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[TED] 【TED】大自然真奇妙,树木之间经常交流!

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汇报天数: 101 天

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[LV.6]常住居民II

积分排名 2

管理员

Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45Rank: 45

今日之星白雪公主管理员勋章

发表于 2017-9-9 23:39:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



Imagine you’re walking through a forest.

想象你正穿行在森林中。

I’m guessing you’re thinkingof a collection of trees,

我猜你想的是一大片树,

what we foresters call a stand,

我们林业工作者称之为“林分”,

with their rugged stemsand their beautiful crowns.

它们有着遒劲的枝干和美丽的树冠。

Yes, trees are the foundation of forests,

是的,树是森林的基础,

but a forest is much morethan what you see,

但是森林可比你看到的复杂多了,

and today I want to changethe way you think about forests.

而今天我想改变一下你们对森林的看法。

You see, undergroundthere is this other world,

你知道吗,森林的地下是另外一个世界,

a world of infinite biological pathways

一个拥有无限的生物通路的世界,

that connect treesand allow them to communicate

这些通路把树木连接起来,使得它们可以彼此沟通,

and allow the forest to behaveas though it’s a single organism.

也使森林表现得好像一个单独的有机体。

It might remind youof a sort of intelligence.

这可能会让你想到某种程度的智慧。

How do I know this?

我是怎么知道这些的呢?

Here’s my story.

来听听我的故事吧。

I grew up in the forestsof British Columbia.

我是在不列颠哥伦比亚省(加拿大)的森林中长大的。

I used to lay on the forest floorand stare up at the tree crowns.

那时我总喜欢躺在森林的地面上,向上望着那些树冠。

They were giants.

它们都是巨人。

My grandfather was a giant, too.

我的祖父也是个巨人。

He was a horse logger,

他是一名伐木工,

and he used to selectively cutcedar poles from the inland rainforest.

他以前曾在内陆雨林有选择性地砍伐杉木。

Grandpa taught me about the quietand cohesive ways of the woods,

爷爷教会我了解树木间安静而紧密连接的沟通方式,

and how my family was knit into it.

以及我们家族是如何融入其中的。

So I followed in grandpa’s footsteps.

所以我也追随了爷爷的脚步。

He and I had this curiosity about forests,

他和我都有关于森林的好奇心,

and my first big "aha" moment

我的第一次“顿悟”时刻

was at the outhouse by our lake.

是在我们湖边的外屋的时候。

Our poor dog Jigshad slipped and fallen into the pit.

我们可怜的狗吉格斯脚一滑跌进了一个坑里。

So grandpa ran up with his shovelto rescue the poor dog.

爷爷匆忙抄起一把铁铲,跑过去救那只可怜的狗。

He was down there, swimming in the muck.

那狗掉进了深处,在淤泥里挣扎。

But as grandpa dugthrough that forest floor,

但在爷爷挖开森林的地面的时候,

I became fascinated with the roots,

我却被那些露出的树根深深地吸引了,

and under that, what I learned laterwas the white mycelium

我后来发现了,在树根下面有很多白色的菌丝,

and under that the redand yellow mineral horizons.

再下面就是红色和黄色的矿质土层了。

Eventually, grandpa and Irescued the poor dog,

当然最终,我和爷爷救出了那只可怜的狗,

but it was at that moment that I realized

但也就是在那时我意识到,

that that palette of roots and soil

正是树根和土壤的混合

was really the foundation of the forest.

构成了森林的基础。

And I wanted to know more.

于是我就想了解更多。

So I studied forestry.

所以我开始学习林业学。

But soon I found myself workingalongside the powerful people

但后来很快我发现我的工作是在那些负责商业化采集的

in charge of the commercial harvest.

那些有权有势的人周围。

The extent of the clear-cutting

在森林中皆伐(将一片空地的树木全部砍除)的范围

was alarming,

已经敲响了警钟,

and I soon found myselfconflicted by my part in it.

我很快意识到我所处位置的矛盾性。

Not only that, the sprayingand hacking of the aspens and birches

不仅如此,为了种植更具有商业价值的松树和冷杉,

to make way for the more commerciallyvaluable planted pines and firs

从而喷死或者砍伐掉山杨和桦树的规模

was astounding

也非常让人震惊。

It seemed that nothing could stopthis relentless industrial machine.

看上去好像没什么能阻止这些无情的工业机器了。

So I went back to school,

所以我回到了学校,

and I studied my other world.

转而研究我的“新世界”。

You see, scientists had just discoveredin the laboratory in vitro

你知道,科学家们那时已经在实验室的试管中发现了

that one pine seedling root

一棵松树的幼苗根系

could transmit carbonto another pine seedling root.

可以将碳转移到另一颗松树的幼苗根系上。

But this was in the laboratory,

但这仅仅是在实验室里,

and I wondered,could this happen in real forests?

所以我想:这也会发生在真正的森林里吗?

I thought yes.

我觉得是的。

Trees in real forests might alsoshare information below ground.

在真正的森林中,树木可能还会在地下交流信息。

But this was really controversial,

但这个想法其实挺有争议的,

and some people thought I was crazy,

一些人觉得我疯了,

and I had a really hard timegetting research funding.

所以我筹集科研经费的那段日子真的很艰难。

But I persevered,

但我坚持了下来,

and I eventually conductedsome experiments deep in the forest,

而且我最终在森林的深处成功做出了一些实验,

25 years ago.

那是在25年前。

I grew 80 replicates of three species:

那时我种了三种树,一共80棵:

paper birch, Douglas fir,and western red cedar.

有纸皮桦、花旗松和西部红杉。

I figured the birch and the firwould be connected in a belowground web,

我认为纸皮桦和花旗松在地下的网络中应该是能交流的,

but not the cedar.

但是西部红杉应该是不行的。

It was in its own other world.

西部红杉比较“与世隔绝”。

And I gathered my apparatus,

我收拾起我的设备仪器,

and I had no money,so I had to do it on the cheap.

我那时没钱啊,所以我决定得省着点。

So I went to Canadian Tire --

所以我去了加拿大轮胎公司——

and I bought some plastic bagsand duct tape and shade cloth,

我买了一些塑料袋、一些布基胶带和遮光布,

a timer, a paper suit, a respirator.

一个计时器、一件纸套装和一个呼吸器。

And then I borrowed somehigh-tech stuff from my university:

然后我又从我的大学借了一些高科技的东西:

a Geiger counter, a scintillation counter,a mass spectrometer, microscopes.

一个盖革计数器、一个闪烁计数器、一个质谱仪和几个显微镜。

And then I got somereally dangerous stuff:

然后我又拿了一些非常危险的东西:

syringes full of radioactivecarbon-14 carbon dioxide gas

几支充满了放射性碳14的二氧化碳气体的注射器,

and some high pressure bottles

和几个高压气瓶,

of the stable isotopecarbon-13 carbon dioxide gas.

里面充满了稳定性同位素碳13的二氧化碳气体。

But I was legally permitted.

不过我这么做是合法的哦。

Oh, and I forgot some stuff,

哦对了,我还忘说了几样东西,

important stuff: the bug spray,

很重要的东西:喷雾杀虫剂、

the bear spray,the filters for my respirator.

防熊喷雾剂和我呼吸器的过滤网。

Oh well.

好了。

The first day of the experiment,we got out to our plot

实验的第一天,我们来到了实验地点,

and a grizzly bear and her cubchased us off.

突然一头灰熊和她的熊宝宝出现,把我们赶跑了。

And I had no bear spray.

然后我还没带防熊喷雾剂。

But you know, this is howforest research in Canada goes.

但你知道吗,在加拿大做森林研究其实就是这样的。

So I came back the next day,

所以第二天我又回来了,

and mama grizzly and her cub were gone.

灰熊妈妈和熊宝宝没在。

So this time, we really got started,

这一次我们可以真正开始实验了,

and I pulled on my white paper suit,

我穿上我的白纸套装工作服,

I put on my respirator,

带上呼吸器,

and then

然后

I put the plastic bags over my trees.

给我的树都罩上了塑料袋。

I got my giant syringes,

我拿出我那些大注射器,

and I injected the bags

往袋子里面注入了

with my tracer isotopecarbon dioxide gases,

含有示踪同位素的二氧化碳气体,

first the birch.

首先是纸皮桦。

I injected carbon-14, the radioactive gas

我往罩纸皮桦的袋子里面打入了

into the bag of birch.

有放射性碳14的气体。

And then for fir,

然后是花旗松,

I injected the stable isotopecarbon-13 carbon dioxide gas.

我往他们的袋子中注射了含有稳定性同位素碳13的二氧化碳。

I used two isotopes,

我用了两种同位素,

because I was wondering

因为我不知道

whether there was two-way communicationgoing on between these species.

这两种树之间的交流是否是双向的。

I got to the final bag,

当我走向最后一个袋子时,

the 80th replicate,

也就是第80棵样本,

and all of a suddenmama grizzly showed up again.

突然间,那头灰熊妈妈又出现了。

And she started to chase me,

然后她开始追我,

and I had my syringes above my head,

我把我们的那些注射器举过头顶,

and I was swatting the mosquitos,and I jumped into the truck,

扑打着周围无数的蚊子,然后跳上了卡车,

and I thought,

然后我想,

"This is why people do lab studies."

“这就是为什么人们喜欢在实验室做实验的原因吧。”

I waited an hour.

我等了一小时。

I figured it would take this long

我觉得这个时间差不多可以

for the trees to suck upthe CO2 through photosynthesis,

让那些树通过光合作用吸收二氧化碳,

turn it into sugars,send it down into their roots,

转换生成糖,再把糖送到它们的根,

and maybe, I hypothesized,

然后也许,我也是猜测,

shuttle that carbon belowgroundto their neighbors.

把那些碳元素从地下传给它们的邻居。

After the hour was up,

一小时的时间到了之后,

I rolled down my window,

我摇下了车窗,

and I checked for mama grizzly.

看看灰熊妈妈还在不在。

Oh good, she’s over thereeating her huckleberries.

哦太棒了,她在挺远的地方吃她的蓝莓呢。

So I got out of the truckand I got to work.

所以我下了卡车继续我的工作。

I went to my first bag with the birch.I pulled the bag off.

我走到第一个罩上袋子的那棵桦树旁边。把袋子扯了下来。

I ran my Geiger counter over its leaves.

我在那棵树的叶子旁边用盖革计数器检测一下。

Kkhh!

咔~~~

Perfect.

完美。

The birch had taken upthe radioactive gas.

那棵桦树已经完全吸收了放射性的二氧化碳。

Then the moment of truth.

然后就是见证真相的时刻了。

I went over to the fir tree.

我走向一棵花旗松。

I pulled off its bag.

扯下树上那个袋子。

I ran the Geiger counter up its needles,

在它的针叶旁边用盖革计数器进行检测,

and I heard the most beautiful sound.

然后我又听到了那最悦耳的声音。

Kkhh!

咔~~~

It was the sound of birch talking to fir,

这就是纸皮桦对花旗松说话的声音,

and birch was saying,"Hey, can I help you?"

纸皮桦说:“嘿,我能帮你点什么?”

And fir was saying, "Yeah,can you send me some of your carbon?

然后花旗松回应它:“啊对了,你能给我点你的碳吗?

Because somebodythrew a shade cloth over me."

因为刚才有人用遮光布把我罩住了。”

I went up to cedar, and I ranthe Geiger counter over its leaves,

接着我又走到西部红杉旁边,我用盖革计数器在它的叶子旁边检测了一下,

and as I suspected,

结果正如我猜测的一样,

silence.

一片寂静。

Cedar was in its own world.

西部红杉还真的是与世隔绝的。

It was not connected into the webinterlinking birch and fir.

它并没有连接到纸皮桦与花旗松互连的网络中。

I was so excited,

我特别激动,

I ran from plot to plotand I checked all 80 replicates.

我在那80棵样本之间跑来跑去,对所有的树都进行了检测。

The evidence was clear.

最后的结果显而易见。

The C-13 and C-14 was showing me

碳13和碳14的流向告诉我

that paper birch and Douglas firwere in a lively two-way conversation.

纸皮桦和花旗松之间的交流是双向的。

It turns out at that time of the year,

结果还表明在每年的这个时间,

in the summer,

在夏天的时候,

that birch was sending more carbon to firthan fir was sending back to birch,

纸皮桦给花旗松送的碳比花旗松反送给它的要多,

especially when the fir was shaded.

特别是当花旗松见不到阳光的时候。

And then in later experiments,we found the opposite,

而在随后的实验中,我们发现了相反的情况,

that fir was sending more carbon to birchthan birch was sending to fir,

花旗松给纸皮桦送的碳比纸皮桦给它的碳多,

and this was because the fir was stillgrowing while the birch was leafless.

这是因为当纸皮桦树叶掉光了的时候,花旗松还在不停的生长。

So it turns out the two specieswere interdependent,

这就说明这两种树其实是相互依赖的,

like yin and yang.

就像“阴”和“阳”。

And at that moment,everything came into focus for me.

在那个时候,事情开始变得清晰起来。

I knew I had found something big,

我知道我有了重大发现,

something that would change the waywe look at how trees interact in forests,

这个发现可以改变我们对森林中树木互动方式的看法,

from not just competitors

树木之间不仅有竞争关系,

but to cooperators.

同时也有合作关系。

And I had found solid evidence

并且我当时已经找到了

of this massive belowgroundcommunications network,

关于在那个世界中,树木的巨大地下交流网络的

the other world.

确凿的证据。

Now, I truly hoped and believed

现在,我真诚地希望和相信

that my discovery would changehow we practice forestry,

我的发现能够改变我们的林业实践活动,

from clear-cutting and herbiciding

能够让我们放弃皆伐和大范围的使用除草剂,

to more holistic and sustainable methods,

转而采用一些更全面和更可持续的方法。

methods that were less expensiveand more practical.

这些方法更经济,也更实用。

What was I thinking?

当时我在想什么呢?

I’ll come back to that.

我等一下会说到。

So how do we do sciencein complex systems like forests?

那么,在像森林这样复杂的系统中应该怎么做科学研究呢?

Well, as forest scientists,we have to do our research in the forests,

其实,作为林业学家,我们就是要实实在在地在森林里做研究,

and that’s really tough,as I’ve shown you.

即使,就像我刚才给你们讲的,你所面对的环境会非常恶劣。

And we have to be really goodat running from bears.

我们要非常擅长于逃脱熊的追赶。

But mostly, we have to persevere

但在大多数时间里,我们必须要坚持不懈,

in spite of all the stuffstacked against us.

即使所有的事情都跟我们作对。

And we have to follow our intuitionand our experiences

我们必须要遵从自己的直觉和经验,

and ask really good questions.

然后提出有价值的问题。

And then we’ve got to gather our dataand then go verify.

之后我们还得收集并且核实数据。

For me, I’ve conducted and publishedhundreds of experiments in the forest.

对我来说,我在森林中已经进行和发表过上百次的实验了。

Some of my oldest experimental plantationsare now over 30 years old.

有一些我最早进行实验的种植园到现在已经超过30年了。

You can check them out.

你可以去看看它们。

That’s how forest science works.

这才是搞林业学应该做的事。

So now I want to talk about the science.

那么现在我想谈一谈科学本身了。

How were paper birchand Douglas fir communicating?

纸皮桦和花旗松到底是怎么交流的呢?

Well, it turns out they were conversingnot only in the language of carbon

实际上,它们不仅仅使用碳元素作为它们交流的语言,

but also nitrogen and phosphorus

其实还有氮元素和磷元素,

and water and defense signalsand allele chemicals and hormones --

还有水、防卫信号、等位基因化学物和激素——

information.

这些都是信息。

And you know, I have to tell you,before me, scientists had thought

你知道吗,我得告诉你们,在我之前的科学家们都认为

that this belowgroundmutualistic symbiosis called a mycorrhiza

这种地下的互惠共生现象是因为一种菌根

was involved.

介入其中的

Mycorrhiza literally means "fungus root."

菌根的字面意思就是“真菌的根部”。

You see their reproductive organswhen you walk through the forest.

当你穿行在森林中时你经常都能看到它们的繁殖器官。

They’re the mushrooms.

它们就是蘑菇。

The mushrooms, though,are just the tip of the iceberg,

而其实那些蘑菇仅仅是冰山一角,

because coming out of those stemsare fungal threads that form a mycelium,

因为从那些树干里冒出来的菌丝生成了菌丝体,

and that myceliuminfects and colonizes the roots

菌丝体会感染和占领

of all the trees and plants.

树木和植物的根。

And where the fungal cellsinteract with the root cells,

在真菌细胞和根细胞交流的地方,

there’s a trade of carbon for nutrients,

时时刻刻都发生着为了获取营养的碳交易,

and that fungus gets those nutrientsby growing through the soil

真菌靠着在土地里生长并且覆盖住所有的土壤颗粒

and coating every soil particle.

来获取养分。

The web is so dense that there can behundreds of kilometers of mycelium

这个网络无比密集以至于在你每走过一步脚下的菌丝连起来

under a single footstep.

可以有几百公里长。

And not only that, that mycelium connectsdifferent individuals in the forest,

不仅如此,菌丝跟森林中其它的个体也都有联系,

individuals not only of the same speciesbut between species, like birch and fir,

这种联系不仅仅在单一的种类中存在,在不同种类之间也存在,比如纸皮桦和花旗松。

and it works kind of like the Internet.

而且它的工作原理就像是互联网一样。

You see, like all networks,

你们看,就像所有的网络一样,

mycorrhizal networks have nodes and links.

真菌的网络中也有节点和链接。

We made this map by examiningthe short sequences of DNA

我们在一片花旗松森林中的所有树和所有真菌中

of every tree and every fungal individualin a patch of Douglas fir forest.

提取了它们的DNA短序列并且制作了这份遗传图。

In this picture, the circles representthe Douglas fir, or the nodes,

在这张图片上,圆圈,也就是那些节点,代表花旗松,

and the lines represent the interlinkingfungal highways, or the links.

直线,也就是那些链接,代表着互相连接的真菌干线。

The biggest, darkest nodesare the busiest nodes.

那些最大的、颜色最深的节点就是最繁忙的、连接最多的节点。

We call those hub trees,

我们把它们称作中心树,

or more fondly, mother trees,

或者更亲切地称之为母树。

because it turns outthat those hub trees nurture their young,

因为事实证明这些中心树哺育着它们的小树,

the ones growing in the understory.

那些小树都处在林下叶层。

And if you can see those yellow dots,

如果你们看见那些黄色的点,

those are the young seedlingsthat have established within the network

那些就表示幼苗,这些幼苗在这个网络中

of the old mother trees.

已经和它们的母树建立了联系。

In a single forest, a mother tree can beconnected to hundreds of other trees.

在一片森林中,一棵母树可以和其它几百棵树建立联系。

And using our isotope tracers,

通过使用同位素示踪剂进行检测,

we have found that mother trees

我们发现那些母树

will send their excess carbonthrough the mycorrhizal network

会把它们多余的碳元素通过菌根的网络

to the understory seedlings,

传给处在林下叶层的幼苗,

and we’ve associated thiswith increased seedling survival

我们发现这种方式可以让幼苗的存活率

by four times.

增加四倍。

Now, we know we allfavor our own children,

现在我们都知道,我们爱自己的孩子,

and I wondered, could Douglas firrecognize its own kin,

所以我想,花旗松能认出来自己的孩子吗?

like mama grizzly and her cub?

就想灰熊妈妈和她的熊宝宝一样?

So we set about an experiment,

因此我们又设计了一个实验,

and we grew mother treeswith kin and stranger’s seedlings.

我们把母树和它们的孩子、以及一些陌生的幼苗种在一起。

And it turns outthey do recognize their kin.

事实证明它们认识它们的孩子。

Mother trees colonize their kinwith bigger mycorrhizal networks.

母树通过更大的菌根网络来覆盖住自己孩子们所在的区域。

They send them more carbon below ground.

在地下,它们给孩子们会送去更多的碳。

They even reducetheir own root competition

它们甚至会减少它们自己和其它树根部的竞争

to make elbow room for their kids.

来为它们的孩子们创造更多的活动空间。

When mother trees are injured or dying,

当母树受伤或即将枯死的时候,

they also send messages of wisdomon to the next generation of seedlings.

它们还会把智慧信息传给下一代的幼苗。

So we’ve used isotope tracing

我们使用同位素示踪法

to trace carbon movingfrom an injured mother tree

来追踪碳的走向,从一棵受伤的母树

down her trunkinto the mycorrhizal network

树干的地方一直向下到地下的真菌网络,

and into her neighboring seedlings,

再到它周围的幼苗中,

not only carbon but also defense signals.

不仅仅是碳元素,还有防卫信号的走向。

And these two compounds

这两种混合物

have increased the resistanceof those seedlings to future stresses.

可以给这些幼苗增加抵抗力来面对未来的压力。

So trees talk.

所以树是会说话的。

Thank you.

谢谢。

Through back and forth conversations,

通过反反复复的对话,

they increase the resilienceof the whole community.

它们增强了整个团体的恢复力。

It probably reminds youof our own social communities,

这可能会使你联想到我们人类的社会群体,

and our families

和我们的家庭,

well, at least some families.

当然,至少有些家庭是这样团结的。

So let’s come back to the initial point.

那么,让我们回到最初的话题吧。

Forests aren’t simplycollections of trees,

森林不是简简单单的树的“集合”,

they’re complex systemswith hubs and networks

森林是拥有枢纽和网络的复杂系统,

that overlap and connect treesand allow them to communicate,

它可以承载树木并且把树连接起来,使得它们可以互相沟通,

and they provide avenuesfor feedbacks and adaptation,

它给树木提供了互相反馈的渠道和适应的方式,

and this makes the forest resilient.

也使得森林的恢复力变得更强。

That’s because there are many hub treesand many overlapping networks.

这是因为在森林中存在着许多的中心树和重重叠叠的网络。

But they’re also vulnerable,

但森林也还是很脆弱的,

vulnerable not onlyto natural disturbances

之所以脆弱不仅仅是因为它们会受到自然界的干扰,

like bark beetles that preferentiallyattack big old trees

比如树皮甲虫会时不时地攻击粗壮的老树,

but high-grade loggingand clear-cut logging.

而是因为高强度伐木和皆伐的影响。

You see, you can take outone or two hub trees,

你们看,我们可以拿走一两颗中心树,

but there comes a tipping point,

但这样就会达到森林承受极限了,

because hub trees are notunlike rivets in an airplane.

因为森林里的中心树就像是飞机里的铆钉。

You can take out one or twoand the plane still flies,

你卸下一两个铆钉的话,飞机还能飞,

but you take out one too many,

但是如果你一次卸下太多,

or maybe that one holding on the wings,

或是仅仅卸下固定机翼的那一颗铆钉,

and the whole system collapses.

整个系统就要崩溃了。

So now how are you thinkingabout forests? Differently?

那么现在你们对森林的看法是怎样的了?有些改变了吧?

(Audience) Yes.

(观众)是的。

Cool.

真棒。

I’m glad.

我太高兴了。

So, remember I said earlierthat I hoped that my research,

你们还记得吧,我之前说过我希望我的研究,

my discoveries would changethe way we practice forestry.

我的探索可以改变一些我们的林业实践的方式。

Well, I want to take a check on that30 years later here in western Canada.

我想在30年后,在西加拿大的这个地方做个检测。

This is about 100 kilometersto the west of us,

这里大概是在西边距我们100公里的地方,

just on the border of Banff National Park.

就在班夫国家公园的边上。

That’s a lot of clear-cuts.

在那里到处都发生着皆伐。

It’s not so pristine.

现在不是原始社会了。

In 2014, the World Resources Institutereported that Canada in the past decade

2014年,据世界资源研究所报道,加拿大在过去十年中的

has had the highest forest disturbancerate of any country worldwide,

森林破坏率已经达到了世界最高,比任何一个国家都高,

and I bet you thought it was Brazil.

我打赌你现在肯定想到了巴西。

In Canada, it’s 3.6 percent per year.

在加拿大,森林破坏率是每年3.6%。

Now, by my estimation, that’s aboutfour times the rate that is sustainable.

据我推算,这大概是可持续发展的砍伐率的四倍了。

Now, massive disturbance at this scaleis known to affect hydrological cycles,

大规模高强度的砍伐已经严重影响到了水循环,

degrade wildlife habitat,

破坏了野生动物的栖息地,

and emit greenhouse gasesback into the atmosphere,

而且又向大气中释放了很多温室气体,

which creates more disturbanceand more tree diebacks.

这也会使更多的树木枯死,造成更严重的破坏。

Not only that, we’re continuingto plant one or two species

不仅如此,我们还在继续种植着那一两种单一的树木,

and weed out the aspens and birches.

还继续着把山杨和桦树清除出去。

These simplified forests lack complexity,

这种单一的树木种类使森林缺少了多样性,

and they’re really vulnerableto infections and bugs.

这让它们在传染病和虫害面前根本不堪一击。

And as climate changes,

随着气候变化,

this is creating a perfect storm

这也将会为一些极端事件

for extreme events, like the massivemountain pine beetle outbreak

带来一场疯狂的风暴,比如刚刚席卷整个北美洲的

that just swept across North America,

山松甲虫大爆发,

or that megafire in the lastcouple months in Alberta.

还有过去几个月在阿尔伯塔的森林大火。

So I want to come backto my final question:

所以现在我想提我的最后一个问题:

instead of weakening our forests,

与破坏我们的森林相反,

how can we reinforce themand help them deal with climate change?

我们怎么才能让它们变得更强大,怎么才能帮助它们应对气候变化呢?

Well, you know, the great thingabout forests as complex systems

其实你们知道吗,森林作为一个复杂的系统最好的一点就是

is they have enormouscapacity to self-heal.

它们拥有相当强大的自愈能力。

In our recent experiments,

在我们最近几个实验中,

we found with patch-cuttingand retention of hub trees

我们发现小规模的砍伐,把中心树保护好,

and regeneration to a diversityof species and genes and genotypes

物种多样性、基因和基因型多样性的再生,

that these mycorrhizal networks,they recover really rapidly.

加上这些真菌网络的存在,会使森林的恢复速度变得无比迅速。

So with this in mind, I want to leave youwith four simple solutions.

所以出于这种考虑,我想提出四个简单的解决方法。

And we can’t kid ourselvesthat these are too complicated to act on.

而且我们一定不能自欺欺人,因为这些做起来其实也挺复杂的。

First, we all needto get out in the forest.

首先,我们都得走出家门,走进森林。

We need to reestablishlocal involvement in our own forests.

我们需要重新使当地的居民融入到我们森林中去。

You see, most of our forests now

其实,现在我们的大部分林业实践

are managed usinga one-size-fits-all approach,

采用的都是一体通用的方法,

but good forest stewardshiprequires knowledge of local conditions.

但是优秀的森林管理员是需要具备关于当地环境情况的知识的。

Second, we need to saveour old-growth forests.

第二,我们需要保护好我们的古老森林。

These are the repositories of genesand mother trees and mycorrhizal networks.

保护好它们就是保护好了森林的基因库、保护好了母树和菌根网络。

So this means less cutting.

这就意味着我们需要减少砍伐。

I don’t mean no cutting, but less cutting.

我不是说不伐树了,而是少伐。

And third, when we do cut,

第三,当我们伐木时,

we need to save the legacies,

我们需要保护森林的“遗产”——

the mother trees and

母树和菌根

and the wood, the genes,

还有树干和基因

so they can pass their wisdomonto the next generation of trees

这样它们就能把它们的智慧传给下一代的树木,

so they can withstandthe future stresses coming down the road.

这样整个森林就能禁得起未来将会面对的重重困难了。

We need to be conservationists.

我们都需要做自然环境保护者。

And finally, fourthly and finally,

最后,第四点,也是最后一点,

we need to regenerate our forestswith a diversity of species

我们需要通过人工种植和自然再生的方式,

and genotypes and structures

增加森林的物种多样性、

by planting and allowingnatural regeneration.

基因型多样性和结构多样性。

We have to give Mother Naturethe tools she needs

我们需要给大自然母亲她需要的工具,

to use her intelligence to self-heal.

好让她用自己的智慧来进行自愈。

And we need to rememberthat forests aren’t just a bunch of trees

我们需要明白,森林不仅仅是一堆树

competing with each other,

在互相竞争,

they’re supercooperators.

它们是无比优秀的合作者。

So back to Jigs.

让我们的话题回到吉格斯。

Jigs’s fall into the outhouseshowed me this other world,

那次吉格斯掉进了坑里的经历让我见识到了另一个世界,

and it changed my view of forests.

而这件事完全改变了我对森林的看法。

I hope today to have changedhow you think about forests.

我希望今天我也能改变你们的一些关于森林的印象。

Thank you.

谢谢。

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