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[TED] 【TED】两个美国的故事,他们在小店相撞

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发表于 2017-11-11 14:50:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



00:12

"Where are you from?" said the pale, tattooed man. "Where are you from?" It's September 21, 2001, 10 days after the worst attack on America since World War II. Everyone wonders about the next plane. People are looking for scapegoats. The president, the night before, pledges to "bring our enemies to justice or bring justice to our enemies."

00:52

And in the Dallas mini-mart, a Dallas mini-part surrounded by tire shops and strip joints a Bangladeshi immigrant works the register. Back home, Raisuddin Bhuiyan was a big man, an Air Force officer. But he dreamed of a fresh start in America. If he had to work briefly in a mini-mart to save up for I.T. classes and his wedding in two months, so be it.

01:27

Then, on September 21, that tattooed man enters the mart. He holds a shotgun. Raisuddin knows the drill: puts cash on the counter. This time, the man doesn't touch the money. "Where are you from?" he asks. "Excuse me?" Raisuddin answers. His accent betrays him. The tattooed man, a self-styled true American vigilante, shoots Raisuddin in revenge for 9/11. Raisuddin feels millions of bees stinging his face. In fact, dozens of scalding, birdshot pellets puncture his head.

02:22

Behind the counter, he lays in blood. He cups a hand over his forehead to keep in the brains on which he'd gambled everything. He recites verses from the Koran, begging his God to live. He senses he is dying.

02:45

He didn't die. His right eye left him. His fiancée left him. His landlord, the mini-mart owner, kicked him out. Soon he was homeless and 60,000 dollars in medical debt, including a fee for dialing for an ambulance. But Raisuddin lived.

03:12

And years later, he would ask what he could do to repay his God and become worthy of this second chance. He would come to believe, in fact, that this chance called for him to give a second chance to a man we might think deserved no chance at all.

03:35

Twelve years ago, I was a fresh graduate seeking my way in the world. Born in Ohio to Indian immigrants, I settled on the ultimate rebellion against my parents, moving to the country they had worked so damn hard to get out of. What I thought might be a six-month stint in Mumbai stretched to six years. I became a writer and found myself amid a magical story: the awakening of hope across much of the so-called Third World. Six years ago, I returned to America and realized something: The American Dream was thriving, but only in India. In America, not so much.

04:22

In fact, I observed that America was fracturing into two distinct societies: a republic of dreams and a republic of fears. And then, I stumbled onto this incredible tale of two lives and of these two Americas that brutally collided in that Dallas mini-mart. I knew at once I wanted to learn more, and eventually that I would write a book about them, for their story was the story of America's fracturing and of how it might be put back together.

04:58

After he was shot, Raisuddin's life grew no easier. The day after admitting him, the hospital discharged him. His right eye couldn't see. He couldn't speak. Metal peppered his face. But he had no insurance, so they bounced him. His family in Bangladesh begged him, "Come home." But he told them he had a dream to see about.

05:27

He found telemarketing work, then he became an Olive Garden waiter, because where better to get over his fear of white people than the Olive Garden? (Laughter) Now, as a devout Muslim, he refused alcohol, didn't touch the stuff. Then he learned that not selling it would slash his pay. So he reasoned, like a budding American pragmatist, "Well, God wouldn't want me to starve, would he?" And before long, in some months, Raisuddin was that Olive Garden's highest grossing alcohol pusher. He found a man who taught him database administration. He got part-time I.T. gigs. Eventually, he landed a six-figure job at a blue chip tech company in Dallas.

06:20

But as America began to work for Raisuddin, he avoided the classic error of the fortunate: assuming you're the rule, not the exception. In fact, he observed that many with the fortune of being born American were nonetheless trapped in lives that made second chances like his impossible. He saw it at the Olive Garden itself, where so many of his colleagues had childhood horror stories of family dysfunction, chaos, addiction, crime. He'd heard a similar tale about the man who shot him back when he attended his trial. The closer Raisuddin got to the America he had coveted from afar, the more he realized there was another, equally real, America that was stingier with second chances. The man who shot Raisuddin grew up in that stingier America.

07:25

From a distance, Mark Stroman was always the spark of parties, always making girls feel pretty. Always working, no matter what drugs or fights he'd had the night before. But he'd always wrestled with demons. He entered the world through the three gateways that doom so many young American men: bad parents, bad schools, bad prisons. His mother told him, regretfully, as a boy that she'd been just 50 dollars short of aborting him. Sometimes, that little boy would be at school, he'd suddenly pull a knife on his fellow classmates. Sometimes that same little boy would be at his grandparents', tenderly feeding horses. He was getting arrested before he shaved, first juvenile, then prison. He became a casual white supremacist and, like so many around him, a drug-addled and absent father. And then, before long, he found himself on death row, for in his 2001 counter-jihad, he had shot not one mini-mart clerk, but three. Only Raisuddin survived.

08:48

Strangely, death row was the first institution that left Stroman better. His old influences quit him. The people entering his life were virtuous and caring: pastors, journalists, European pen-pals. They listened to him, prayed with him, helped him question himself. And sent him on a journey of introspection and betterment. He finally faced the hatred that had defined his life. He read Viktor Frankl, the Holocaust survivor and regretted his swastika tattoos. He found God. Then one day in 2011, 10 years after his crimes, Stroman received news. One of the men he'd shot, the survivor, was fighting to save his life.

09:47

You see, late in 2009, eight years after that shooting, Raisuddin had gone on his own journey, a pilgrimage to Mecca. Amid its crowds, he felt immense gratitude, but also duty. He recalled promising God, as he lay dying in 2001, that if he lived, he would serve humanity all his days. Then, he'd gotten busy relaying the bricks of a life. Now it was time to pay his debts. And he decided, upon reflection, that his method of payment would be an intervention in the cycle of vengeance between the Muslim and Western worlds. And how would he intervene? By forgiving Stroman publicly in the name of Islam and its doctrine of mercy. And then suing the state of Texas and its governor Rick Perry to prevent them from executing Stroman, exactly like most people shot in the face do. (Laughter)

10:58

Yet Raisuddin's mercy was inspired not only by faith. A newly minted American citizen, he had come to believe that Stroman was the product of a hurting America that couldn't just be lethally injected away. That insight is what moved me to write my book "The True American." This immigrant begging America to be as merciful to a native son as it had been to an adopted one. In the mini-mart, all those years earlier, not just two men, but two Americas collided. An America that still dreams, still strives, still imagines that tomorrow can build on today, and an America that has resigned to fate, buckled under stress and chaos, lowered expectations, an ducked into the oldest of refuges: the tribal fellowship of one's own narrow kind. And it was Raisuddin, despite being a newcomer, despite being attacked, despite being homeless and traumatized, who belonged to that republic of dreams and Stroman who belonged to that other wounded country, despite being born with the privilege of a native white man.

12:20

I realized these men's stories formed an urgent parable about America. The country I am so proud to call my own wasn't living through a generalized decline as seen in Spain or Greece, where prospects were dimming for everyone. America is simultaneously the most and the least successful country in the industrialized world. Launching the world's best companies, even as record numbers of children go hungry. Seeing life-expectancy drop for large groups, even as it polishes the world's best hospitals. America today is a sprightly young body, hit by one of those strokes that sucks the life from one side, while leaving the other worryingly perfect.

13:17

On July 20, 2011, right after a sobbing Raisuddin testified in defense of Stroman's life, Stroman was killed by lethal injection by the state he so loved. Hours earlier, when Raisuddin still thought he could still save Stroman, the two men got to speak for the second time ever. Here is an excerpt from their phone call. Raisuddin: "Mark, you should know that I am praying for God, the most compassionate and gracious. I forgive you and I do not hate you. I never hated you." Stroman: "You are a remarkable person. Thank you from my heart. I love you, bro."

14:07

Even more amazingly, after the execution, Raisuddin reached out to Stroman's eldest daughter, Amber, an ex-convinct and an addict. and offered his help. "You may have lost a father," he told her, "but you've gained an uncle." He wanted her, too, to have a second chance.

14:32

If human history were a parade, America's float would be a neon shrine to second chances. But America, generous with second chances to the children of other lands, today grows miserly with first chances to the children of its own. America still dazzles at allowing anybody to become an American. But it is losing its luster at allowing every American to become a somebody.

15:07

Over the last decade, seven million foreigners gained American citizenship. Remarkable. In the meanwhile, how many Americans gained a place in the middle class? Actually, the net influx was negative. Go back further, and it's even more striking: Since the 60s, the middle class has shrunk by 20 percent, mainly because of the people tumbling out of it. And my reporting around the country tells me the problem is grimmer than simple inequality. What I observe is a pair of secessions from the unifying center of American life. An affluent secession of up, up and away, into elite enclaves of the educated and into a global matrix of work, money and connections, and an impoverished secession of down and out into disconnected, dead-end lives that the fortunate scarcely see.

16:07

And don't console yourself that you are the 99 percent. If you live near a Whole Foods, if no one in your family serves in the military, if you're paid by the year, not the hour, if most people you know finished college, if no one you know uses meth, if you married once and remain married, if you're not one of 65 million Americans with a criminal record -- if any or all of these things describe you, then accept the possibility that actually, you may not know what's going on and you may be part of the problem.

16:54

Other generations had to build a fresh society after slavery, pull through a depression, defeat fascism, freedom-ride in Mississippi. The moral challenge of my generation, I believe, is to reacquaint these two Americas, to choose union over secession once again. This ins't a problem we can tax or tax-cut away. It won't be solved by tweeting harder, building slicker apps, or starting one more artisanal coffee roasting service. It is a moral challenge that begs each of us in the flourishing America to take on the wilting America as our own, as Raisuddin tried to do.

17:44

Like him, we can make pilgrimages. And there, in Baltimore and Oregon and Appalachia, find new purpose, as he did. We can immerse ourselves in that other country, bear witness to its hopes and sorrows, and, like Raisuddin, ask what we can do. What can you do? What can you do? What can we do? How might we build a more merciful country?

18:18

We, the greatest inventors in the world, can invent solutions to the problems of that America, not only our own. We, the writers and the journalists, can cover that America's stories, instead of shutting down bureaus in its midst. We can finance that America's ideas, instead of ideas from New York and San Francisco. We can put our stethoscopes to its backs, teach there, go to court there, make there, live there, pray there.

18:50

This, I believe, is the calling of a generation. An America whose two halves learn again to stride, to plow, to forge, to dare together. A republic of chances, rewoven, renewed, begins with us.

19:15

Thank you.

00:12

“你从哪儿来的?“ 那个脸色苍白,带有纹身的男人问道。 ”你从哪儿来的?“ 这是二零零一年,九月二十一日, 是美国在二战后受到的最严重袭击之后的 第十天。 每个人都怀疑会不会有下一架飞机。 人们在寻找替罪羊。 总统在前一个晚上宣誓 “把我们的敌人绳之以法 或者用正义感召我们的敌人。“

00:52

在达拉斯的一个小店, 这个小店的周围 有车胎商店和脱衣舞厅。 一个孟加拉国移民在 收款处工作, 在家乡,Raisuddin Bhuiyan 是一个 魁梧的男人,曾是一个空军军官, 但他梦想在美国有一个新的开始。 他只是想在小杂货店暂时工作,为I.T课程 和两个月后的婚礼存下一些钱,就是这样。

01:27

然而,在九月二十一日, 那个纹身的男人走进了杂货店。 他举着一把猎枪。 Raisuddin知道该怎么做: 他把现款放到了柜台上。 这一次,这个男人对钱不感兴趣。 “你从哪儿来的?”他问道。 “对不起?” Raisuddin 回答说。 他的口音出卖了他。 纹身的男人,自愿的 美国民间复仇者, 为了911复仇而向Raisuddin射击。 Raisuddin感觉有上百万个蜜蜂 在咬噬他的脸。 事实上,是几十片滚烫的 弹珠粒射入了他的头里。

02:22

在柜台后面,他倒入了血泊中。 他的一只手罩在前额, 想起他为之孤注一掷的一切。 他背诵可兰经的片段, 祈求他的上帝让他活着。 他意识到自己正在死亡。

02:45

但他并没有死去。 他失去了右眼, 他的未婚妻离开了他。 他的雇主,杂货店的主人 解雇了他。 不久他就变成一个无家可归的人 而且有6万美元的医疗债务, 还包括叫救护车的费用。 但 Raisuddin活了下来。

03:12

几年以后,他开始问自己 怎样去回报他的上帝, 并且让这个重生的机会变得更有价值。 事实上,他开始相信 这个机会是让他 给另一个我们认为 不值得再有机会的人一个重生的机会。

03:35

十二年以后, 我是一个初出茅庐的 研究生,在这个世上寻找我的道路。 我在俄亥俄的印度移民中出生, 我对父母的一套由衷地反感, 搬到了他们劳心费力离开的国度。 我原以为只是在孟买六个月的暂留, 却延长到了六年。 我成为一个作家而且发现自己 置身于一个神奇的故事中: 来唤醒被称为第三世界的希望。 六年前,我回到美国并且意识道一些事: 美国梦非常兴旺, 但只是在印度。 在美国,却并非如此。

04:22

实际上,我观察到美国正在破裂 成两个显著的社团: 一个梦想的共和国 和一个忧患的共和国。 而后我碰巧遇上了这两个人 的令人不可思议的故事 这两个美国人在达拉斯小杂货店 残酷地相撞, 我立刻知道我想了解更多的情形。 最终我会写一本有关于他们的书, 因为他们的故事是美国破裂的见证, 并且该如何在让它完整起来。

04:58

在Raisuddin被射击后,他的生活 更艰难了。 医院在第二天就让他出去, 她的右眼看不见, 他还不能说话。 金属灼烧了他的脸。 但他没有医疗保险,于是他们 拒绝了他。 他的远在孟加拉国的家人求他“回家” 但他告诉他们他要实现他的梦想。

05:27

他找到了电话营销工作, 后来他又做了橄榄花园餐厅的服务生, 因为让他结束对白种人的恐惧, 还有比橄榄花园更好的地方吗? (笑声)翻译解释:橄榄花园餐厅是 美国连锁意大利餐馆,以中产阶级白人为顾客。 作为一个虔诚的穆斯林,他拒绝酒精饮品, 从不接触那玩意儿。 但他后来得知不卖酒会减少他的收入。 于是他做了让步,像美国实用主义的萌芽, “嗯,上帝不想让我挨饿,是吗?” 不久,在某些月份,Raisuddin 成为橄榄花园餐厅 酒精销售总额最高的服务生。 他找到了一个男人教他数据库管理。 他有了一份I.T半工兼职。 最终,他在达拉斯一家蓝筹股 公司找到一份6位数字的工作。

06:20

但是当美国开始成全Raisuddin时, 他避免了幸运的古典错误: 设想你就是规则,而不是例外。 事实上,他观察到 很多幸运的生而为美国人的人们 尽管被困在生活中,但却 不可能取得像他一样的第二次机会。 他在橄榄花园餐厅看到了这种情况。 很多他一起工作的同事有着很可怕的童年 因为家庭的破灭,混乱,沉溺,犯罪。 他参加审判的时候 听到那个射击他的男人有相似的故事. Raisuddin 越接近到他从远方觊觎的美国, 他越意识到一个同样真实的美国 吝啬给予它的第二次机会。 射击Raisuddin的男人 成长在一个单亲家庭。

07:25

从外面看来,马克.斯托曼总是 派对上的闪光, 总是让他的女孩们觉得自己很漂亮。 他总是在工作,不管在前一天晚上 用过什么药物或者打过架。 然而他总是跟魔鬼在赌博。 他走进了使很多年轻的 美国人失败的三扇门: 不负责任的父母,坏学校,坏监狱。 他的母亲很懊悔地告诉还是小男孩的他, 她只是缺少50块钱才没有打掉他。 有时,那个小男孩在学校 会突然对着他的同学抽出一把刀, 而有时同样的这个男孩 会在他的祖父母那里 温柔地喂马。 在他开始剔毛之前, 还是少年,就去了监狱 他变成了一个随意的白人至上主义者。 跟他周围的人一样, 没有父亲,滥用毒品。 不久,他发现他自己在死囚牢房。 因为他2001年的反异教徒,他 不是射杀了一个杂货店的收银员, 而是三个。 只有Raisuddin存活下来。

08:48

奇怪的是,死囚牢房是 让斯托曼变好的第一个学校。 旧有的影响离开了他, 善意和关心的人们进入了他的生命: 牧师,杂志作家,欧洲的笔友, 他们听他诉说,与他一同祷告, 教他反思。 并且送给他反思和改造的杂志。 他最终面对成就他一生的仇恨 他读了维克托.弗兰克尔的 《大屠杀幸存者》 并且悔恨他的卍纹身, 他找到了上帝。 在2011年,在他犯罪的十年以后, 斯托曼收到消息。 一个被他射杀的男人,那名幸存者 在努力拯救他的生命。

09:47

你看,在2009年,在射杀事件的八年之后, Raisuddin自己走上了去麦加朝圣的旅途。 置身于朝圣的人群中,他无比感激, 而且也感到肩负重任。 他回想起2001年当他濒临死亡时 面对上帝许下的诺言, 如果他活着,他一生要为人类服务。 然后他忙于构建人生, 现在就是他向上帝付清他欠款的时候。 经过深思熟虑,他决定他的付出方式 是介入穆斯林和西方之间 复仇的怪圈。 他怎么做呢? 以以色列的名字和它的仁慈 公开地宽恕斯托曼 然后起诉得克萨斯州及 州长里克•佩里 来阻止他们执行斯托曼死刑, 就像大多数的 在脸上遭到枪击的人一样。 (笑声)

10:58

虽然Raisuddin的仁慈不只是 从上帝而来的启示, 作为一个崭新的美国公民, 他已经开始相信斯托曼 是美国创伤的产物,并非 一针致死注射能带走的。 他的慧眼感动了我,让我想写 “真正的美国人“ 一书。 这位移民恳求美国 对待本国的孩子 要像对外来的移民一样仁慈。 早在这些年以前,在小杂货店, 不只是两个男人,而是两个美国的相撞。 一个美国依然有梦,依然努力, 依然想着明天能够建筑在今天之上, 而另一个美国却引咎于命运, 在压力,混乱,无所期待的捆绑下, 躲进古老的避难所: 部落联合的狭隘思想, 而Raisuddin,不只是一个新来者, 尽管被攻击, 尽管是无家可归和心怀创伤的, 但他属于他那个共和的梦想, 而斯托曼却属于另一个受伤的国度, 尽管他来自具有优越感的本土白人。

12:20

我意识到这些男人的故事 形成了一个关于美国的比喻。 那个我如此自豪称为我自己的祖国 没有经过一般 在西班牙和希腊所见到的萧条, 在那儿每个人都前景黯淡。 美国在工业化的世界 是一个最成功,同时也是 最失败的国家。 具有世界上最好的公司, 同样有许多孩子在挨饿。 看得见预期寿命在广大群体的下降, 却也同样有标榜世界上最好的医院。 美国的今天是活泼的年轻的身体, 却遭受了一记重击,让生命从一边溜走, 从而留下另一边尽管完美,却让人忧虑。

13:17

二 零一一年,七月二十日, 在哭诉之后,Raisuddin 作证为斯托曼的生命辩护, 斯托曼在他热爱的州被执行了致死注射, 几个小时之前,当Raisuddin 依然 在思考他能救下斯托曼, 两个男人有了第二次的谈话。 这是他们电话的摘录。 Raisuddin:“马克,你该知道 我正在向最热忱和最荣耀的主祷告。 我原谅你,我不恨你。 我从来都没有恨过你。“ 斯托曼:“你是一个杰出的男人。 我从心底感谢你, 我爱你,兄弟。”

14:07

更令人惊奇的是,在死刑后, Raisuddin找到斯托曼的 有过定罪前科,而且是个瘾君子大女儿,安泊, 要求帮助她。 “你也许失去了一个父亲,” 他对她说, “但是你得到了一个叔叔。” 他希望她也有第二次机会。

14:32

如果人类历史是一次游行, 美国的花车是一个 崭新闪亮的第二次机会。 但是美国,慷慨地把第二次机会 给了从其他国土来的孩子, 但吝啬地只给他自己的孩子一次机会。 美国还是招摇地允许任何人变成美国公民。 但他失去了让任何一个美国人都成功的光亮。

15:07

过去十年,七百万外国人获得了美国公民。 非常好。 而同时,有多少美国人 挤上了中产阶级的班车? 事实上,净流入是负值。 再往前回顾一下会更 令人吃惊。 从六十年代起,中产阶级 缩小了百分之二十, 主要是人们达不到那个水平 我所有的关于这个国家的报告 告诉我 问题比简单的不平等更严峻。 我观察到的是美国生活的两个分裂体系, 一个是高高在上的富裕体系, 汇集了受过教育的精英阶层, 进入全球的关于工作,金钱和人脉的矩阵, 和一个贫穷的分裂 潦倒的体系 在自生自灭,穷途末路的生活里 看不到任何幸运。

16:07

不要安慰你自己你是那个百分之九十九。 如果你住得离“大千超市”很近, 如果你家没人在军队, 你不是按小时付薪而是按年付薪的话, 如果你认识的大多数人都完成了大学课程, 如果你认识的人中没人使用甲基毒品, 如果你只结婚一次而且依然在婚姻之中, 如果你不是六千五百万的具有犯罪 记录的美国人之一- 如果上述所有的事情都符合你, 那么接受这样一种可能性, 你实际上可能根本不知道到底发生了什么, 你也许就是这问题中的一部分。

16:54

以前的几代人不得不 在奴隶之后建立一个新的社会, 从萧条中走出,反击法西斯 自由飘荡在密西西比。 我相信在我这一代人中,道德的挑战 是重新融合这两种美国人, 再一次选择联合而不是分裂。 这不是我们能够用税收 或者减少税收能解决的问题。 它不能够以多用推特 或建立更完美的软件而解决, 或启动一个 手工咖啡烘焙服务能解决的。 这是一个道德挑战需要我们每个人 在美国的蓬勃发展中 像Raisuddin努力所做的一样 把凋零的美国当作我们的责任。

17:44

像他一样,我们能做一次朝圣。 在巴尔的摩,俄勒冈 和阿巴拉契亚地区, 发现新的目标,就像他一样 我们可以投身于那样的异国, 见证了它的希望和悲伤, 并且像Raisuddin一样, 问问我们自己能做什么。 你能做什么? 你能做什么? 我们能做什么? 我们如何建立一个更仁慈的国家?

18:18

我们,世界最伟大的发明者, 能够发明解决美国问题的办法, 不只是对我们自己的。 我们这些作家和杂志作者 能够讲述美国的故事, 而不是身在其中,却做个局外人。 我们可以资助美国的梦想, 而不必采纳纽约或旧金山的主意, 我们就能够针砭时弊, 说教,上法庭,在那儿居住,祈祷。

18:50

我相信,这就是召唤 美国两个分开的一代重组 去一起奋斗,耕耘,开拓, 冒险。 一个重新编织,更新的共和的机会 就从我们开始。

19:15

感谢大家

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