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[TED] 【TED】为尚未拥有信用记录的人而生的智慧贷款

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汇报天数: 101 天

连续汇报: 2 天

[LV.6]常住居民II

积分排名 2

管理员

Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45

今日之星白雪公主管理员勋章

发表于 2017-9-11 15:51:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



00:12

How much do you need to know about a person before you'd feel comfortable making a loan?

00:17

Suppose you wanted to lend 1,000 dollars to the person sitting two rows behind you. What would you need to know about that person before you'd feel comfortable?

00:27

My mom came to the US from India in her late thirties. She's a doctor in Brooklyn, and she often lets friends and neighbors come to see her for health services, whether they can pay right away or not. I remember running into her patients with her at the grocery store or on the sidewalk, and sometimes they would come and pay her right on the spot for previous appointments. She would thank them, and ask them about their families and their health. She gave them credit because she trusted them.

00:56

Most of us are like my mom. We would give credit to someone we know or that we live next to. But most of us are probably not going to lend to a stranger unless we know a little something about them.

01:11

Banks, credit card companies and other financial institutions don't know us on a personal level, but they do have a way of trusting us, and that's through our credit scores. Our credit scores have been created through an aggregation and analysis of our public consumer credit data. And because of them, we have pretty much easy access to all of the goods and services that we need, from getting electricity to buying a home, or taking a risk and starting a business.

01:41

But ... there are 2.5 billion people around the world that don't have a credit score. That's a third of the world's population. They don't have a score because there are no formal public records on them -- no bank accounts, no credit histories and no social security numbers. And because they don't have a score, they don't have access to the credit or financial products that can improve their lives. They are not trusted.

02:14

So we wanted to find a way to build trust and to open up financial access for these 2.5 billion. So we created a mobile application that builds credit scores for them using mobile data. There are currently over one billion smartphones in emerging markets. And people are using them the same way that we do. They're texting their friends, they're looking up directions, they're browsing the Internet and they're even making financial transactions.

02:44

Over time, this data is getting captured on our phones, and it provides a really rich picture of a person's life. Our customers give us access to this data and we capture it through our mobile application. It helps us understand the creditworthiness of people like Jenipher, a small-business owner in Nairobi, Kenya. Jenipher is 65 years old, and for decades has been running a food stall in the central business district. She has three sons who she put through vocational school, and she's also the leader of her local chama, or savings group.

03:21

Jenipher's food stall does well. She makes just enough every day to cover her expenses. But she's not financially secure. Any emergency could force her into debt. And she has no discretionary income to improve her family's way of living, for emergencies, or for investing into growing her business. If Jenipher wants credit, her options are limited. She could get a microloan, but she'd have to form a group that could help vouch for her credibility. And even then, the loan sizes would be way too small to really have an impact on her business, averaging around 150 dollars. Loan sharks are always an option, but with interest rates that are well above 300 percent, they're financially risky. And because Jenipher doesn't have collateral or a credit history, she can't walk into a bank and ask for a business loan.

04:16

But one day, Jenipher's son convinced her to download our application and apply for a loan. Jenipher answered a few questions on her phone and she gave us access to a few key data points on her device.

04:30

And here's what we saw. So, bad news first. Jenipher had a low savings balance and no previous loan history. These are factors that would have thrown up a red flag to a traditional bank. But there were other points in her history that showed us a much richer picture of her potential. So for one, we saw that she made regular phone calls to her family in Uganda. Well, it turns out that the data shows a four percent increase in repayment among people who consistently communicate with a few close contacts. We could also see that though she traveled around a lot throughout the day, she actually had pretty regular travel patterns, and she was either at home or at her food stall. And the data shows a six percent increase in repayment among customers who are consistent with where they spend most of their time.

05:29

We could also see that she communicated a lot with many different people throughout the day and that she had a strong support network. Our data shows that people who communicate with more than 58 different contacts tend to be more likely to be good borrowers. In Jenipher's case, she communicated with 89 different individuals, which showed a nine percent increase in her repayment.

05:55

These are just some of the thousands of different data points that we look at to understand a person's creditworthiness. And after analyzing all of these different data points, we took the first risk and gave Jenipher a loan. This is data that would not be found on a paper trail or in any formal financial record. But it proves trust. By looking beyond income, we can see that people in emerging markets that may seem risky and unpredictable on the surface are actually willing and have the capacity to repay.

06:33

Our credit scores have helped us deliver over 200,000 loans in Kenya in just the past year. And our repayment rates are above 90 percent -- which, by the way, is in line with traditional bank repayment rates.

06:49

With something as simple as a credit score, we're giving people the power to build their own futures. Our customers have used their loans for family expenses, emergencies, travel and for investing back into growing their businesses. They're now building better economies and communities where more people can succeed.

07:12

Over the past two years of using our product, Jenipher has increased her savings by 60 percent. She's also started two additional food stalls and is now making plans for her own restaurant. She's applying for a small-business loan from a commercial bank, because she now has the credit history to prove she deserves it.

07:33

I saw Jenipher in Nairobi just last week, and she told me how excited she was to get started. She said, "Only my son believed I could do this. I didn't think this was for me." She's lived her whole life believing that there was a part of the world that was closed off to her.

07:55

Our job now is to open the world to Jenipher and the billions like her that deserve to be trusted.

08:03

Thank you.00:12

你需要多了解一个人 才能放心地借钱给他?

00:17

假设你想借出1000美金 给那个和你坐着隔着两行的人 你需要知道这个人的哪些信息 你才能感到放心呢?

00:27

我妈妈在她三十多岁 的时候从印度来到美国 她是布鲁克林的一名医生 她也经常为她的朋友 和邻居提供健康服务 不管他们能不能立刻付款 我记得有一次 和她在食品杂货店或者是在人行道上 遇到她的病人 有时他们会立刻向她付款 而且预约 她会向他们表示感谢 还问他们家庭和健康的情况 她借钱给他们是因为她相信他们

00:56

我们中的大多数就像我的妈妈 我们会借钱给我们认识的人 或是住在我们附近的人 但是我们中的多数人 不会借钱给陌生人 除非我们对他们有一定的了解

01:11

银行、信用卡公司和其它金融机构 不是在个人的层面了解我们 但他们有信任我们的一套方法 就是通过我们的信用评分 我们的信用评分 从对我们的消费者信贷资料 的整合和分析中产生 而且因为它,我们能更容易 获得我们需要的商品和服务 从用电到买房 到承担风险去开办公司

01:41

但是 世界上有25亿的人 没有信用评分 这就相当于世界人口的1/3 他们没有评分 是因为他们没有正式的公共记录 ——没有银行账号 没有信用记录 没有社保账号 而且因为他们没有信用评分 他们不能获得 可以提高他们生活品质 的贷款和金融产品 他们不被信任

02:14

所以我们想要探索方法去建立信用 让这25亿人获得各种金融产品 所以我们创造了一个手机应用 可以帮他们通过移动数据 建立信用评分 目前在新兴市场上有 超过10亿的智能手机 人们和我们一样在使用他们 他们也给朋友发短信 也看地图查方向 他们也浏览互联网 他们甚至进行金融转账

02:44

长久以来, 这些数据都存在我们的手机里 它能提供关于一个人生活的全面的图景 我们的顾客允许我们获得这些信息 我们通过手机应用获得它 它帮助我们了解 像肯尼亚内罗毕的小生意人— 詹妮弗的信誉度 詹妮弗现在65岁 经营一个 在中心商业区的食品摊位数十年 她把她的三个儿子都送到了职业学校 她也是当地协会和节能团队 的负责人

03:21

詹妮弗的食品摊位生意红火 她每天能赚足够一天开销的钱 但是她没有经济的保障 任何紧急情况的发生 都会让她陷入债务 而且她没有可以自由支配的收入 去提高她的家庭的生活水平 应对紧急状况 或者投资去扩展她的生意 假如詹妮弗想要贷款 她的选择也很有限 她可以申请微贷款 但是她一定要组织一个团队 来帮助保证她的可信度 而且即使如此, 她能贷款的额度也非常小 以至于不能真正改善她的生意 ——只有平均150美元 高利贷总是一个选择 但是他们的利息率在300%以上 这是经济上的冒险 而且因为詹妮弗 没有抵押或者信用记录 她不能到银行去申请商业贷款

04:16

但是一天 詹妮弗的儿子说服她 下载了我们的应用 并申请了一笔贷款 詹妮弗用她的手机回答了几个问题 并给了我们使用她手机上 几个关键数据的权限

04:30

这就是我们看到的 那么,先说坏消息 詹妮弗储蓄余额低 之前也没有贷款历史 他们是 传统银行拒绝贷款的原因 但是她的历史中有几点 向我们更全面地展示了她的潜能 第一点 我们看到她定期 给乌干达的家人打电话 数据显示 那些经常和亲密的联系人联系的人 偿还贷款的可能性要高4% 我们同时也能看到 虽然她一天会去到很多地方 她实际上有相对固定的路线 不是在家里就是在食品摊位 数据显示 生活路线规律的人 偿还贷款的可能性要高6%

05:29

我们也能看到 她一天和很多不同的人交流 也就是她有很强的支持网络 我们的数据显示 和超过58个不同的人联系的人 更容易是及时还款的贷款者 在詹妮弗的情况中 她和89个不同的联系人交流 她的偿还可能性又提高了9%

05:55

这只是上千个我们用来 了解一个人的信誉度的 不同数据中的一部分 在分析所有的数据之后 我们走出了第一步 向詹妮弗提供了贷款 这些数据不会体现在书面记录 或者其他形式的经济记录中 但它证明了信任 通过看收入以外的方面 我们发现在新兴市场中的人们 表面上看来有风险、不可预测 但实际上愿意而且有能力去偿还贷款

06:33

我们的信用评分帮助我们 仅仅在去年一年 在肯尼亚借出超过二十万笔贷款 我们的偿还贷款的比率在90%以上 ——也就是传统银行的偿还率

06:49

通过一些像信用评分一样简单的东西 我们给人们建设自己未来的能力 我们的顾客用贷款支付家庭开支、 紧急情况、旅游、 投资扩展自己的生意 他们正在建设更加繁荣的经济和社会 在这个社会中更多的人能取得成功

07:12

通过过去两年使用我们的产品 詹妮弗的存款增加了60% 她也开始了两个额外的食品摊位 而且正在计划开自己的餐馆 她正在从商业银行申请小企业贷款 因为她现在有了 能够证明自己的资格的信用历史

07:33

我上星期在内罗毕见到了詹妮弗 她告诉我她能着手准备有多激动 她说: “只有我儿子相信我能做到这些, 我都不相信这些都是为我准备的。” 她曾经以为一部分世界的大门 已经向她关闭了

07:55

我们的工作就是 向詹妮弗以及像她一样的 值得被信任的几十亿人口 打开世界的大门

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