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强制疫苗接种与个人自由的平衡

发布者: 顾含爱学习 | 发布时间: 2021-11-22 14:42| 查看数: 76| 评论数: 1|

ON SEPTEMBER 11TH 2001, when al-Qaeda attacked America, almost 3,000 people died. In response the government overhauled national security and, for better or worse, struck a new balance between liberty and security. On the 20th anniversary of 9/11 roughly 3,100 people in America died because of covid-19. Another 3,100 died on September 12th. And again on the 13th.
2001年9月11日,基地组织袭击美国,造成近3000人死亡。美国政府彻底重整国家安全体系,无论好坏与否,自由和安全之间找到了新平衡。在9·11事件20周年当天,美国大约有3100人死于新冠肺炎,9月12日有3100人,13日死亡人数也是如此。

By our estimates, based on excess deaths, the pandemic has claimed 860,000 lives in America. Yet measures to curb the virus by mandating vaccination, which the Biden administration announced on September 9th, are being treated by senior Republicans as a terrifying affront to liberty. “This is still America,” tweeted Tate Reeves, the governor of Mississippi, “and we still believe in freedom from tyrants.” That is fatally wrong-headed. The details of the Biden mandate could be improved on, but in democracies public health sometimes requires some coercion.
加上额外的死亡人数,估计这场疫情造成美国86万人死亡。然而,拜登政府9月9日宣布强制接种疫苗来抑制新冠病毒,却被资深共和党人视为对自由的可怕侮辱。“这里依然是美国,”密西西比州州长塔特·里夫斯(Tate Reeves)在推特上说。“我们仍然相信免受暴君统治的自由。”这是个致命的错误。拜登的强制接种措施的细节可以改进,但在民主国家,公共卫生有时需要一些强制性。

Across the world, governments from France to Australia are using pressure of one sort or another to boost vaccination. That should be no surprise. Ever since vaccines were invented, the state has asked some people to be jabbed to keep viruses such as yellow fever at bay. The justification for this intrusion was set out by America’s Supreme Court as long ago as 1905: even if in most cases you are free to refuse treatment, you are not thereby free to infect other people.
在世界各地,无论是法国还是澳大利亚,各国政府都在用这样或那样的压力来推动疫苗接种。这应该不足为奇。自从疫苗发明以来,国家就要求一些人接种疫苗,以防止黄热病等病毒的传播。早在1905年,美国最高法院就为这种侵犯公民权利行为提供了正当性:即使在大多数情况下你有拒绝治疗的自由,你也不能因此拥有感染他人的自由。

The question is whether each country’s requirement is proportionate. That depends on the threat and the costs and benefits of pressure. The calculus differs from one place to another.
问题是:每个国家的要求是否恰当。这取决于病毒带来的威胁以及压力带来的成本和收益。计算方法因地而异。

What should not be in doubt is the danger posed by the Delta variant of covid-19. It is too infectious to be stopped simply by tracking cases. Vaccinated people, especially the elderly, gradually lose protection. If infected they can die, albeit at only one-tenth the rate of the unjabbed. Waves of infection overwhelm hospitals. Treating the unvaccinated cost $3.7bn in America, or $20,000 a patient, in August—a waste of resources.
毫无疑问的是,新冠病毒德尔塔变异毒株十分危险,传染性很强,仅靠追踪病例是无法阻止其传播的。接种疫苗的人,特别是老年人,慢慢失去保护。一旦感染,病患就会死亡,尽管他们的死亡率只有未被注射者的十分之一。一波又一波的感染让医院不堪重负。美国8月在治疗未接种疫苗的人上花费了37亿美元,相当于每个病人花费2万美元——这是一种资源浪费。

For all these reasons, your choice over vaccination is everyone’s business. It matters that only 63% of Americans aged over 12 have had two doses of a vaccine, compared with 76% of French and 85% of Danes. Delta’s rapid spread through the population can be slowed by vaccination, sparing hospitals from overload and protecting vulnerable vaccinated people—for instance, the residents of old-people’s homes.
由于这些原因,个人选择是否接种疫苗事关众人。重要的是,12岁以上的美国人中,只有63%的人接种过两剂疫苗,而法国和丹麦的这一比例分别为76%和85%。通过接种疫苗,可以减缓德尔塔病株在人群中快速传播,使医院免于超负荷,并保护脆弱的接种人群——例如,养老院的老人。

Academics worry that mandates merely sort the hesitant from the hardliners. You get a rapid increase in vaccination, but only to a level at or below what it would anyway have reached. One reason for this is that those convinced of a government plot see coercion as proof. That is why it is wise to keep punishments light and to offer free tests as an alternative to jabs—something the Biden plan fails to provide, but should.
有学者们担心强制接种令仅仅是将犹豫不打疫苗的人和强硬派区分开。最终结果将是接种疫苗的人数迅速增加,但只会达到或低于不发布强制接种的水平。一个原因是,那些相信政府阴谋论的人将强制接种视为阴谋论的证据。这就表现出明智的做法是减少惩罚,并提供免费测试来替代注射——这是拜登计划没有提供的,但应该提供的。

However, the evidence from France is more encouraging. In July, to much grumbling, the state required a vaccine passport or negative test for a range of activities, including visiting bars, restaurants, sports stadiums and shopping centres. A month later nearly 10m people had rushed to be vaccinated—and today the total share is 20 percentage points higher. Our World in Data reports that the share of French who say that they definitely will not be vaccinated fell from 35% in mid-June to 23% in mid-August, the most recent figures.
然而,来自法国的证据振奋人心。今年7月,法国要求在各类活动中,如去酒吧、餐馆、体育场和购物中心,必须持有疫苗护照或检测阴性,弄得怨声载道。一个月后,近1000万人急着接种疫苗,而今天这一比例高出了20个百分点。“Our World in Data”报告称,最新数据显示,称绝对不会接种疫苗的法国人的比例从6月中旬的35%下降到8月中旬的23%。

A survey of over 50 countries in August by Johns Hopkins, an American university, found that over half of unvaccinated respondents said they definitely or probably will not get a jab. Governments cannot rely on mandates alone to get them to change their mind. Instead they also need to focus on their country’s particular hang-ups: Turks doubt covid-19 vaccines will work, Czechs don’t like vaccines in general, Americans worry about side-effects. The one thing elected officials should not do is to reinforce vaccine hesitancy by falsely presenting all mandates as an attack on constitutional liberties.
美国约翰霍普金斯大学8月对50多个国家进行的一项调查发现,超过一半未接种疫苗的受访者表示,他们肯定或可能不会注射疫苗。政府不能仅仅依靠强制接种令改变他们的想法。相反,他们还需要关注自己国家的特殊问题:土耳其人怀疑新冠疫苗的效果,捷克人普遍不喜欢疫苗,美国人担心副作用。民主政府不应该做的就是,错误地将所有的强制接种令表现为对宪法规定的自由的攻击,这会使民众更加犹豫是否打疫苗。


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顾含爱学习 发表于 2021-11-23 10:01:57
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