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常用时态。

已有 38 次阅读2020-3-15 17:40 | 时态

一般现在时态:

1.    何时用?结构?

A.    经常的状态: 主语+ is \am\ are

B.    习惯的动作: 主语+ v. (动词)

C.    真理。主语+ is \am\ are, 主语+ v.(动词)

They are very bad.

They often cheat in the exams.

The earth is round.

The sun rises in the east.

2.    动词 :

主语+ v.(动词)

主语为非三单 + 动词原形

主语为三单 + 动词 s\es

He loves his girlfriend very much.

Jim and Lily walk to school every day.

They drink beer every night.

My dog watches TV at night.

3.    疑问?

He is an IT worker.

Is he an IT worker?

They drink beer every night.(非be动词借助do表疑问)

Do they drink beer every night?

He loves his girlfriend very much.

Does he love his girlfriend very much?

先看词性,再看人称

4.    否定?

He is an IT worker.

He isn’t an IT worker. (非be动词借助do表疑问)

They drink beer every night.

They don’t drink beer every night.

He loves his girlfriend very much.

He doesn’t love his girlfriend very much?

现在进行时态:

1.    何时用?结构:

此时此刻正在做。

主语+ is\am\are + doing

2.    动词?   动词+ing是现在分词,

1)一般+ing

2)以不发音 e 结尾, e +ing;

3)辅++辅(汉堡包结构),双写辅音字母+ing,

openinglisteningsharping外。

3.    一般疑问:

Is/Am/Are+ 主语+doing

Are they walking? No, they are not. They are running.

4.    否定句:

主语+ is/am/are+ not +doing

They are not walking. They are running.

现在完成时态:

1.何时用?

A.    截止现在已经完成;

B.    表示持续。

2.    结构:主语 + has\have + done

主语 + has\have + been+非动词

3.    动词?  动词+ed是过去分词。参见180页不规则。

1)    一般情况+ ed, call—called; air— aired

2)    以字母 e 结尾+ d, live—lived; love—loved

3)    以辅音字母+ y 结尾, y i +ed, try—tried; study—studied

4)    ++辅(汉堡包结构),将辅音字母双写+ed, stop—stopped.

我已经给房间通过风了。I have aired the room.

他已经看完这部电影了。He has watched the movie.

他们住在北京已经 10 年了。They have lived in Beijing for ten years.  表示住在北京已经持续十年,用现在完成。

4.    疑问句、否定句:

疑问句:have\ has 提前

否定句:have\ has + not

你已经给房间通过风了吗?Have you aired the room?

他已经看完这部电影了吗?Has he watched the movie?

他们住在北京 10 年了吗?Have they lived in Beijing for ten years?

你没有给房间通过风。You have not aired the room.

他没有看完这部电影了。He has not watched the movie.

他们没有住北京 10 .They have not lived in Beijing for ten years.

一般过去时态:

1.    何时用?结构:

过去经常的状态:主语+ was\were

过去习惯的动作:主语+ v.(动词过去式)

3.    动词?

1)    一般情况+ ed, call—called; air— aired

2)    以字母 e 结尾+ d, live—lived; love—loved

3)    以辅音字母+ y 结尾, y i +ed,

try—tried; study—studied

4) ++辅(汉堡包结构),将辅音字母双写+ed,   stop—stopped.

2010 年在美国学习。I studied in the US in 2010.

公车刚刚停下来了。The bus stopped just now.

4.    疑问句、否定句:

疑问句:was\were 提前

Did + 动词原型

否定句:was\were+ not

did not + 动词原型

过去进行时态:

1.    功能:过去某一时刻、时段正发生的动作

2.    结构:主语 + was\were + doing

She was doing her homework at 10:00 last night.

They were having a date from 7:00- 9:00 yesterday.

 

3. 疑问形式:was\ were 提前

She was doing her homework at 10:00 last night.

Was she doing her …?

4. 否定形式:was\were+ not

They were having a date from 7:00- 9:00 yesterday.

They were not having a date …

过去完成时态:

1.    功能:过去某一时刻之前发生的动作、状态

2.    结构:主语 + had + done

She had done her homework before 10:00 last night.

3.   疑问形式:

had 提前

He had left by the time I arrived.

Had he left by …?

4.    否定形式:

had + not

He had left by the time I arrived.

He had not left by the time I arrived.

一般将来时态:

1.    功能:表示计划、打算或即将要发生的事;

2.    结构:  主语 + is\am\are going to

主语 + will\shall+ v.  强调意愿

    你会迟到的。You will be late

演讲者将是我们的老朋友约翰。

    The speaker will be our old friendjohn

    明天天气晴好。

    It’s going to be fine tomorrow

3.    疑问句:will\is\am\are 提前

4.    否定句:will\ is\am\are+ not

    He will come on time.

Will he come on time?

  

The woman is going to talk to you.

Is the woman going to talk to you?

   

He will show his true colors someday.

Will he show…?

You will be late.

You will not be late

   

The woman is going to talk to you.

The woman is not going to talk to you.

过去将来时态:

1.    功能:表示过去的计划、打算或即将发生的事;

2.    结构:  主语 +was/were+ going to

主语 + would+ v.   will的过去would

    那年他 20 岁了,三年后他是 23 岁。

He was 20 years old at that time. 

    In three years, he would be 23 years old.

    他昨天告诉我他会来北京的。

He told me he would come to Beijing.



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