特别是脸书推送,都会对他们形成干扰。在开始练习的时候把动作放慢。

Coordination is built with repetitions, whether correct or incorrect. If you gradually increase the speed of the quality repetitons, you have a better chance of doing them correctly.

协调性是在不断的重复中养成的,不论是错的还是对的。如果你逐渐增加有效练习的速度,你会更有可能做出正确的动作。

Next, frequent repetitions with allotted breaks are common practice habits of elite performers. Studies have shown that many top athletes, musicians, and dancers spend 50-60 hours per week on activities related to their craft.

其次,优秀的表演者往往会懂得合理的分配休息的时间。研究表明,许多顶尖运动员、音乐家、和舞者,通常会在自己的领域在每周花50到60小时来进行练习。

Many divide their time used for effective practice into multiple daily practice sessions of limited duration. And finally, practice in your brain in vivid detail. It's a bit surprising, but a number of studies suggest that once a physical motion has been established, it can be reinforced just by imagining it.

他们大多数会把练习的总量分配成几个部分,定时定量进行训练。最后一点,在大脑中回想训练的细节。听起来会有点不可思议,但是许多研究表明,一旦建立了一套物理运动,通过想象就可以加强巩固。

In one study, 144 basketball players were divided into two groups. Group A physically practiced one-handed free throws while Group B only mentally practiced them.

在一项研究中,144名篮球运动员被分成两组。A组的训练内容是去实地练习单手发球,而B组只是通过大脑不断重放这个过程。

When they were tested at the end of the two week experiment, the intermediate and experienced players in both groups had improved by nearly the same amount.

在两周的实验结束后,测试结果表明,两组中处于中高水平的运动员得到了几乎相同水平的提高。

As scientists get closer to unraveling the secrets of our brains, our understanding of effective practice will only improve.

随着科学家对大脑研究的不断深入,我们对进行有效练习的理解也就越来越高。

In the meantime, effective practice is the best way we have of pushing our individual limits, achieving new heights, and maximizing our potential.

对于高效练习的了解,是我们挑战自身极限、到达新的高度、以及激发我们潜能的最好方法。


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