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[初中] 【初中】英语人教版必修1单词/短语/句型/语法汇总!

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发表于 2017-10-26 11:00:08 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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【重点单词/短语】

1. add up合计

2. upsetvt&vi弄翻,使…不安,使心烦,扰乱

adj.心烦意乱的,不舒服的,不适的,难过的.

3. ignore不理睬、忽视

4. calm (使)平静、(使)镇定

calm down 平静/镇定下来

5. have got to 不得不、必须

6. concern (使)担忧、涉及、关系到

be concerned about…关心,挂念

7. go through 经历、经受

8. set down 记下、放下、登记

9. a series of一系列

10. on purpose 故意

11. in order to 为了……

12. at dusk 在黄昏时刻

13. face to face 面对面地

14. no longer/not…any longer 不再……

15. settle 安家、定居、停留

16. suffer 遭受、忍受、经历

17. suffer from 遭受、患病

18. recover 痊愈、恢复、重新获得

19. get/be tired of对……厌烦

20. pack 捆扎,包装/包裹

21. pack (sth) up 将(东西)装箱打包

22. get along with 与……相处

23. fall in love 爱上

24. disagree 不同意

25. join in 参加

【重点句型】

1. It was the first time in a year and a half that I had seen the night face to face. (从句时态用完成时)

这是我一年半以来第一次目睹夜晚。

2. I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature.(强调句)

我不知道这是不是因为我长久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。

3. I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself.

有一天晚上,我熬到11点半故意不睡觉,为的是独自好好看看月亮一次。

4. Your friend, who doesn’t work hard, asks you to help him cheat in the end-of-term exam.(非限制性定语从句)

你的一个朋友叫你在期末考试中帮他作弊,这个朋友平常不认真学习。

5.If you have some trouble (in) getting along with your friends, you can write to the editor and ask for advice.

如果你在和朋友的相处上有问题,你可以写信给编辑向他征求建议。

6. Add up your score and see how many points you can get.

把你的得分加起来,看看得了多少。

7. What he did has added to our difficulties.

他的所作所为增加了我们的困难。

8. His income adds up to $1000 a month.

他每月的收入共计1000美元。

9. It's no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced.

观看这些已不再是乐趣,因为大自然是你必须体验的。

10. Why is she so concerned about his attitude to her work?

她为什么那么关注他对她的工作的看法?

11. The police asked him to set down what he had seen in a report.

警察让他在报告中写下他所看见的事情。

12. As I was about to go out and search for him, he happened to come in.

正当我打算出去找他时,他恰巧进来。

13. Mr. Jones lives alone and often feels lonely.

琼斯先生单独一人生活,常常感到孤独。

14. We tried to calm him down, but he kept crying.

我们试图让他平静下来,但他仍不停地哭着。

15. Does he dare (to) go out at night in such stormy weather?

他敢在这样一个暴风雨夜外出吗?

16. He would go through fire and water for his country.

他愿为国家赴汤蹈火。

17. That country suffered a heavy loss in the flood.

那个国家在水灾中遭受严重的损失。

语法总结】

直接引语和间接引语(一)

直接引语:直接引述别人的原话。一般前后要加引号。

间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话。间接引语在多数情况下可构成宾语从句且不要加引号。

例: Mr. Black said, “ I’m busy.”

Mr. Black said that he was busy.

变化规则

1. 陈述句的变化规则

直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用连词that(可省略)引导,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语都要发生相应的变化。

(1)人称的变化——人称的变化主要是要理解句子的意思

例:1. He said, “ I like it very much.” → He said that he liked it very much.

2. He said to me, “I'v left my book in your room.”

→ He told me that he had left his book in my room.

(2)时态的变化



直接引语


间接引语


一般现在时


一般过去时


现在进行时


过去进行时


现在完成时


过去完成时


一般过去时


过去完成时


一般将来时


过去将来时


过去完成时


过去完成时


例:

“I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne.

→Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.

The boy said, “I’m using a knife.”

→ The boy said that he was using a knife.

▲注意:如果直接引语是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变,如:

He said, “Light travels much faster than sound.”

He said that light travels much faster than sound.

(3)指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化



直接引语


间接引语


this


that


these


those


now


then


ago


before/earlier


today


that day


yesterday


the day before


tomorrow


the next/following day


the day after tomorrow


In two day’s time


come


go


here


there


the day before yesterday


two days before/earlier


2. 疑问句的变化规则

如果直接引语是疑问句,变为间接引语时要把疑问句语序变为陈述句语序,句末用句号。

(1)一般疑问句:如果直接引语是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,谓语动词是say或said时,要改为 ask 或asked,原问句变为由if/whether 引导的宾语从句。

例:“Do you think a diary can become your friend?” the writer says.

→ The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend.

(2)特殊疑问句:如果间接引语是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,仍用原来的引导词,但疑问句要变为陈述句。

例:“What do you want?” he asked me.

→ He asked me what I wanted

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【重点单词/短语】

1. because of 因为、由于

2. come up 走近、上来、提出

3. actually 实际上、事实上

4. base 以…为基础,根基

5. at present 目前

6. make use of利用

7. such as 例如

8. command 命令、指令、掌握

9. request 请求、要求

10. play a part in 扮演一个角色

11. recognize 辨认出、承认、公认

12. straight 直接、挺直、笔直的

【重点句型】

1. World Englishes come from those countries where English plays an important role as a first or second language, either because of foreign rule or because of its special role as an international language.(定语从句)

世界英语来自那些以英语为第一或第二语言的国家,英语在这些国家起重要作用,或是因为外国的统治,或是因为其作为国际语言的特殊地位。

2. All languages change when cultures communicate with one another.

当不同的语言互相沟通时,所有的语言都会发生变化。

3. Actually, the English spoken between about AD 450 and 1150 was based more on German than present day English.

实际上,从公元450年到1150年,人们所说的英语更多的是以德语为基础的,而现代英语不是。

4. Would you please come up to my flat for a visit?

请到我的公寓里来坐坐,好吗?

5. Believe it or not, he cheated in the exams.

信不信由你,他在考试中作弊。

6. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English.

以英语作为母语的人,即使他们所讲的语言不尽相同,也可以互相交流。

7. Today the number of people learning English in China is larger than even before.

目前在中国学习英语的人数比以往任何时候都多。

8. It is the duty of a government to provide education for the children of its country. (it作形式主语)

政府的责任是为其国家的小孩提供教育。

9. Reading is one of the best ways of improving your vocabulary and usage.

阅读是帮助你改善词汇及其用法的最好方法之一。

10. Giving commands is less polite than making a request.

发号命令比发出请求粗鲁。

11. We asked her for directions and she told us to go round the corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks.

我们向她问路,她告诉我们往左边拐弯后直走两个街区。

12. He knows several languages, such as English, French and German.

他懂几种语言,例如英语、法语和德语。

【语法总结】

直接引语和间接引语(二)

3. 祈使句的变化规则

如果直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式,并根据句子意思在不定式前加上tell/ask/order等动词,如果祈使句是否定句,在不定式前面还要加上not。

例:The hostess said to us, “Please sit down.”

→ The hostess asked us to sit down.

He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.”

→ He told the boys not to make so much noise.

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【重点单词/短语】

1. transport 运输、运送

2. prefer 更喜欢

3. ever since从那以后

4. persuade 劝说

5. graduate 毕业、大学毕业生

6. finally 最后;终于

7. schedule 时间表;为某事安排时间

8. be fond of 喜欢

9. organize 组织;成立

10. care about 关心;忧虑;

11. change one’s mind 改变主意

12. journey 旅行、旅程

13. make up one’s mind 下决心

14. give in 投降;屈服

15. attitude 态度,看法

16. as usual 照常

17. reliable 可信赖的

18. at midnight 在午夜

【重点句型】

1. My sister and I have dreamed about cycling along the Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 我姐姐和我一直梦想要沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅行。

2. The man insisted that he didn’t steal anything and he (should) be set free at once. (陈述语气、虚拟语气)

这男人坚持自己没有偷东西,他坚持说他应该立刻被释放。

3. She gave me a determined look ?C the kind that said she wouldn’t change her mind.

她给了我一个坚定的眼神——这种眼神表明她是不会改变主意的。

4. He is so stubborn that no one can persuade him to do anything.

他是如此的固执以致没有人能说服他做任何事。

5. My sister doesn’t care about details.

我的姐姐是不会考虑细节的。

6. She is a determined woman. Once she determines to do something, she will do it well.

她是个意志坚强的人。如果她下决心做什么事,就一定要做好。

7. He recorded the important events ad his afterthoughts in his travel journal. 在旅行日记中,他记下了重大的事件及自己的想法。

8. I am not familiar with this city, because this is my first visit.

我对这个城市不熟悉,因为这是我的第一次来访。

9. I don’t think it is necessary for us to give in.

我认为我们没有必要让步。

10. The topics of a travel journal can be different from a diary, often including people, things, and events less familiar to readers.

游记的主题可以和日记不同,经常包括那些读者不太熟悉的人和事。

11. It was great fun to put up tents here.

在这儿搭帐篷真好玩。

【语法总结】

现在进行时表将来

表示在近期按计划或安排要发生的动作。

① 瞬时动词的进行时在任何情况下都表示将来含义。这些动词包括go , come , leave,arrive , return等。

I am leaving.

我将要离开了。

I am leaving tomorrow.

我将会明天离开。

② 持续动词的进行时,只有在有将来时间状语或将来语境的情况下才可以表示将来含义。

An American professor is giving a lecture this afternoon.

今天下午一位美国教授将要作报告。(将来含义)

An American professor is giving a lecture.

一个美国教授正在作报告。(进行含义)

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【重点单词/短语】

1. right away 立刻马上

2. burst 爆裂,爆发,突然破裂

3. as if 仿佛,好像

4. at an end 结束,

5. ruin 废墟 ,使破产

in ruins 严重受损,破败不堪

6. injure 损害,伤害

7. destroy 破坏,毁坏,消失

8. shock 震惊;震动,休克

9. rescue 援救,营救

10. trap 使陷入困境,陷阱

11. dig out 掘出,发现

12. bury 埋葬,掩埋,隐藏

13. a (great) number of大量的

【重点句型】

1. The number of people who were killed or injured in the earthquake reached more than 400,000.(定语从句)

死伤的人数达到40多万。

2. The army organized the rescue workers to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. (定语从句)

部队组织救援人员将受困的人们挖出来,将死者掩埋。

3. All hope was not lost. = Not all hope was lost.(部分否定)

不是所有的希望都破灭了。

4. None of us were allowed to go there.(全部否定)

我们全都不许去那里。

5. He rescued the man from drowning.

他救了一男子使之免遭溺毙。

6. An earthquake left the whole city in ruins.

地震过后,全城到处是残垣断壁。

7. I feel highly honoured by your trust.

得到你的信任,我感到非常荣幸。

8. Professor Yu organized his thoughts before giving the speech.

于教授在演讲之前组织了一下思路。

9. Many people took shelter from the rain in the department store.

许多人在百货公司里避雨。

10. It seemed that the world was at an end as the earthquake destroyed nearly everything.

世界似乎到了末日,因为地震几乎毁了一切。

11. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.

人们开始纳闷,这场灾难还会持续多久?

12. They used candles all the time instead of electricity.

他们一直用蜡烛,没有用电。

13. The one million people of the city, who thought little of these strange events, went to bed as usual that night.(非限制性定语从句)

这城市的一百万居民几乎都没有把这些奇怪的情况当一回事,当天晚上照常上床睡觉了。

14. We’d better prepare him for the bad news.

我们最好让他做好知道这个坏消息的心理准备。

15. The rubbish gave out a smelly gas.

垃圾发出一阵臭味。

【语法总结】

定语从句

1.定语从句基本概念

在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。

引导定语从句的词叫关系词。

被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。

2.定语从句的关系词

引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词。

常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose),as 等。

关系副词包括where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。

3.定语从句的分类

根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。

①限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去。例如:

Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.

任何有责任感的人都不会做这样的事。

②非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。例如:

The house,which we bought last month,is very nice.

这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的.

注意:非限定性定语从句中不能使用关系代词 that。

4.关系代词的用法

①that

that既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语,作宾语可省略。例如:

Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.

玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)

The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.

我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)

②which

which 用于指物,在句中作主语、宾语或表语,作宾语可省略。例如:

The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)

The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful.

我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)

③who, whom

who, whom 用于指人,who 用作主语和表语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom,也可省略。例如:

The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.

经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(who 作主语)

Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to?

正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(whom 作宾语)

④as

a.引导限定性定语从句时,指与先行词相似的人或物,必须用于 such/so...as...或 the same...as...结构中,例如:

Such people as were mentioned by him were honest.

被他提到的这样的人是诚实的。

Last term our maths teacher set so difficult an examination problem as none of us worked out.

上学期我们数学老师出了一道我们没有一个人会的数学题。

This is the same bag as I lost yesterday.

这是和我昨天买的包一样的包。

b.引导非限定性定语从句时,只能修饰句子,可置于被修饰句子后面、前面或主谓之间,翻译成“正如...那样”例如:

The earth moves around the sun, as we all know.

As we all know,The earth moves around the sun.

The earth, as we all know, moves around the sun

c.在非限制性定语从句中,which和as引导定语从句时的区别:

which引导的从句不能放在主句前,而as引导的从句则既可以放在主句前,也可以放在主句后,还可以放在主谓之间。

as和which都可以指代一个句子,但as有“正如”、“就像”之意,which则没有此含义。

as 引导的非限定定语从句只能修饰句子,which 引导的非限定性定语从句可以修饰句子,也可以修饰名词。

注意:

1. 当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who,whom, that,which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。例如:

This is the house in which we lived last year.

这是我们去年居住的房子。

Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.

请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。

2. 含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:

This is the person whom you are looking for.

这就是你要找的那个人。

3. 关系词只能用that的情况:

①先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

He was the first person that passed the exam.

他是第一个通过考试的人。

当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用关系代词who。

②被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop?

你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用关系代词who。

③先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

This is the same bike that I lost.

这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

注意: 当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用关系代词who。例如:

Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.

王华是我们学校唯一将会出席这个会议的人。

④先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that.例如:

I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.

我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。

⑤以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:

Who is the girl that is crying?

正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?

⑥主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:

There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom.

桌子上那本书是汤姆的。

4. 关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:

①先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.例如:

What’s that which is under the desk?

在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?

②关系代词前有介词时,用which,而不用that.例如:

This is the room in which he lives.

这是他居住的房间。

③引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that.例如:

Tom came back, which made us happy.

汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

5.关系副词的用法

1. when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。例如:

This was the time when he arrived.

这是他到达的时间。(when=at which)

2. where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。例如:

This is the place where he works.

这是他工作的地点。(where=at /in which)

3.why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。例如:

Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school.

没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。(why=for which)

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【重点单词/短语】

1. quality 质量,品质,性质

2. active 积极的,活跃的

3. devote 献身,专心于

4. out of work失业

5. vote 投票,选举

6. attack 进攻,攻击

7. as a matter of fact 事实上

8. equal 平等的

9. in trouble 在困难的处境中

10. turn to 求助于

11. lose heart 灰心

12. escape 逃脱,逃走,泄漏

13. educate 教育,训练

14. come to power 掌权,上台

15.beg 请求,祈求

16. reward报酬,奖金,奖赏

17. set up 设立,建立

18. be sentenced to 被判处(徒刑)

19. opinion 意见,看法

【重点句型】

1. After getting up, he always drinks a glass of water, which he believes is good for his health. (非限制性定语从句)

每天起床后,他都喝一杯水,他认为这对他的身体有好处。

2. The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. (定语从句)

过去30年来所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。

3. In his life, he has always tried to help those who are less fortunate than himself. (定语从句)

在他的一生中,他总是设法帮助那些比他不幸的人。

4. Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.(倒装句)

只有到这个时候我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。

5. Only some of the children seemed to have understood it.

似乎只有一部分孩子明白。

6. The school where I studied only two years was three kilometers away.

那所我仅仅读了两年的学校有三公里远。(定语从句)

7. The parts of town where they lived were places decided by white people.(过去分词作后置定语)

他们在城里的住宅区都是由白人决定的。

8. Before he came to power, he was once put in prison for years.

在掌权之前,他曾经坐了几年牢。

9. This was my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks.

这是我毕生为争取黑人的平等权利而斗争所得到的回报。

10. He was sentenced to three years in prison for stealing.

他因偷窃被判处三年监禁。

11. He set up a black law firm to help those poor black people.

他开设了一间黑人律师事务所帮助那些穷苦的黑人。

12. In 1963, I helped him blow up some government buildings.

在1963年,我帮助他炸毁了一些政府大楼。

13. My family could not continue to pay my school fee.

我的家庭无法继续支付我的学费。

14. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep.(虚拟语气)

在午餐的休息时间和晚上我们本应该睡觉的时候他教授我们。

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