英语家园

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

超棒的英语学习网站快速提高英语水平YY语音频道,免费学习本广告位招租

社区广播台

查看: 80|回复: 0
收起左侧

[TED] 【TED】环形铁路如何改变城市新面孔?

[复制链接]

汇报天数: 101 天

连续汇报: 2 天

[LV.6]常住居民II

积分排名 2

管理员

Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45

白雪公主管理员勋章

发表于 2017-10-11 12:48:50 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



00:12

This picture is from my metro card when I spent a year abroad in Paris in college in the mid-'90s. My friend says I look like a French anarchist --

00:25

But this is still what I see when I look in the mirror in the morning. Within a month of living in Paris, I'd lost 15 pounds and I was in the best shape of my life because I was eating fresh food and I was walking wherever I went.

00:38

Having grown up in suburban Atlanta, a region built largely by highways and automobiles and with a reputation as a poster child for sprawl, Paris fundamentally changed the way I understood the construction of the world around me, and I got obsessed with the role of infrastructure -- that it's not just the way to move people from point A to point B, it's not just the way to convey water or sewage or energy, but it's the foundation for our economy. It's the foundation for our social life and for our culture, and it really matters to the way that we live.

01:14

When I came home, I was instantly frustrated, stuck in traffic as I crossed the top end of our perimeter highway. Not only was I not moving a muscle, I had no social interaction with the hundreds of thousands of people that were hurtling past me, like me, with their eyes faced forward and their music blaring. I wondered if this was an inevitable outcome, or could we do something about it. Was it possible to transform this condition in Atlanta into the kind of place that I wanted to live in?

01:43

I went back to grad school in architecture and city planning, developed this interest in infrastructure, and in 1999 came up with an idea for my thesis project: the adaptation of an obsolete loop of old railroad circling downtown as a new infrastructure for urban revitalization. It was just an idea. I never thought we would actually build it. But I went to work at an architecture firm, and eventually talked to my coworkers about it, and they loved the idea. And as we started talking to more people about it, more people wanted to hear about it.

02:17

In the summer of 2001, we connected with Cathy Woolard, who was soon elected city council president. And we built a citywide vision around this idea: the Atlanta BeltLine, a 22-mile loop of transit and trails and transformation. I was doing two and three meetings a week for two and a half years, and so was Cathy and her staff and a handful of volunteers. Together, we built this amazing movement of people and ideas. It included community advocates who were used to fighting against things, but found the Atlanta BeltLine as something that they could fight for; developers who saw the opportunity to take advantage of a lot of new growth in the city; and dozens of nonprofit partners who saw their mission at least partly accomplished by the shared vision.

03:07

Now, usually these groups of people aren't at the same table wanting the same outcome. But there we were, and it was kind of weird, but it was really, really powerful. The people of Atlanta fell in love with a vision that was better than what they saw through their car windshields, and the people of Atlanta made it happen, and I guarantee you we would not be building it otherwise.

03:32

From the beginning, our coalition was diverse. People of all stripes were part of our story. People on the lower end of the economic spectrum loved it, too. They were just afraid they weren't going to be able to be there when it got built, that they'd be priced out. And we've all heard that kind of story before, right? But we promised that the Atlanta BeltLine would be different, and people took ownership of the idea, and they made it better than anything we ever imagined in the beginning, including significant subsidies for housing, new parks, art, an arboretum -- a list that continues to grow. And we put in place the organizations and agencies that were required to make it happen. And importantly, it is.

04:16

Now we're in the early stages of implementation, and it's working. The first mainline section of trail was opened in 2012, and it's already generated over three billion dollars of private-sector investment. But it's not only changing the physical form of the city, it's changing the way we think about the city, and what our expectations are for living there. About a month ago, I had to take my kids with me to the grocery store and they were complaining about it, because they didn't want to get in the car. They were saying, "Dad, if we have to go, can we at least ride our bikes?" And I said, "Of course we can. That's what people in Atlanta do. We ride our bikes to the grocery store."

05:03

Thank you, yeah.

05:05

Now, they don't know how ridiculous that is, but I do. And I also understand that their expectations for Atlanta are really powerful.

05:15

This kind of transformation is exactly like sprawl in the last century, the movement where our investment in highways and automobiles fundamentally changed American life. That wasn't some grand conspiracy. There were conspiracies within it, of course. But it was a cultural momentum. It was millions of people making millions of decisions over an extended period of time, that fundamentally changed not only the way that we build cities, but it changed our expectations for our lives. These changes were the foundations for urban sprawl. We didn't call it sprawl at that time. We called it the future. And it was. And we got all the highways and strip malls and cul-de-sacs we wanted.

05:59

It was a radical transformation, but it was built by a cultural momentum. So it's important to not separate the physical construction of the places we live from other things that are happening at that time. At that time, in the second half of the last century, science was curing disease and lifting us to the moon, and the sexual revolution was breaking down barriers, and the Civil Rights Movement began its march toward the fulfillment of our nation's promise. Television, entertainment, food, travel, business -- everything was changing, and both the public and private sectors were colluding to give us the lives we wanted. The Federal Highway Administration, for example, didn't exist before there were highways. Think about it.

06:46

Of course, today it's important to understand and acknowledge that those benefits accrued to some groups of people and not to others. It was not an equitable cultural momentum. But when we look today in wonder and disgust, maybe, at the metropolis sprawl before us, we wonder if we're stuck. Are we stuck with the legacy of that inequity? Are we stuck with this dystopian traffic hellscape? Are we stuck with rampant urban displacement, with environmental degradation? Are we stuck with social isolation or political polarization? Are these the inevitable and permanent outcomes? Or are they the result of our collective cultural decisions that we've made for ourselves? And if they are, can't we change them?

07:36

What I have learned from our experience in Atlanta is not an anomaly. Similar stories are playing out everywhere, where people are reclaiming not only old railroads, but also degraded urban waterways and obsolete roadways, reinventing all of the infrastructure in their lives. Whether here in New York or in Houston or Miami, Detroit, Philadelphia, Seoul, Hong Kong, Singapore, Toronto and Paris, cities big and small all over the world are reclaiming and reinventing this infrastructure for themselves, including the mother of all catalyst infrastructure projects, the Los Angeles River, the revitalization effort for which similarly started as a grassroots movement, has developed into a cultural momentum, and is now in the early stages of being transformed into some kind of life-affirming infrastructure again, this one with trails and parks and fishing and boating and community revitalization, and of course, water quality and flood control. It's already improving the lives of people. It's already changing the way the rest of us think about Los Angeles.

08:47

This is more than just infrastructure. We're building new lives for ourselves. It's a movement that includes local food, urban agriculture, craft beer, the maker movement, tech and design -- all of these things, early indicators of a really radical shift in the way we build cities. We're taking places like this and transforming them into this. And soon this.

09:15

And this is all exciting and good. We're changing the world for the better. Good for us! And it is awesome -- I mean that. But our history of sprawl, and from what we can already see with these catalyst projects today, we know and must remember that big changes like this don't usually benefit everyone. The market forces unleashed by this cultural momentum often include the seemingly unstoppable and inevitable cycle of rising taxes, prices and rents.

09:47

This is urgent. If we care, we have to stand up and speak out. This should be a call to action, because the answer can't be to not improve communities. The answer can't be to not build parks and transit and grocery stores. The answer can't be to hold communities down just to keep them affordable. But we do have to follow through and address the financial realities that we're facing. This is hard, and it won't happen on its own. We can do it, and I'm committed to this goal in Atlanta, to sticking up again for people who made it possible in the first place. We can't call it a success without them. I certainly can't, because the people I made commitments to all those years weren't abstract populations. They're my friends and neighbors. They're people that I love.

10:36

So even though it started as my graduate thesis and I'm working hard for 16 years with thousands of people to help make this thing come to life, I know and believe that who the BeltLine is being built for is just as important as whether it's built at all. Not just in Atlanta, but locally and globally, we have to understand this accountability to the people whose lives we are changing, because this is us. We are the lives we're talking about. These places aren't inevitable. The places we live aren't inevitable, and if we want something different, we just need to speak up. We have to ensure that change comes on our terms. And to do that, we have to participate actively in the process of shaping change.

11:22

Thank you.

00:12

这张照片 是我地铁卡上的证件照, 是九十年代中期我在巴黎, 大学游学一年时办的。 我的朋友说我看起来 像一名法国无政府主义者——

00:24

但是当我清晨照镜子的时候, 我眼中的自己依旧是这样的。 在巴黎生活了一个月, 我就瘦了15磅, 达到了迄今为止最好的身材, 因为我吃的是新鲜食物, 无论去哪里都步行。

00:38

我在亚特兰大的郊区长大, 那是一个布满了高速公路 和汽车的地区, 是当年城市扩张时期的示范区域。 巴黎彻底改变了我对于周围世界 构建的认知, 我从此开始迷恋上了 基础设施的所扮演的角色—— 它不仅仅是把人们 从一处送到另一处, 也不是只运输纯净水, 污水和能源, 而是我们经济的基石。 它是我们社会生活和文化的基础, 与我们的生活方式息息相关。

01:13

当我开车回家,被堵在 绕城公路路口的时候, 我感到十分沮丧。 不仅是因为我只能一动不动, 还因为当成千上万的 人们在身旁匆匆而过时, 与我没有任何交集, 他们都像我一样目视前方, 耳边充斥着聒噪的音乐。 我就想这是否是不可避免的结局, 或者我们能对此做些什么。 有没有可能把亚特兰大变成 我想生活的那种地方呢?

01:43

我回到了研究生学院 学习建筑和城市设计, 逐渐对于基础设施产生了兴趣, 在1999年为我的论文项目 想出了一个主意: 改建原来城市中心的 废旧环形铁路,

01:57

作为城市复苏的新型基础建设。 当时那只是一个设想。 我从来没有想过真的会实现。 但是在我去一家建筑公司上班后, 还是把这个想法讲给了同事们听, 他们喜欢这个想法。 当我们开始和 更多人分享这个想法时, 越来越多的人开始关注这件事。

02:17

在2001年的夏天, 我们在凯西・伍拉德成为 市议会主席的前夕,与她取得了联系。 我们就此想法建立了 一个城市级景观: 亚特兰大环线项目, 一个22英里长的 运输,通行和转换环形道路。 在长达两年半的时间里, 我每周都要开两三次会, 凯西和她的员工,还有 许多志愿者都是如此。 通过共同努力,我们发起了 这个无与伦比的人与理念的运动。 参与者包括社区中那些 总是发起抵制运动的人们, 为亚特兰大环线项目而奔走; 那些在项目中发现了 城市增长新契机的开发商们; 还有数十家非营利性 合作伙伴,他们在其中 发现了自身的使命, 至少是部分共同的愿景。

03:07

通常情况下,这些人无法共事, 期待的结果也不尽相同。 但是我们真的凝聚起来了, 虽然感觉有些古怪, 但这真的是一股强大的力量。 亚特兰大的人们爱上了那种愿景, 他们渴望在公路上行驶时 看到车外更好的风景, 是亚特兰大的人们 让这一切变为了现实, 我敢说,没有他们 我们根本做不到这些。

03:32

从一开始,我们的合作就是多样化的。 来自不同领域的人们都加入了其中。 生活在贫困线附近的人们 同样喜欢这个设计。 他们只是害怕到了建成的时候, 自己却无法享受便利, 会被高昂的地价拒之门外。 我们都听说过那样的故事,不是吗? 但是我们承诺 亚特兰大环线会有所不同, 还有那些想法的提出者们, 他们在一开始就让 这一切成为了超出想象的 好作品, 包括丰厚的住房补贴, 新公园,艺术性建筑,植物园—— 更多基础建设还在规划中。 我们得到了能让 这些设想得到实现的 相关组织和机构的支持。 重点是,必须做到这一点。

04:16

我们现在正处于工程的 早期阶段,效果还不错。 第一部分主线是于2012年开放使用的, 至今已经产生超过三十亿美元的 私营部门投资额。 但是,这不仅仅是改变了城市的外观, 也改变了我们对于城市的认知, 改变了我们对于生活的预期。 大约一个月以前的一天, 我需要带孩子们去杂货店, 他们对此很不满, 因为他们不想坐我的车去。 他们说,“爸爸,要是我们必须去, 那我们只骑车可以吗?” 然后我回答,“当然可以。” 亚特兰大的人们都这么做。 我们骑车去杂货店。”

05:03

谢谢,大概就是这样。

05:05

孩子们并不知道 这个想法有多不切实际, 但是我心里有数。 我同时也知道他们对于 亚特兰大的期待 是一股强大的推动力。

05:15

这样的转变和 上世纪的城市扩张运动 如出一辙, 在这项运动中我们投资建设的 高速公路和汽车 彻底改变了美国人的生活。 那并非是什么大阴谋。 当然,的确也包含部分小阴谋。 不过那是一种文化导向。 在很长的一段时间里,无数的人 做出的众多决定, 彻底的改变了 我们城市的建造格局, 和我们对于 生活的预期。 这些变化是城市扩张的基础。 在当时,我们并不把它称为城市扩张。 我们把它叫做未来。 事实也的确如此。 我们得到了梦寐以求的高速公路, 大型购物商场,还有死胡同。

05:59

那真是翻天覆地的变化, 但是是由文化导向所带来的。 所以说,居住场所的硬件设施 是与同时期的很多其他东西 密切相关的。 在那时, 上世纪后半叶, 科学正在治愈疾病, 把人类带往月球, 性别运动突破了障碍, 民权运动也开始向实现 国家承诺的方向迈进。 电视,娱乐,食物,旅游, 商务——一切都在变化着, 公共和私营部门共同谋划着, 给予了我们所向往的生活。 以美国联邦公路总署为例, 在高速公路出现前是不存在的。 想想看吧。

06:46

当然,今天能够理解并认识到 好处最后集中在了某些人头上 而不是另一些人,是很重要的。 那并不是一个平等的文化导向。 但今天,也许在我们用 惊讶和厌恶的目光 看待面前的城市扩张时, 就会思考我们是否陷入了僵局。 我们是否陷入了那种 历史的不平等格局中呢? 我们是否陷入了反乌托邦式的 交通炼狱中了呢? 是否陷入了猖獗的城市推移 和环境破坏中了呢? 是否陷入了社会孤立 或是政治极化当中了呢? 这些是否是不可避免的, 永恒的结局呢? 或者说,这些就是我们共同为自身 做出的文化抉择吗? 如果是的话, 我们能改变现状吗?

07:36

我在亚特兰大的经历, 并非是特例。 相似的故事在各地发生着, 人们重新利用的除了废旧的铁路, 还有退化的城市供水系统,过时的公路, 来重新设计他们生活中的 各种基础设施。 无论是在纽约, 或是休斯顿, 或是迈阿密、 底特律、费城、 首尔、香港、新加坡、 多伦多还有巴黎, 世界各地大大小小的城市, 都在回收并重新设计 他们自己的基础设施, 包括基础设施建设的首例, 洛杉矶河, 复兴运动也以相似的方式开始了。 开始时是草根运动, 并逐步发展为了文化导向。 现在我们正处于改造 基础设施的初期阶段, 这种积极基础设施包括了 小径,公园,垂钓,划船, 还有社区的复兴, 当然也包括了水质和食品监管。 它正在提高人们的生活水平。 它改变了我们其余的人 对于洛杉矶的认知。

08:47

这些不仅仅是基础设施。 我们是在为自身建立新生活。 这项运动包括了 地方食品,城市农业, 精酿啤酒,制造商运动, 科技与设计——所有的这些 都表明了我们在建设城市过程中 彻底性的改变。 我们正在把这样的地方, 变为这样的地方。 很快就会变成这样。

09:15

这听起来令人激动,的确很不错。 我们正在让世界变得更好。 这对我们来说是件好事。 这真的太棒了——我真心这么认为。 但是我们城市扩张的历史, 还有现存的一些示范性项目当中, 我们能看到,并且必须记得 并非每个人都能从 像这样的大变革中获益。 通过这种文化导向 而释放的市场势力 经常会包括那些看似难以阻挡的, 不可避免的税务, 物价和房租的上涨。

09:47

这是很紧迫的问题。 如果我们关心这个问题, 我们就必须挺身而出, 说出我们的想法。 这应该是一种行动的号召, 因为答案不可能是不去改进社区。 答案不可能是不去修建 公园,运输线和杂货店。 答案不可能是为了 让物价保持低水平 而让社区没落下去。 但是我们也必须跟进,强调 我们正面临着的 经济现状。 这很困难,它不会自己好转。 我们可以解决这个问题的, 我在亚特兰大一直致力于此。 坚持为了那些 使这一切成为可能的人们。 没有他们,这个项目就算不上成功。 我当然不能这么做, 因为这么多年来 我为那些人坚守承诺, 他们不仅仅只是抽象的人群。 他们是我的朋友,我的邻居。 他们是我爱的那些人

10:36

所以即使一开始,它只是 作为我研究生论文主题, 我与成千上万的人们一起合作, 努力了16年, 为了让这一切成为现实, 我知道并坚信 这个项目的受益人群 和建设环带项目本身 是同等重要的。 不仅仅是在亚特兰大, 而是在局部范围上,世界范围中, 我们必须明白我们对于 那些生活正在经历改变的人们的责任, 因为他们就是我们。 我们的生活就是正在被讨论的生活。 这样的环境并非不可避免。 我们生活的环境并非不可改变, 如果我们希望生活有所不同, 我们需要大声说出来。 我们必须确保改变是为我们发生的。 为了做到那一点, 我们就必须主动加入到 塑造改变的过程当中。

11:22

谢谢。

游客
请先登录
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

提示
随便
看看

精彩
图片

帖子
导读
英语家园公众微信
微信扫一扫
关注英语家园公众微信
快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表