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在气候行动前线的女性

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-5-12 09:00| 查看数: 100| 评论数: 0|



When it comes to big problems like climate change, we tend to like big solutions: new technologies, global policies. But many of the most important solutions are rooted on the ground by actors that don't walk the corridors of power, by actors that might not speak the scientific language of climate change but who are dealing with its impact every day. I am a forest conservationist from the Leuser Ecosystem in Sumatra, Indonesia. You might have never heard of this landscape.

当谈到一些大事件,比如气候变化时,我们会倾向于一些重大的解决方案。比如新的技术,全球性政策。但是很多的重大解决方案都源于当地的基层人物,这些角色并没有太大权力,也不会去讨论气候变化的科学研究,但是他们每天都在应对气候变化的影响。我是一名森林保育员,平时的工作是保护印度尼西亚苏门答腊岛的勒塞尔生态系统。你可能从来都没有听过这个地方。

But it's the last place on Earth where the critically endangered Sumatran rhino, tiger, elephant and orangutan still roam together in the wild. Meet Sumini. Sumini is the leader of Indonesia's first women-led ranger team and a mother, a conservationist whose action is rooted in her community on the edge of the Leuser Ecosystem. In the patriarchal society where she operates, a woman is expected to be quiet and subservient. During a village meeting, the ladies tend to congregate in the kitchen while the men discuss village policies and budget.

但这是世界上最后一个地方,还可以看到极度濒危的苏门答腊犀牛、老虎、大象和红毛猩猩在野外出没。遇见苏米妮。苏米妮是印度尼西亚第一个女性护林队的队长,也是一位母亲。作为一名保育人士,她日常扎根于位于勒塞尔生态系统边缘的护林团队。在她所处的社会中,女性都被期望是顺从而安静的。在村里的会议上,女士们往往聚集在厨房里,而男人们则谈论着村子里的政策和税收。

And oftentimes, even if she is present in the meeting room, she is expected to not voice her opinion, rather letting a male relative answer (questions) addressed to her without consulting her first. When I asked Sumini why she chose to protect and conserve the forests, she said, "We are mothers and grandmothers. We are responsible for everything. From the moment we wake up, we have to wash clothes, cook and make coffee for our family. More than anything, we need water in every aspect of our life. And the only thing that protects our water source is the forest up the mountain."

而且经常,即使她出席会议时,也被希望不要发表观点,更不用说让一个男性亲属在事先未商量的情况下去回答她的问题。当我问苏为什么她选择去保育森林时,她说:“我们是母亲和祖母。我们承担着家庭中的所有琐事。从早上一睁开眼睛,我们就要洗衣服做饭,还要煮咖啡。而日常生活中的这一切,都离不开水。而唯一能保护水资源的,是山上的那些森林。”

The path for Sumini to lead these rangers is anything but straightforward. She became familiar with the forest when she began accompanying her husband trekking. During these trips, they witnessed encroachment and logging. They saw people taking out timber and encroaching into the forest. When they would try to warn off the loggers, they were met with a challenge. "Who are you and what are your authorities to tell us off? Go away!" Logging an encroachment that happened upstream soon turned into disasters downstream. A heavy rainfall that lasted for a few days turned into flash floods and landslides, destroying the village and its essential infrastructure.

通往苏米妮领导这些护林队员的道路绝非直截了当。陪伴着丈夫在山间艰苦跋涉,她对这些森林逐渐熟悉起来。他们在这些徒步旅途中见到了人们砍伐树木、侵蚀森林。他们见到了人们将木材运出,侵入森林。他们试图去告诫那些伐木者离开,却遇到困难。“你们算老几,有什么资格责备我们?滚开!“上游砍伐树木侵占森林的事情在不断上演,不久导致了下游的灾难。一场暴雨持续下了一段时间后,引发了山洪和山崩,下游的村庄和基础设施被毁。

After the disaster, Sumini and other villagers had to take refuge in a shelter for a while. "Being a refugee is hard. You don't have privacy and security. You don't even have access to clean flowing water. It's hard to even keep yourself safe and clean. I don't want that kind of disaster to happen again," she said to me. For Sumini and her team, the first part of becoming a ranger was not putting on a uniform but creating a map of the forest. You see, in Indonesia, access to land and forest are often contested, and one couldn't simply walk into a patch of forest and declare that they will protect this patch.

灾难发生后,苏米尼和其他村民不得不在避难所避难一段时间。“在避难所的日子很艰难。你没有任何隐私,也毫无安全感可言。你甚至没办法得到干净流动的水。很难保持自己的安全和洁净。我不希望类似的灾难再次发生。“她对我说。对于苏米妮和她的团队来说,成立护林队的首要事项并不是穿上统一的制服,而是绘制出森林的地图。你要知道,在印度尼西亚,土地和森林的所有权往往充满争议,人们不能简单地走进一片森林,然后宣布他们将保护这片土地。

No, no. The government needs to acknowledge that you are the legal guardian of the particular forest. And then they will give you the paperwork to affirm your role. In order to obtain this permit, the community needs to create a proposal with a map. So they get the work. Of course, they know where things are in the forest: where the water and the waterfall (are), where the orchid is and where the bear sleeps. But putting this knowledge on paper is something else. Climbing up into the forest with her crew, they learn to read the GPS, orient around a map and take note of important flora and fauna as well as signs of wildlife.

不,这是行不通的。需要获得政府的承认后你才是这一片森林的合法守护人。然后政府会颁布一份文书来证明这一身份。为了获得许可,这个团队需要提出一份带有地图的提议书。她们开始了这份工作。当然,她们对森林里的一草一木都非常了解:哪里有水源哪里有瀑布,哪里可以看到兰花,哪里可以看到睡觉的棕熊。但是把这一切搬到纸面上,那又是另外一回事。和她的队员一起爬上高山,她们学会了使用GPS,在地图上定位,标注出重要的动植物群,对野生动物进行标记。

They begin to plant trees and restore parts that were degraded. Up to this day, In Indonesia, there were only a few patches of forest formally managed by groups of women. And Sumini led one of them. It might sound awesome, but the work is not done. The conservation work is never done. Sumini and her team still face many challenges every day. And sometimes they are still being patronized and undermined. But the power of these women is patience and persistence. They're embedded in the community, so they learn to navigate the tricky path of being a strong female leader in a conservative patriarchal society.

她们开始种植树木,对生态退化的地区进行修复。直到今天,在印度尼西亚,仅仅只有一小部分森林正式被女性团体所管理。苏米妮领导着其中一个队伍。这听上去可能让人惊叹,但这项工作还未做成。森林保育工作还未完成。苏米妮和她的团队每天仍然面临许多挑战。有时她们的工作会遭到贬低,甚至被破坏。但这些女性的力量在于耐心和坚持不懈。她们在团队中投入了大量精力,学习如何处理那些棘手的事务,在保守的父权社会中成为坚强的女性领导者。

Unlike a conservation expert that parachutes in from outside, Sumini and her team are here to stay. So their approach is instantly different. At this point, we know that tropical forests are a stabilizing force for climate. And protecting tropical forests is one of the most cost-efficient ways to avert climate disaster and biodiversity collapse. But the conservation world needs an overhaul. We need more women in the position of leadership -- women from the grassroots, women like Sumini. Women make up half of the world's population, yet only a fraction sits at the decision-making table.

不同于那些外来空降的森林保育专家,苏米妮和她的团队在这里留下来。所以她们的参与立马带来了不同。说到这里,我们知道热带雨林能够有效调节气候。保护热带雨林,是最有效的方法来避免气候灾害和生物多样性衰退。但是森林保育这一块需要一次全面的改革。我们需要更多的女性走到保育团队领导者的位置上,像苏米妮这样的在当地土生土长的女性。女性占世界人口的一半,但只有一小部分人坐在决策桌上。

Women in the communities are the guardians of environmental wisdom, yet they are often an untapped source of knowledge, underappreciated and therefore underresourced. Community based alone is not enough. A study by WRI showed that most community forestry initiatives benefit elite village leaders, usually men, and worsen gender equality on the grassroots. So how do we change this? First, we need to acknowledge that the problem is complex. There are close to 85,000 villages in Indonesia, about 25,000 of them are located in and around forests.

这些保育团体中的女性是环境智慧的守护者,然而她们往往是未开发的知识来源,未被充分认识,因此资源不足。仅依靠这些团体本身是完全不够的。世界资源研究所的一项研究表明大部分的团体林业活动,都是惠及村内的领导者,尤其是男性,并加大了基层性别不平等。那么,我们如何改变这一点呢?首先,我们需要承认这个问题很复杂。印度尼西亚有近85,000个村庄,其中约25,000个位于森林及其周围。

Each have their own complexities and challenges, but each of them also has its own Sumini. It is up to us to find them, work with them and invest in them. Thank you.

每个村落都有着难题和挑战,但是每个村子里都有着苏米妮这样的女性存在。我们要做的是找到她们,和她们一起工作,投资于她们。谢谢。


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