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扎实推动共同富裕

发布者: 五毒 | 发布时间: 2022-1-27 01:30| 查看数: 165| 评论数: 0|

扎实推动共同富裕※

Making Solid Progress Toward Common Prosperity*

习近平

Xi Jinping


                               
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改革开放后,我们党深刻总结正反两方面历史经验,认识到贫穷不是社会主义,打破传统体制束缚,允许一部分人、一部分地区先富起来,推动解放和发展社会生产力。

After the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, through a thorough review of both positive and negative historical experiences, our Party came to realize that poverty is not socialism, and thus began breaking down the constraints of outdated systems. This allowed some areas and some people to become better-off first, and drove the liberation and development of productive forces.

党的十八大以来,党中央把握发展阶段新变化,把逐步实现全体人民共同富裕摆在更加重要的位置上,推动区域协调发展,采取有力措施保障和改善民生,打赢脱贫攻坚战,全面建成小康社会,为促进共同富裕创造了良好条件。现在,已经到了扎实推动共同富裕的历史阶段。

Since the 18th CPC National Congress held in 2012, the Central Committee has kept a firm grasp on new changes in our stage of development, and given greater weight to gradually achieving the goal of prosperity for all. To this end, our Party has promoted coordinated development between different regions, and adopted effective measures to improve people’s wellbeing, win the battles to eradicate extreme poverty and build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. These efforts have created conditions conducive to bringing about prosperity for all. We have thus advanced into a historical stage in which we will make solid steps toward common prosperity.

现在,我们正在向第二个百年奋斗目标迈进。适应我国社会主要矛盾的变化,更好满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要,必须把促进全体人民共同富裕作为为人民谋幸福的着力点,不断夯实党长期执政基础。高质量发展需要高素质劳动者,只有促进共同富裕,提高城乡居民收入,提升人力资本,才能提高全要素生产率,夯实高质量发展的动力基础。当前,全球收入不平等问题突出,一些国家贫富分化,中产阶层塌陷,导致社会撕裂、政治极化、民粹主义泛滥,教训十分深刻!我国必须坚决防止两极分化,促进共同富裕,实现社会和谐安定。

We are now marching toward the Second Centenary Goal of building China into a great modern socialist country. In response to the evolution of the principal challenge facing Chinese society and people’s growing needs for a better life, we must make achieving common prosperity the focus of the Party’s efforts to seek happiness for all Chinese people, which will in turn solidify the foundations of the Party’s long-term governance. High-quality development requires high-caliber workers. Only by promoting common prosperity, increasing urban and rural incomes, and improving human capital can we raise total factor productivity and build a strong base of momentum for high-quality development. We are now living in a world in which income inequality is a glaring problem. Some countries have witnessed the growth of a huge gulf between rich and poor and the collapse of the middle class, which has led to social division, political polarization, and a surge of populism. This is a profound lesson. We in China must make resolute efforts to prevent polarization and promote common prosperity in order to safeguard social harmony and stability.

同时,必须清醒认识到,我国发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出,城乡区域发展和收入分配差距较大。新一轮科技革命和产业变革有力推动了经济发展,也对就业和收入分配带来深刻影响,包括一些负面影响,需要有效应对和解决。

Meanwhile, we must be soberly aware that unbalanced and inadequate development remains a prominent problem in China. In particular, there are large disparities in both development and income distribution between rural and urban areas, and between regions. The latest round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation has not only given a strong push to economic development, but also exerted a profound impact on employment and income distribution. This includes certain negative impacts that we must take effective steps to address.

共同富裕是社会主义的本质要求,是中国式现代化的重要特征。我们说的共同富裕是全体人民共同富裕,是人民群众物质生活和精神生活都富裕,不是少数人的富裕,也不是整齐划一的平均主义。

Bringing prosperity to all is an essential requirement of socialism, as well as an important feature of Chinese-style modernization. The common prosperity we are working to achieve is for everyone, and covers enrichment of people’s lives in both the material and non-material sense. It is not prosperity for a minority, nor is it rigid egalitarianism.

要深入研究不同阶段的目标,分阶段促进共同富裕:到“十四五”末,全体人民共同富裕迈出坚实步伐,居民收入和实际消费水平差距逐步缩小。到2035年,全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展,基本公共服务实现均等化。到本世纪中叶,全体人民共同富裕基本实现,居民收入和实际消费水平差距缩小到合理区间。要抓紧制定促进共同富裕行动纲要,提出科学可行、符合国情的指标体系和考核评估办法。

We should undertake thorough research on targets in different stages, and advance common prosperity in phases. By the end of the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025), we will have made solid progress toward bringing prosperity to all, while gaps between individual incomes and actual consumption levels will gradually narrow. By 2035, we will have made more notable and substantive progress toward common prosperity, and equitable access to basic public services will be ensured. By the middle of this century, common prosperity will be basically achieved, while gaps between of individual incomes and actual consumption levels will be narrowed to an appropriate range. To reach these goals, we must promptly formulate an action plan for promoting common prosperity, and devise rational and workable systems of targets and methods of evaluation that suit China’s national conditions.

促进共同富裕,要把握好以下原则。

There are four principles that we must adhere to in advancing common prosperity.

——鼓励勤劳创新致富。幸福生活都是奋斗出来的,共同富裕要靠勤劳智慧来创造。要坚持在发展中保障和改善民生,把推动高质量发展放在首位,为人民提高受教育程度、增强发展能力创造更加普惠公平的条件,提升全社会人力资本和专业技能,提高就业创业能力,增强致富本领。要防止社会阶层固化,畅通向上流动通道,给更多人创造致富机会,形成人人参与的发展环境,避免“内卷”、“躺平”。

Just as a happy life is achieved through hard work, common prosperity can only be created with ingenuity and effort. We must stay committed to ensuring and improving people’s wellbeing through development. Making high-quality development the top priority, we will create more inclusive and equitable conditions for people to further their education and enhance their capacity for self-development. This will boost human capital and improve specialized skills throughout society, build up people’s capacity to find jobs and start businesses, and make people better able to achieve prosperity. We must prevent rigidified social strata by maintaining clear channels for upward mobility and creating opportunities for more people to become better-off. By doing so, we will foster a development environment that encourages everyone to participate and dissuades them from getting lost in the ideas of “lying flat” and “involution.”

——坚持基本经济制度。要立足社会主义初级阶段,坚持“两个毫不动摇”。要坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,大力发挥公有制经济在促进共同富裕中的重要作用,同时要促进非公有制经济健康发展、非公有制经济人士健康成长。要允许一部分人先富起来,同时要强调先富带后富、帮后富,重点鼓励辛勤劳动、合法经营、敢于创业的致富带头人。靠偏门致富不能提倡,违法违规的要依法处理。

Second, upholding our basic economic system

We must base our work on the reality that China remains in the primary stage of socialism, and reaffirm our commitment to the development of both the public and non-public sectors of the economy. We must uphold the predominance of public ownership while also allowing various forms of ownership to develop side by side, so as to leverage the important role of the public sector in advancing common prosperity. Meanwhile, we should also promote healthy growth of the non-public sector of the economy and of people working in this sector. While allowing some people to become prosperous first, we should lay more stress on pushing these people to give a helping hand to those following in their wake. In particular, we should encourage people inspiring others to pursue prosperity through diligent work, entrepreneurship, and legitimate business activities. Improper means of acquiring wealth must not be encouraged, and breaches of laws or regulations must be handled in accordance with the law.

——尽力而为量力而行。要建立科学的公共政策体系,把蛋糕分好,形成人人享有的合理分配格局。要以更大的力度、更实的举措让人民群众有更多获得感。同时,也要看到,我国发展水平离发达国家还有很大差距。要统筹需要和可能,把保障和改善民生建立在经济发展和财力可持续的基础之上,不要好高骛远,吊高胃口,作兑现不了的承诺。政府不能什么都包,重点是加强基础性、普惠性、兜底性民生保障建设。即使将来发展水平更高、财力更雄厚了,也不能提过高的目标,搞过头的保障,坚决防止落入“福利主义”养懒汉的陷阱。

Third, doing our utmost while working within our means

We must set up a rational public policy framework and form a reasonable pattern of distribution in which everyone gets a fair piece of the pie. We must make greater efforts and adopt more effective measures to see that the people have a greater sense of fulfillment. But at the same time, we must also be aware that the gap between China and developed countries in terms of level of development remains large. Taking into account both what is necessary and what is possible, we must ensure and improve people’s wellbeing whilst maintaining the sustainability of our economic development and financial resources. We must not be overly ambitious or get people’s hopes up by making promises that we are not able to keep. The government cannot take on everything. Instead, its main responsibility should be strengthening the development of projects related to public wellbeing that are fundamental, inclusive, and focused on meeting basic needs. Even in the future when we have reached a higher level of development and are equipped with more substantial financial resources, we still must not aim too high or go overboard with social security, and steer clear of the idleness-breeding trap of welfarism.

——坚持循序渐进。共同富裕是一个长远目标,需要一个过程,不可能一蹴而就,对其长期性、艰巨性、复杂性要有充分估计,办好这件事,等不得,也急不得。一些发达国家工业化搞了几百年,但由于社会制度原因,到现在共同富裕问题仍未解决,贫富悬殊问题反而越来越严重。我们要有耐心,实打实地一件事一件事办好,提高实效。要抓好浙江共同富裕示范区建设,鼓励各地因地制宜探索有效路径,总结经验,逐步推开。

Fourth, pursuing incremental progress

As a long-term goal, achieving common prosperity will take time. We cannot expect to accomplish it overnight. We must have a full picture of the long-term, complex, and onerous nature of this goal, and recognize that to realize it we can neither wait around nor be too hasty. Some developed countries began industrializing centuries ago, yet as a result of deficiencies in their social systems, they have not only failed to crack the problem of common prosperity, but are facing increasingly severe disparity between rich and poor. We must therefore be patient, and work one step at a time to ensure that our efforts produce concrete results. While making solid progress in building Zhejiang Province into a demonstration zone for common prosperity, we must also encourage other areas to explore effective paths tailored to their own conditions. We will draw together experience, and then gradually apply it in other areas.

总的思路是,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,在高质量发展中促进共同富裕,正确处理效率和公平的关系,构建初次分配、再分配、三次分配协调配套的基础性制度安排,加大税收、社保、转移支付等调节力度并提高精准性,扩大中等收入群体比重,增加低收入群体收入,合理调节高收入,取缔非法收入,形成中间大、两头小的橄榄型分配结构,促进社会公平正义,促进人的全面发展,使全体人民朝着共同富裕目标扎实迈进。

Our general guidelines in this regard are to adhere to the people-centered philosophy of development, promote common prosperity through high-quality development, and properly balance the relationship between equity and efficiency. We should establish basic institutional arrangements enabling coordination and complementarity between the primary, secondary, and tertiary distribution. We should intensify our efforts to regulate distribution through taxation, social insurance, and transfer payments while also working to make these efforts more precise. This will help us expand the relative size of the middle-income group, raise incomes among low-income earners, properly adjust excessive incomes, and prohibit illicit income, creating an olive-shaped distribution structure that is larger in the middle and smaller at each end. By doing so, we will be able to promote social fairness and justice and people’s well-rounded development, and make solid strides toward the goal of common prosperity for all.

To achieve this goal, we will focus our efforts on the following six areas:

第一,提高发展的平衡性、协调性、包容性。要加快完善社会主义市场经济体制,推动发展更平衡、更协调、更包容。要增强区域发展的平衡性,实施区域重大战略和区域协调发展战略,健全转移支付制度,缩小区域人均财政支出差异,加大对欠发达地区的支持力度。要强化行业发展的协调性,加快垄断行业改革,推动金融、房地产同实体经济协调发展。要支持中小企业发展,构建大中小企业相互依存、相互促进的企业发展生态。

1. We will work to make our development more balanced, coordinated, and inclusive.

We will accelerate efforts to improve the socialist market economy, and promote more balanced, coordinated, and inclusive development. In order to make regional development more balanced, we will implement major regional strategies and coordinated regional development strategies, refine the transfer payments system, reduce gaps in per capita fiscal spending between regions, and increase support for underdeveloped areas. We will also work to boost coordination in development between different industries. To this end, we will expedite reform of monopoly industries and promote coordinated development between the real economy and the financial and real estate industries. Moreover, we will support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, and create an environment in which enterprises of all sizes develop in an inter-reliant and mutually reinforcing manner.

第二,着力扩大中等收入群体规模。要抓住重点、精准施策,推动更多低收入人群迈入中等收入行列。高校毕业生是有望进入中等收入群体的重要方面,要提高高等教育质量,做到学有专长、学有所用,帮助他们尽快适应社会发展需要。技术工人也是中等收入群体的重要组成部分,要加大技能人才培养力度,提高技术工人工资待遇,吸引更多高素质人才加入技术工人队伍。中小企业主和个体工商户是创业致富的重要群体,要改善营商环境,减轻税费负担,提供更多市场化的金融服务,帮助他们稳定经营、持续增收。进城农民工是中等收入群体的重要来源,要深化户籍制度改革,解决好农业转移人口随迁子女教育等问题,让他们安心进城,稳定就业。要适当提高公务员特别是基层一线公务员及国有企事业单位基层职工工资待遇。要增加城乡居民住房、农村土地、金融资产等各类财产性收入。

2. We will strive to expand the size of the middle-income group.

Focusing on key groups, we will take targeted measures to help more low-income earners enter the middle-income bracket. Graduates with higher education are an important source for populating the middle-income group. We must therefore raise the quality of higher education, seeing that students are able to acquire a specialty from schools and apply this specialty in practice. In this way, we will help graduates adapt to the needs of social development as quickly as possible. Technical workers also represent an important part of the middle-income group. With this in mind, we will step up training of skilled personnel and increase wages among technical workers in order to attract more high-caliber talent to join their ranks. Owners of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as self-employed people are part of an important group building wealth through entrepreneurship. To help them maintain steady business operations and enjoy sustained growth of income, we will improve the business environment, reduce tax burdens, and provide more market-based financial services. With regard to rural migrant workers, who constitute another important source of middle-income earners, we will deepen reform of the household registration system, and address problems related to education for children living with their parents who are from rural areas but now working in cities, helping them hold steady jobs and feel more at ease about living in the city. We will appropriately raise the pay packages of public servants, especially those working at the local level, as well as primary-level workers of state-owned enterprises and public institutions. Additional steps will be taken to boost income generated from urban and rural houses, rural land, and financial assets.

第三,促进基本公共服务均等化。低收入群体是促进共同富裕的重点帮扶保障人群。要加大普惠性人力资本投入,有效减轻困难家庭教育负担,提高低收入群众子女受教育水平。要完善养老和医疗保障体系,逐步缩小职工与居民、城市与农村的筹资和保障待遇差距,逐步提高城乡居民基本养老金水平。要完善兜底救助体系,加快缩小社会救助的城乡标准差异,逐步提高城乡最低生活保障水平,兜住基本生活底线。要完善住房供应和保障体系,坚持房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的定位,租购并举,因城施策,完善长租房政策,扩大保障性租赁住房供给,重点解决好新市民住房问题。

3. We will promote equitable access to basic public services.

Low-income groups are the key target of assistance and support in our efforts to promote common prosperity. We must increase investment in human capital that covers all groups, ease the education burden on families facing difficulty, and raise the education levels of children of low-income families. By refining the pension and medical insurance systems, we will narrow gaps in funding and benefits between working and non-working individuals, and between urban and rural residents step by step, and gradually increase basic pension benefits for rural and urban residents. We will improve the assistance system for basic needs, working faster to reduce disparities between urban and rural social assistance standards and gradually raising minimum subsistence allowances for both urban and rural residents in order to ensure that people’s basic needs are met. We will also take steps to improve the housing supply and support systems. Acting on the principle that houses are for living in rather than for speculation, we will encourage both renting and purchasing of housing, implement city-specific policies, refine policies for long-term rental housing, and increase the supply of government-subsidized rental housing. Priority will be given to addressing the demand for housing from new urban residents.

第四,加强对高收入的规范和调节。在依法保护合法收入的同时,要防止两极分化、消除分配不公。要合理调节过高收入,完善个人所得税制度,规范资本性所得管理。要积极稳妥推进房地产税立法和改革,做好试点工作。要加大消费环节税收调节力度,研究扩大消费税征收范围。要加强公益慈善事业规范管理,完善税收优惠政策,鼓励高收入人群和企业更多回报社会。要清理规范不合理收入,加大对垄断行业和国有企业的收入分配管理,整顿收入分配秩序,清理借改革之名变相增加高管收入等分配乱象。要坚决取缔非法收入,坚决遏制权钱交易,坚决打击内幕交易、操纵股市、财务造假、偷税漏税等获取非法收入行为。

4. We will adopt more rigorous measures to regulate high income.

While ensuring that legitimate income is protected in accordance with the law, we must also prevent polarization and eliminate unfair practices in distribution. We will regulate excessively high income in a reasonable manner, improve the personal income tax system, and standardize the management of capital gains. We will make active and prudent efforts to advance real estate tax legislation and reform, and carry out trials in this regard. We will enlarge the role of consumption-based taxes in regulating distribution, and look into expanding the scope of excise taxation. We will strengthen standardized management over public interest and charitable endeavors, and improve preferential tax policies in order to encourage high-income groups and enterprises to give more back to society. We will put unreasonable incomes in check, and intensify efforts to regulate income distribution in monopoly industries and state-owned enterprises. In particular, we will rectify abnormalities such as increasing executive incomes under the guise of reform so as to set income distribution straight. We will strictly prohibit unlawful income, take determined steps to stop influence peddling, and crack down on methods of obtaining illegal income including insider dealing, stock market manipulation, financial fraud, and tax evasion.

经过多年探索,我们对解决贫困问题有了完整的办法,但在如何致富问题上还要探索积累经验。要保护产权和知识产权,保护合法致富。要坚决反对资本无序扩张,对敏感领域准入划出负面清单,加强反垄断监管。同时,也要调动企业家积极性,促进各类资本规范健康发展。

After years of experiment, we have developed a complete package of measures to tackle poverty, but we still need to build up experience on how to achieve prosperity. We will strengthen protection of property rights and intellectual property rights, and ensure that legitimate activities to acquire wealth are protected. We must firmly oppose disorderly expansion of capital, establish negative lists for access to sensitive fields, and intensify anti-monopoly oversight. Meanwhile, we must energize entrepreneurs, and promote sound and well-regulated development of all types of capital.

第五,促进人民精神生活共同富裕。促进共同富裕与促进人的全面发展是高度统一的。要强化社会主义核心价值观引领,加强爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义教育,发展公共文化事业,完善公共文化服务体系,不断满足人民群众多样化、多层次、多方面的精神文化需求。要加强促进共同富裕舆论引导,澄清各种模糊认识,防止急于求成和畏难情绪,为促进共同富裕提供良好舆论环境。

5. We will strive to achieve common prosperity also in a non-material sense.

Bringing prosperity to all is highly integrated with our efforts to promote well-rounded human development. We must reinforce the guiding role of core socialist values, and strengthen education on patriotism, collectivism, and socialism. By developing public cultural undertakings and improving the public cultural service system, we will continue to satisfy people’s diverse, multileveled, and multifaceted demands in the intellectual and cultural sphere. We must also do better at guiding discourse on the push for common prosperity, clear up confusion among people with a lack of solid understanding, and ensure that people are not too eager for quick results or afraid of facing challenges, thereby cultivating a favorable environment of public opinion for advancing common prosperity.

第六,促进农民农村共同富裕。促进共同富裕,最艰巨最繁重的任务仍然在农村。农村共同富裕工作要抓紧,但不宜像脱贫攻坚那样提出统一的量化指标。要巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果,对易返贫致贫人口要加强监测、及早干预,对脱贫县要扶上马送一程,确保不发生规模性返贫和新的致贫。要全面推进乡村振兴,加快农业产业化,盘活农村资产,增加农民财产性收入,使更多农村居民勤劳致富。要加强农村基础设施和公共服务体系建设,改善农村人居环境。

6. We will bring common prosperity to rural areas and rural residents.

The most arduous and formidable tasks in advancing common prosperity still lie in rural areas. While we need to press ahead with common prosperity in rural areas, it is inadvisable to quantify targets like we did in the poverty alleviation campaign. We will consolidate and build upon the success we achieved in the fight against poverty. In doing so, we will strengthen monitoring over people at risk of lapsing or relapsing into poverty, and be prepared to take quick action to help them if needed. We will also continue to give a leg up to counties that have been lifted out of poverty so as to guard against new poverty or large-scale relapse into poverty. We must make all-round efforts to implement the rural revitalization strategy. For instance, we will accelerate agricultural industrialization, put rural assets to use, and increase the property income of rural residents, thereby helping them become prosperous through hard work. We will boost development of rural infrastructure and public service systems, and improve the living environment in rural areas.

我总的认为,像全面建成小康社会一样,全体人民共同富裕是一个总体概念,是对全社会而言的,不要分成城市一块、农村一块,或者东部、中部、西部地区各一块,各提各的指标,要从全局上来看。我们要实现14亿人共同富裕,必须脚踏实地、久久为功,不是所有人都同时富裕,也不是所有地区同时达到一个富裕水准,不同人群不仅实现富裕的程度有高有低,时间上也会有先有后,不同地区富裕程度还会存在一定差异,不可能齐头并进。这是一个在动态中向前发展的过程,要持续推动,不断取得成效。

To sum up, I believe that achieving common prosperity is a holistic concept in the same vein as building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Common prosperity is a goal for all of society, and therefore we should not break it up into separate goals for urban and rural areas or for the eastern, central, and western regions. Instead, we should adopt an overall perspective. In order to achieve common prosperity for 1.4 billion people, we must put in persistent effort and maintain a realistic attitude. Our goal is neither to bring prosperity to everyone simultaneously, nor to see that regions reach a certain level of affluence all at the same time. Different groups of people vary not only in terms of the level of prosperity they can potentially achieve, but also the length of time they need to achieve it. Furthermore, it would be impossible to develop all regions at the same pace because of the gaps in wealth that still exist between them. This is a dynamic process of pushing ahead, and we must put in continuous effort to reap continuous results.

※这是习近平总书记2021年8月17日在中央财经委员会第十次会议上讲话的一部分。

(*This was an excerpt from General Secretary Xi Jinping’s speech at the 10th meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Commission on August 17, 2021.)


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