英语家园

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

搜索

海洋是如何缓解气候问题的?

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-6-16 07:30| 查看数: 87| 评论数: 0|



So what do you think of when you think of the ocean? Maybe you think of a visit to the beach or whales or sharks or coral reefs? I think of this. This is the San Juan Islands in Washington state. They jut out of an expanse of deep dark water. And they're filled with life and mystery and opportunity. But whatever you think of, the ocean is much more. It is a complex physical, chemical and biological system that takes up 70 percent of our planet. And yet we're still really just beginning to understand it. What we do know is that the ocean is a vital part of our life support system on the planet. It produces at least 50 percent of the oxygen that we breathe.

提到海洋,你会想到什么呢?也许,你会想到沙滩,或者鲸鱼、鲨鱼和珊瑚礁。我想到的是这里。华盛顿州的圣胡安岛。从漆黑的深海里延伸出来的一片陆地。这里充满了生命、神秘事物和机遇。但是,无论你想到什么,海洋远远不止这些。它是一个包含了物理、化学和生物的复杂系统,占地球面积的70%。然而,我们才刚刚开始认识海洋。我们知道,海洋是维持我们生命系统的重要组成部分。我们呼吸的氧气至少有50%来自于海洋。

So more than one in every two breaths. It also regulates temperature for the planet. So without the ocean, the poles would be unbearably cold and the equator would be unbearably hot. And it would be a lot harder to live here. Now we think about saving the ocean from plastic or from oil and oil spills or from overfishing. But really, we should be thinking about how the ocean is saving us. And what is it saving us from? It's saving us from the climate change that we are creating. Essentially, ourselves. And so what does that mean? Basically, what we need to do is think about not how to save the ocean.

所以每两次呼吸就有一次的氧气来自于此。海洋也调节地球的气候。所以如果没有海洋,极地将会变得异常寒冷,让人无法忍受,并且,赤道地区将会变得酷热难当。人在这里生活将会变得很困难。如今,我们考虑保护海洋免受塑料、石油和石油泄漏,以及过度捕捞的侵害。但是,我们真的应该思考,海洋用什么途径拯救了我们。在哪些方面拯救了我们?海洋将我们从我们造成的气候变化影响中拯救出来。说到底,是我们自己。所以,这意味着什么?实际上,我们不需要想办法拯救海洋。

But instead, how the ocean can actually help us in this fight against climate change. Already, the ocean is absorbing 25 to 30 percent of the CO2 that we release into the atmosphere. It is the world's largest carbon sink. The ocean has also absorbed 90 percent of the excess heat trapped by greenhouse gases. So it is basically helping to keep the planet habitable, at least for now. And yet, when we think about climate action and climate strategies and climate plans, we often overlook the ocean and leave it out. Because somehow we think that saving the ocean is something else we have to do, not a core part of our climate strategy. And that's what has to change because the ocean is a core part of our climate system.

而是想办法让海洋能够真正地帮助我们对抗气候变化带来的影响。海洋已经吸收了我们释放在大气层中25%到30%的二氧化碳。它是世界上最大的净碳槽。海洋也吸收了90%的温室气体含有的多余热量。所以,海洋正在帮助我们让地球变得宜居,至少目前为止是这样。然而,我们考虑气候行动,和气候变化应对策略以及气候变化解决方案时,总是忽略了海洋,将其排除在外。因为,不知怎么的,我们觉得拯救海洋是另一件必须做的事,不属于气候变化应对策略的核心部分。我们要改变这个想法,因为,海洋是气候系统的重要组成部分。

And so it has to be a core part of our climate solutions. So what does that actually mean? Well, for starters, we know that the ocean is already doing a lot for us. So the first thing we do need to do to save the ocean to save ourselves is to actually reduce emissions. I don't think anyone here would disagree with that. But that still sounds like the ocean is a victim in the story. And really the ocean can and should be a hero in this story. The ocean can provide us with solutions to help us reduce those emissions. And it can also help us to adapt to this new climate reality that we've created. So how does that happen?

所以,海洋理应是气候变化解决方案的核心部分。这具体指什么内容呢?那么,对于我们新手来说,我们知道海洋已经帮我们做了很多事了。所以,我们拯救海洋、拯救自己要做的第一件事其实就是减排。我认为在场没有人会反对减排。但是,这听起来会让我们觉得海洋是一个受害者。事实上,海洋能够成为并且应该成为英雄。海洋为我们提供解决方法来减少排放。它还能够帮助我们适应我们自己创造的新气候。那么,我们该怎么做呢?

Well, essentially the first thing we need to do is to make sure that, we keep all of these systems working and protect the systems that are protecting us. Because all of that CO2 and heat that the ocean is absorbing is actually coming at a cost. The ocean is warming and rising and acidifying. And we even have evidence now that we're changing the basic circulation of the ocean, which changes the way it regulates temperature. So the first thing we need to do is really just protect those systems that are protecting us. But how do we more actively engage the ocean in our climate strategies? What can we do to really use the ocean to help us reduce emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change?

我们该做的第一件事就是确保这些系统正常运转,并保护这些保护着我们的系统。因为,海洋吸收的全部二氧化碳和热量实际上都对海洋造成了伤害。海洋在变暖,海平面在上升,海水在逐渐酸化。我们甚至还有证据表明,我们正在改变海洋调节温度的基础循环。所以,我们要做的第一件事就是保护这些保护着我们的系统。但是,我们该怎样积极地将海洋纳入应对气候变化的策略中呢?我们该怎么做才能利用海洋帮助我们减少碳排放,以帮助我们适应气候变化带来的影响?

What does that practically look like? Well, we know that coastal ocean ecosystems like mangroves or seagrasses or salt marshes are some of the most effective carbon sinks on the planet. Acre for acre, they can absorb 10 times more carbon than a forest on land. And that carbon is very deep in the soils so that it can stay there for thousands of years if we leave it undisturbed. The problem is that we're not leaving it undisturbed. We are destroying these places. We've lost 20 to 50 percent of them already. And we lose more every year. And all of that is creating emissions. But if we protect those places, then those emissions stop.

这些实际上该怎么做?嗯,我们都知道近海生态系统,如:红树林、海草以及盐碱滩,是地球上最高效的净碳槽之一。拿英亩来说,这些生态系统吸收的二氧化碳量是陆地森林的十倍。这些二氧化碳存贮在土壤的深处,如果我们不进行人为破坏,这些二氧化碳可以在土里保存数千年。问题就在于,我们进行了人为破坏。我们正在摧毁这些生态系统。我们已经失去了这些生态系统的20%到50%。并且,每年我们还在失去更多的生态系统。我们所做的这些又产生了碳排放。如果我们保护这些生态系统,就阻止了这些碳排放。

Just like if you shut off a coal-fired power plant. And if we restore those places, then we can actually absorb even more carbon. But the power of the ocean isn't limited just to reducing emissions. The ocean can also help us to adapt to the impacts of climate change we already feel and that we know will be here with us for decades. Those same mangroves can actually protect coastal communities by buffering them against more intense coastal storms and slowing wind and waves. Another example, oysters. In New York City, they're using oysters to help reduce the risk of major floods and flood damage, like they saw during Superstorm Sandy in 2012.

就好比我们关闭了一座燃煤火力发电厂。如果我们恢复这些生态系统,那么,我们就可以吸收更多的碳。但是,海洋的力量不仅仅局限在减少碳排放。海洋还能帮助我们适应已经能感觉到的气候变化所带来的影响,这些影响还会伴随我们数十年。这些红树林能起到缓冲的作用,抵御沿海风暴,降低风速,减弱巨浪,保护海岸群落。另一个例子是牡蛎。在纽约市,人们利用牡蛎降低特大洪水的风险与造成的损失,如2012年发生的超级风暴“桑迪”。

The idea is that these reefs form dense places that force water through nooks and crannies that slow it down. So by the time it hits the shore, it actually has less power and therefore can do less damage. And at the same time, they're creating aquatic parks and places where people can gather and be with nature. Because the truth is that in this new climate reality that we've created, we will have to learn how to live with water and with the ocean in new ways. And so what better ways to do that than with the creatures that actually have evolved to live in these land and sea interfaces? And these are real solutions that are being implemented in real places based on what we know about the ocean now.

利用牡蛎礁形成了一片片密集区域,迫使水流从凹陷和缝隙中流过,从而降低流速。所以,水流冲击海岸时,已经没有那么大的能量了,因此减少了破坏力。与此同时,牡蛎礁建立了人和自然共生的水上公园和区域。正是因为我们造成了新的气候,所以,我们要学会以新的方式与水和海洋共存。因此,还有比利用这些已经进化并适应在水陆交界处生活的生物更好的方法吗?而且,基于我们目前对海洋的认识,这些都是正在实际操作的确实有效的解决方案。

And yet the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association of the United States estimates that 80 percent of the ocean is unmapped, unexplored and unobserved. So there is so much more out there that we could be doing and thinking about as climate solutions, and so much that we're just still getting our imaginations around. For example, what if we could actually harness the power of the ocean's wind and waves and tides to produce power? The International Energy Agency estimates that offshore wind alone could produce enough energy for the Earth and 17 other planets, carbon-free. And at the same time, we could actually be providing power to coastal communities and islands that don't benefit from our current grids and systems.

然而,美国国家海洋和大气管理局估计大约有80%的海洋没有被地图标记,也没有被人发现并且探索过。所以,对于气候变化的解决方案,我们能做的和构思的还有很多,我们还有更多的想象力可以发挥。举个例子,如果我们能够加强海洋的风能、波浪能和潮汐能呢?国际能源署估计,仅仅是海上风力就可以产生无碳化的充足的电力供地球和其他17个行星使用。同时,我们也可以将电力输送到没有办法享受电网系统的海岸社区和岛屿。

And if we're really smart about it, we can plan and design these systems so that we're creating artificial reefs that could support wildlife and aquaculture, and help us grow food and sequester carbon and actually help the ocean instead of harm it. Or what if we could harness more of the ocean's biological power to help us in this fight against climate change? For example, kelp. Kelp is one of the fastest-growing organisms on the planet. It can grow two feet per day. What if we could actually restore the world's kelp forests, and actually grow kelp at a scale that we could use all of that growing power to help us sequester carbon?

并且,如果我们能合理利用海洋,我们就能规划这些生态系统,以此创造人工礁来支撑野生动植物和水产业,帮助我们获取食物和进行碳封存,这样不仅没有破坏,还保护了海洋。或者,如果我们加强海洋的生物能,来帮助我们对抗气候变化带来的影响呢?举个例子,海藻。海藻是地球上生长最快的有机物之一。它每天能长两英尺。如果我们能恢复海藻林,并且成规模的种植海藻呢?那么其生长所产生的能力能帮助我们进行碳封存。

Now, that's likely to be a lot cheaper than trying to deploy human-made technologies out into the middle of the ocean to sequester carbon. And it's likely to be a lot less risky than changing the ocean's chemistry or engineering the ocean. Because we'd actually be working with the natural systems instead of against them. And we'd probably have a lot of kelp left over, that we could use to feed ourselves and feed animals and create plastic alternatives that would also help us to lower our footprint on the planet. And this is just a sampler of the types of solutions that the ocean has to offer for the climate crisis.

种植海藻比我们在海洋中用人造技术进行碳封存便宜得多。并且,相较于改变海洋的化学特性和海洋结构,利用海藻的风险更低。因为,事实上,我们不是在和自然系统对抗,而是与它们合作。如果我们还有剩余的海藻,这些海藻可以拿来食用,喂养动物,或者制造塑料替代品,也可以帮助我们减少地球碳足迹。这仅仅是海洋应对气候危机提出的多种解决方案中的一个。

The key is that we have to think about the ocean as a source of solutions that we can be using and enlist it in this fight. And these aren't easy solutions. The time for that has passed. We don't have any easy solutions left. And these aren't excuses for not doing other things, these are not silver bullets. So we still have to do the hard work of reducing and getting rid of fossil fuels. And we still have to do the hard work of making sure that, the most vulnerable among us will be able to adapt and thrive in the new climate reality.

关键是,我们要将海洋视为解决方案的资源,我们可以利用海洋且让其参与到这场战斗中。这些不是简单的解决方案。简单的已经随时间消失。我们没有简单的解决方案了。这些并不是不作为的借口,解决这些问题没有灵丹妙药。所以,我们还是有艰巨的任务,降低使用甚至不使用化学燃料。还有努力保证我们最弱势的群体能够适应并能在新的气候中生存。

But the ocean is a powerful source of solutions that we've overlooked for far too long. And so we need to think about how we really integrate it into our strategies now. And that comes down to a fundamental change in mindset, which is instead of thinking about how we save the ocean, we should be thinking about how we can help the ocean save us. Thank you.

但是,海洋是解决方案的有效来源,我们长久忽视了它。所以,我们需要思考现在用什么方法将其整合到气候应对策略中。这需要我们在思想上发生大转变。这样的转变不是让我们思考拯救海洋的途径,而是,我们应该思考怎样帮助海洋拯救我们。谢谢。


最新评论

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表